Council of Liubech
The Council of Liubech was the first known federal council of the Kievan Rus'. It was held in 1097 between the constantly rivaling regional princes. The council was followed later by another session in Vytechev on August 10, 1100, known as the Council of Vytechev.
The council was initiated by Vladimir II Monomakh, and gathered Sviatopolk II Iziaslavich, Vasilko Rostislavich, David Svyatoslavich, Oleg Svyatoslavich, and other Rus' princes. The goal was to stop the brotherly war, to pacify the people, and to present a unified front against the Polovtsy (Cumans). The result was the division of Kievan Rus' among the princes and letting their families inherit them. This broke a Rota system (lestvichesliy right) that was observed in Kievan Rus' for two centuries.
The principalities were divided as follows:
- Sviatopolk II was given Kiev, Turov, Pinsk, and the title of the Grand Prince.
- Vladimir II Monomakh received Pereyaslavl, Rostov-Suzdal lands, Smolensk, and Beloozero. His son Mstislav received Great Novgorod.
- Oleg, Davyd, and Yaroslav, all of Sviatoslav, were given Chernigiv, Tmutarakan, Ryazan, and Murom
And the remaining izgoi princes:
- David Igorevich received Volodymyr-Volynskyi.
- Volodar Rostislavich - Peremyshl.
- Vasilko Rostislavich - Terebovl.
This change effectively established a feudal system in Kievan Rus'. It stopped the struggle for Chernigiv, but was not observed perfectly. After the death of Sviatopolk, the citizens of Kiev revolted and summoned Monomakh to the throne. Nevertheless, it allowed other principalities to consolidate their power and develop as powerful regional centers. Most notably Galicia-Volhynia and Vladimir-Suzdal.
- Nora Berend, ed. (2007). Christianization and the Rise of Christian Monarchy. University of Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 393.