Count Basie Orchestra
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|The Count Basie Orchestra|
The Count Basie Orchestra, with vocalist Ethel Waters, from the film Stage Door Canteen (1943)
|Origin||Kansas City, Missouri|
|Genres||Jazz, Big band, Swing|
|Labels||Various (see Discography)|
|Associated acts||Count Basie|
|Members||See Category:Count Basie Orchestra members|
The Count Basie Orchestra is a 16 to 18 piece big band, one of the most prominent jazz performing groups of the swing era, founded by the musician known as Count Basie. The band survived the late 1940s decline in big band popularity. In the 1950s and 1960s, it produced notable collaborations with singers such as Frank Sinatra and Ella Fitzgerald. The group has continued to perform and record since Basie's death in 1984.
Early years 
Count Basie arrived in Kansas City, Missouri in 1927, playing on the Theater Owners Bookers Association (TOBA) circuit. After playing with the Blue Devils, in 1929 he joined rival band leader Bennie Moten's band.
Upon Moten's death in 1935, Basie left the group to start his own band, taking many of his colleagues from the Moten band with him. This nine-piece group consisted of Joe Keyes and Oran 'Hot Lips' Page on trumpet, Buster Smith and Jack Washington on alto saxophone, Lester Young on tenor saxophone, Dan Minor on trombone, and a rhythm section made up of Jo Jones on drums, Walter Page on bass and Basie on piano. With this band, then named The Barons of Rhythm, Basie brought the sound of the famous and highly competitive Kansas City "jam session" to club audiences, coupling extended improvised solos with riff-based accompaniments from the band. The group's first venue was the Reno Club in Kansas City, later moving to the Grand Terrace in Chicago.
When music critic and record producer John Hammond heard the band on a 1936 radio broadcast, he sought them out and offered Basie the chance to expand the group to the standard 13-piece big band line-up. He also offered to transfer the group to New York City in order to play at venues such as the Roseland Ballroom. Basie agreed, hoping that with this new band, he could retain the freedom and spirit of the Kansas City style of his nine-piece group.
The band, which now included Buck Clayton on trumpet and the famous blues "shouter" Jimmy Rushing, demonstrated this style in their first recordings with the Decca label in January 1937: in pieces such as "Roseland Shuffle", the soloists are at the foreground, with the ensemble effects and riffs playing a strictly functional backing role. This was a fresh big band sound for New York, contrasting the complex jazz writing of Duke Ellington and Sy Oliver and highlighting the difference in styles that had emerged between the east and west coasts.
New York City 
Following the first recording session, the band's line up was reshuffled, with some of players being replaced on the request of Hammond as part of a strengthening of the band. Trumpeters Ed Lewis and Bobby Moore replaced Keyes and Smith, and Earle Warren replaced the alto saxophonist Coughey Roberts. In March 1937 the guitarist Freddie Green arrived, replacing Claude Williams and completing what became one of the most respected rhythm sections in big band history. Billie Holiday also sang with the band during this period, although she never recorded with them.
Hits such as "One O'clock Jump" and "Jumpin' at the Woodside" (from 1937 and 1938, respectively) helped to gain the band, now known as the Count Basie Orchestra, national and international fame. These tunes were known as "head-arrangements"; not scored in individual parts but made up of riffs memorized by the band's members. Although some of the band's players, such as trombonist Eddie Durham, contributed their own written arrangements at this time, the "head-arrangements" captured the imagination of the audience in New York and communicated the spirit of the band's members.
In 1938, Helen Humes joined the group, replacing Billie Holiday as the female singer. She sang mostly pop ballads, including "My Heart Belongs to Daddy" and "Blame it on My Last Affair", acting as a gentle contrast to the blues style of Jimmy Rushing.
The 1940s 
The band became increasingly dependent on arrangers to provide its music. These varied from players within the band, such as Eddie Durham and Buck Clayton, to professional arrangers from outside the group, who could bring their own character to the band with each new piece. External arranger Andy Gibson brought the band's harmonic style closer to the forward-looking music of Duke Ellington, with arrangements from 1940 such as "I Never Knew" and "Louisiana" introducing increased chromaticism to the band's music. Tab Smith contributed important arrangements at this time, such as "Harvard Blues", and others including Buster Harding and veteran arranger Jimmy Mundy also expanded the group's repertoire.
But the many new arrangements led to a gradual change in the band's sound, distancing the group musically from its West Coast roots. Rather than the music being built around the soloists with memorised head arrangements and riffs, the group's sound at this time became more focused on ensemble playing; closer to the traditional East Coast big band sound. This can be attributed to the increasing reliance on arrangers to influence the band with their music. It suggested that Basie's ideal of a big band-sized group with the flexibility and spirit of his original Kansas City 8-piece was not to last.
During the World War II years, some of the key members of the band left: the drummer Jo Jones and tenor saxophone player Lester Young were both conscripted in 1944, leading to the hiring of drummers such as Buddy Rich and extra tenor saxophonists, including Illinois Jacquet, Paul Gonzalves and Lucky Thompson. The musicologist Gunther Schuller has said that when Jo Jones left, he took some of the smooth, relaxed style of the band with him. Replacements such as Sonny Payne, drummed much louder and raised the dynamic of the band to a "harder, more clamorous brass sound". The ban on instrumental recordings of 1942-1944 adversely affected the finances of the Count Basie Orchestra, as it did on all big bands in America. Despite taking on new soloists such as Wardell Gray, Basie was forced to temporarily disband the group for a short period in 1948, before dispersing again for two years in 1950. For these two years, Basie led a reduced band of between 6 and 9 people, featuring players such as Buddy Rich, Serge Chaloff and Buddy DeFranco.
The 'Second Testament' 
Basie reformed the jazz orchestra in 1952 for a series of tours, not only in the United States, but also in Europe in 1954 and Japan in 1963. The band released new recordings; some featuring guest singers such as Joe Williams, Frank Sinatra, Ella Fitzgerald and Billy Eckstine. All relied on music provided by arrangers, some of whom are now synonymous with the Basie band: Neal Hefti, Quincy Jones and Sammy Nestico to name a few. The records were well received; Michael G. Nastos swrote,
"When the Count Basie Orchestra consented to team up with vocalist Billy Eckstine, choruses of angels must have shouted hallelujah. The combination of Basie's sweet jazz and Eckstine's low-down blues sensibilities meshed well on this one-shot deal, a program mostly of downtrodden songs perfectly suited for the band and the man."
This new band became known as "The Second Testament". It gained new popularity with albums such as 1958's The Atomic Mr. Basie. With this album and others of the late 1950s, such as April in Paris and Basie Plays Hefti, the new Count Basie Orchestra sound became identifiable. The sound of the band was now that of a tight ensemble: heavier and full bodied, and a contrast to the riff-based band of the late 1930s and early 1940s. Whereas previously the emphasis had been on providing space for exemplary soloists such as Lester Young and Buck Clayton, now the focus had shifted to the arrangements, despite the presence of notable soloists such as trumpeter Thad Jones and saxophonist Frank Foster. This orchestral style has been continued as the typical sound of the band up to the present day; which has been criticized by some musicologists. Gunther Schuller who, in his book 'The Swing Era', described the group as 'perfected neo-classicism...a most glorious dead end'.
The continuing band 
After Basie's death in 1984, the band has continued to play under the direction of some of the players he had hired, including Eric Dixon, Thad Jones, Frank Foster, Grover Mitchell, Bill Hughes, and now drummer and arranger Dennis Mackrel. It continues to release new recordings, for example Basie is Back from 2006 which features new recordings of classic tunes from the Basie Orchestra's back catalogue, including "April in Paris" and even the band's early hit "One O'clock Jump". The group also continues to produce notable collaborations, such as with singer Ray Charles in Ray Sings, Basie Swings of 2006, and with arranger Allyn Ferguson on the 1999 album Swing Shift.
- Awarded the Grammy Award 17 times, including in 1999 for the album Count Plays Duke and in 1997 for the album Live at Manchester Craftsmen's Guild
- Included in the Down Beat Reader's Poll in 1983, 1984, 1985, 1986, 1988, 1990, 1991, 1992, 1993, 1996 and 1997 (the last time as 'Best Big Band')
- Included in the Down Beat Critic's Poll 1984, 1986, 1991, 1993 and 1994
- Included in the Jazz Times Critic's and Reader's Poll in 1994 and 1995
For recordings by Count Basie without his big band, see Count Basie discography.
1937–1939, Brunswick 
- The Complete Decca Recordings (1937–1939, Decca Records)
1939–1950, Columbia and RCA 
- Super Chief (1936–1942, Columbia Records)
- Count Basie and His Great Vocalists (1939–1945, Columbia)
- America's No. 1 Band: The Columbia Years (1936–1964, Columbia)
- Complete Original American Victor Recordings (1941–1950, RCA Records sessions, reissued on Definitive)
- Kansas City Powerhouse (1929–1932, 1947–1949, RCA/Bluebird Records)
- Planet Jazz (ca. 1929-1932, 1947–1949, RCA/BMG International Records)
The 1950s 
- The Count (1952, Clef)
- Basie Rides Again! (1952, Clef)
- Dance Session (1952–1954, Clef)
- King of Swing (1953–1954, Clef)
- The Band of Distinction (1954, Clef)
- Count Basie Swings, Joe Williams Sings (with Joe Williams) (1955, Clef)
- April in Paris (1955–1956, Verve)
- Hall of Fame (1956, Verve)
- The Greatest!! Count Basie Plays, Joe Williams Sings Standards (with Joe Williams) (1956, Verve)
- Basie in London (Live, 1956, Verve)
- One O'Clock Jump (with Joe Williams and Ella Fitzgerald) (1957, Verve)
- Count Basie at Newport (Live, 1957, Verve)
- The Atomic Mr. Basie (1958, Roulette)
- Basie Plays Hefti (1958, Roulette)
- No Count Sarah (with Sarah Vaughan) (1958, EmArcy)
- Chairman of the Board (1958, Roulette)
- Sing Along with Basie (with Joe Williams and Lambert, Hendricks & Ross) (1958, Roulette)
- Breakfast Dance and Barbeque (1958, Roulette)
- Welcome to the Club (with Nat King Cole) (1959, Capitol)
- One More Time (1959, Roulette)
- Basie and Eckstine, Inc. (with Billy Eckstine) (1959, Roulette)
- Strike Up the Band (with Tony Bennett) (1959, Roulette)
- In Person! (with Tony Bennett) (1959, Columbia)
- Everyday I Have the Blues (with Joe Williams) (1959, Roulette)
- Dance Along with Basie (1959, Roulette)
The 1960s-pre Pablo 
- I Gotta Right to Swing (with Sammy Davis, Jr.) (1960, Decca Records)
- Just the Blues (with Joe Williams) (1960, Roulette)
- The Count Basie Story (1960, Roulette)
- Not Now,I'll Tell You When (1960, Roulette)
- First Time! The Count Meets the Duke (with Duke Ellington) (1961, Columbia)
- The Legend (1961, Roulette)
- Kansas City Suite - The Music of Benny Carter (1961, Roulette)
- Basie at Birdland (live) (1961, Roulette)
- Count Basie/Sarah Vaughan (with Sarah Vaughan) (1961, Roulette)
- Back with Basie (1962, Roulette)
- Easin' it (1962, Roulette)
- Basie in Sweden (1962, Roulette)
- I Left My Heart in San Francisco (with Tony Bennett) (1962, Columbia)
- Sinatra-Basie: An Historic Musical First (with Frank Sinatra) (1962, Reprise)
- On My Way and Shoutin' Again! (1963, Verve)
- More Hits of 1950s and 1960s (1963, Verve)
- Li'l Ol' Groovemaker...Basie! (1963, Verve)
- This Time by Basie: Hits of the 1950s and 1960s (1963, Verve)
- Ella and Basie! (with Ella Fitzgerald) (1963, Verve)
- Basie Land (1964, Verve)
- Pop Goes the Basie (1964, Reprise)
- It Might as Well Be Swing (with Frank Sinatra) (1964, Reprise)
- Basie Picks the Winners (1965, Verve)
- Our Shining Hour (with Sammy Davis, Jr.) (1965, Verve)
- Arthur Prysock and Count Basie (with Arthur Prysock) (1965, Verve)
- Basie's Beatle Bag (1965, Verve)
- Basie Meets Bond (1966, Capitol)
- Sinatra at the Sands (live, with Frank Sinatra) (1966, Reprise)
- Basie's Beat (1967, Verve)
- Broadway Basie's...Way (1967, Command)
- Hollywood...Basie's Way (1967, Command)
- Basie's in the Bag (1967, Brunswick)
- The Happiest Millionaire (1967, )
- Half a Sixpence (1967, Dot)
- Manufacturers of Soul (with Jackie Wilson) (1968, Brunswick)
- The Board of Directors (with The Mills Brothers) (1968, Dot)
- The Board of Directors Annual Report (with The Mills Brothers) (1968, Dot)
- Evergreens (1969, Groove Merchant)
- Basic Basie (1969, MPS)
- Basie Straight Ahead (1969, Dot)
- Standing Ovation (1969, Dot)
- High Voltage (1970, MPS)
- How About This (with Kay Starr) (1970, MCA)
- Basie on the Beatles (1970, Happy Tiger)
- Afrique (1970, RCA Victor)
- Have a Nice Day (1971, Daybreak)
- Bing 'n' Basie (with Bing Crosby) (Daybreak, 1972)
The Pablo Years 
- Flip,Flop & Fly (live,with Joe Turner) (1972)
- Jazz at Santa Monica Civic '72 (live) (1972)
- The Songs of Bessie Smith (with Teresa Brewer) (1973, Doctor Jazz)
- Basie Big Band (1975)
- Fun Time (1975)
- I Told You So (1976)
- Prime Time (1977)
- Montreux '77 (live) (1977)
- Milt Jackson + Count Basie + The Big Band Vol.1 (live) (1978)
- Milt Jackson + Count Basie + The Big Band Vol.2 (live) (1978)
- Live in Japan '78 (live) (1978)
- On the Road (1979)
- Digital III at Montreux (live) (1979)
- A Classy Pair (with Ella Fitzgerald) (1979)
- A Perfect Match (live, with Ella Fitzgerald) (1979)
- Kansas City Shout (1980)
- Warm Breeze (1981)
- Send in the Clowns (with Sarah Vaughan) (1981)
- Farmer's Market Barbecue (1982)
- 88 Basie Street (1983)
- Me and You (1983)
- Fancy Pants (final album with Count Basie) (1983)
Post Count Basie albums 
- Long Live the Chief (1987, Denon)
- Diane Schuur & the Count Basie Orchestra (live, with Diane Schuur) (1987, GRP)
- The Legend, the Legacy (1990, Denon)
- Big Boss Band (with George Benson) (1990, Warner Bros.)
- Freddie Freeloader (with Jon Hendricks) (1990, Denon)
- The Count Basie Orchestra Live at El Morocco (live) (1992, Telarc)
- Joe Williams and the Count Basie Orchestra (with Joe Williams) (1993, Telarc)
- Basie's Bag (live) (1994, Telarc)
- Jazzin' (with Tito Puente & India) (1996, RMM)
- Live at Manchester Craftsmen's Guild: The Count Basie Orchestra (live) (1997, Blue Jackel)
- At Long Last (with Rosemary Clooney) (1998, Concord)
- Count Plays Duke (1998, MAMA)
- Swing Shift (1999, MAMA)
- Ray Sings, Basie Swings (with Ray Charles) (2006, Concord)
- Basie is Back (2007, Village Music)
- A Swingin' Christmas (Featuring The Count Basie Big Band) (with Tony Bennett) (2008, Columbia)
- Basie, William "Bill" "Count", Club Kaycee, University of Missouri-Kansas City, 1996. archived from the original, 1 June 2009. accessed 8 June 2011.
- Moten, Benjamin "Bennie", Club Kaycee, University of Missouri-Kansas City, 1996. archived from the original, 31 January 2009. accessed 8 June 2011.
- Club Reno (aka the Reno Club), Club Kaycee, University of Missouri-Kansas City, 1996. archived from the original, 13 February 2009. accessed 8 June 2011.
- Williams, Martin. "Jazz: What Happened in Kansas City?", American Music, Vol. 3, No. 2. Illinois: University of Illinois Press, Summer 1985. p.176
- Schuller, Gunther (1989). The Swing Era. Oxford: Oxford University Press, p. 225
- The Swing Era, p.237
- The Swing Era, p.226
- Jackson, Arthur. The World of Big Bands: The Sweet and Swinging Years, Vancouver: David & Charles, 1977. p.42
- The Swing Era, p.258
- The Swing Era, p. 261
- Cuscuna, Michael. Sleeve notes from the The Complete Atomic Basie CD, 1994.
- The Swing Era, p.262
- About Us: Count Basie Orchestra website. accessed 21 November 2007.
- Atkins, Ronald, ed. (2000) Jazz: From New Orleans to the New Jazz Age. London: Carlton Books
- Stowe, David W. "Jazz in the West: Cultural Frontier and Region During the Swing Era", The Western Historical Quarterly, Vol. 23, No. 1. Utah: Utah State University, February 1992.