Turtle Rock Studios (Xbox)
Sierra Studios (former)
Microsoft Game Studios (Xbox)
Valve Corporation (1.0-1.5 retail)
|Designer(s)||Minh "Gooseman" Le
|Media/distribution||CD-ROM, digital distribution|
Counter-Strike is a tactical first-person shooter video game developed by Valve Corporation which originated from a Half-Life modification by Minh "Gooseman" Le and Jess "Cliffe" Cliffe. By the fourth beta version, Valve Software, the developer who created Half-Life, began assisting in the development of Counter-Strike. In 2000, Valve bought the rights to Counter-Strike, and would publish the title for Microsoft Windows that year, and later in 2003 for the Xbox. Mac OS X and Linux ports were available in January 2013.
The game has been expanded into a series since its original release, which currently includes Counter-Strike: Condition Zero, Counter-Strike: Source, and Counter-Strike: Global Offensive. Counter-Strike pits a team of terrorists against a team of counter-terrorists in a series of rounds. Each round is won by either completing the mission objective or eliminating the opposing force.
As of August 2011, the Counter-Strike franchise has sold over 25 million units.
Counter-Strike is a first-person shooter in which players join either the terrorist team, the counter-terrorist team, or become spectators. Each team attempts to complete their mission objective and/or eliminate the opposing team. Each round starts with the two teams spawning simultaneously.
A player can choose to play as one of eight different default character models (four for each side, although Counter-Strike: Condition Zero added two extra models, bringing the total to ten). Players are generally given a few seconds before the round begins (known as "freeze time") to prepare and buy equipment, during which they cannot attack or move (one notable exception is that a player may receive damage during freeze time. This happens when a map is changed to spawn players at a certain height above the ground, thus causing fall damage to the player. This is a method map designers use to alter the starting "HP" of players on a map). They can return to the buy area within a set amount of time to buy more equipment (some custom maps included neutral "buy zones" that could be used by both teams). Once the round has ended, surviving players retain their equipment for use in the next round; players who were killed begin the next round with the basic default starting equipment.
Standard monetary bonuses are awarded for winning a round, losing a round, killing an enemy, being the first to instruct a hostage to follow, rescuing a hostage or planting (Terrorist)/defusing (Counter terrorist) the bomb(C4)in the bomb site.
The scoreboard displays team scores in addition to statistics for each player: name, kills, deaths, and ping (in milliseconds). The scoreboard also indicates whether a player is dead, carrying the bomb (on bomb maps), or is the VIP (on assassination maps), although information on players on the opposing team is hidden from a player until his/her death, as this information can be important.
Killed players become "spectators" for the duration of the round; they cannot change their names before their next spawn, text chat cannot be sent to or received from live players; and voice chat can only be received from live players and not sent to them (unless the cvar sv_alltalk is set to 1). Spectators are generally able to watch the rest of the round from multiple selectable views, although some servers disable some of these views to prevent dead players from relaying information about living players to their teammates through alternative media (most notably voice in the case of Internet cafes and Voice over IP programs such as TeamSpeak or Ventrilo). This form of cheating is known as "ghosting."
Counter-Strike is itself a mod, it has developed its own community of script writers and mod creators. Some mods add bots, while others remove features of the game, and others create different modes of play. Some of the mods give server administrators more flexible and efficient control over his or her server. "Admin plugins", as they are mostly referred to as, have become very popular and. There are some mods which affect gameplay heavily, such as Gun Game, where players start with a basic pistol and must score kills to receive better weapons, and Zombie Mod, where one team consists of and must "spread the infection" by killing the other team (using only the knife). There are also the Superhero and mods which mix the first-person gameplay of Counter-Strike with an experience system, allowing a player to become more powerful as they continue to play. The game is also highly customizable on the player's end, allowing the user to install or even create their own custom skins, HUDs, sprites, and sound effects, given the proper tools.
- Wallhacks allows players to see through walls. These work by displaying objects that are normally obscured or by replacing opaque game textures with translucent ones. As the engine only renders the immediate area around the player, this does not allow a player to see the entire level at once.
- Speedhacks give the player increased foot speed. These work by sending false synchronization data to the server.
- No recoil removes any recoil (and thus improves accuracy) from a player's weapon.
- No spread is used to remove the random deviation normally experienced when the player shoots. This is similar to the recoil hack.
- Aimbots help the player aim at enemies, by auto-targeting other players. These work by using the game client library to calculate an enemy player's 2D coordinates from 3D space and automatically moving the player's mouse to the enemy target. It also consists of headshot aiming where a player shoots a bullet at the enemy which directly hits the enemy's head resulting in a one hit kill.
- ESP shows textual information about the enemy; such as health, name and distance; also information about weapons lying around the map, which could be missed without the hack. Most ESP cheats show info through walls.
- Barrel hack depicts an enemy's gaze as a visible line, this is also visible in the killcam.
- Anti-flash and anti-smoke remove the effects of the flashbang and smoke grenade. Implementation is derived from the wall hack.
- Unlimited HP and ammo are not hacks, but are server side modifications.
Valve has implemented an anti-cheat system called Valve Anti-Cheat (VAC). Players cheating on a VAC-enabled server risk having their account permanently banned from all VAC-secured servers.
With the first version of VAC, a ban took hold almost instantly after being detected and the cheater had to wait 2 years to have the account unbanned. Since VAC's second version, cheaters are not banned automatically. With the second version, Valve instituted a policy of 'delayed bans,' the theory being that if a new hack is developed which circumvents the VAC system, it will spread amongst the 'cheating' community. By delaying the initial ban, Valve hopes to identify (and ban) as many cheaters as possible. Like any software detection system, some cheats are not detected by VAC and at times, the only effective anti-cheat solution is a human administrator watching an online game. Some servers implement a voting system, in which case players can call for a vote to kick or ban the accused cheater. VAC's success at identifying cheats and banning those who use them has also provided a boost in the purchasing of private cheats. These cheats are updated frequently to minimize the risk of detection, and are generally only available to a trusted list of recipients who collectively promise not to reveal the underlying design.
When Counter-Strike was published by Sierra Entertainment/Vivendi Universal Games, it was bundled with Team Fortress Classic, Opposing Force multiplayer, and the Wanted, Half-Life: Absolute Redemption and Firearms mods."
On March 24, 1999, Planet Half-Life opened its Counter-Strike section. Within two weeks, the site had received 10,000 hits. On June 19, 1999, the first public beta of Counter-Strike was released, followed by numerous further "beta" releases. On April 12, 2000, Valve announced that the Counter-Strike developers and Valve had teamed up.
The non-beta public release dates of Counter-Strike are as follows:
- Version 1.0: November 1, 2000
- Version 1.1: March 13, 2001
- Version 1.3: September 12, 2001
- Version 1.4: April 24, 2002
- Version 1.5: June 12, 2002
- Version 1.6: September 9, 2003
Note: Version 1.6 effectively coincided with the release of Valve Software's Steam content delivery system on September 12, 2003. All further updates and bug fixes have been dynamically delivered via Steam, without any specific new version numbers. The name or abbreviation "1.6" is often used to differentiate it from the later versions Counter-Strike: Source and Counter-Strike: Global Offensive.
In March 2007, Valve implemented mandatory advertisements through Steam in official maps and in the game's GUI overhead. Customers have expressed frustration with the ads, including an over 200 page thread on Valve's official forums, saying that they violate original terms of service and distract from the game. The thread was later deleted by an unknown moderator.
In January 2013, Valve began a Beta of 1.6 for targeting Linux and OS X users. The updates are available for Windows users via the Beta opt-in tab as part of the properties of the game within Steam. These changes were later rolled into an update of the standard (non-Beta) game in April of 2013.
Counter-Strike: Source 
Counter-Strike received a major technology update and refresh on November 1, 2004 with the release of Counter-Strike: Source, which was heavily updated using Valve's Source game engine to take advantage of more modern graphics and audio hardware. However, the original Counter-Strike is still available and played by many people via Steam, as the two variants are quite different, and players inevitably prefer one variant over the other. Moreover, the system requirements of the original game are lower, which makes it accessible to a larger portion of the gaming populace. Both versions continue to co-exist today.
Counter-Strike Online 
Counter-Strike Online is available in South Korea, Taiwan, Japan, Singapore, and Indonesia, and is now fully online. It is developed by Nexon Corporation with oversight from license-holder Valve Corporation, and is an attempt to increase market share of Valve's games in the Asian gaming market.
Counter-Strike: Global Offensive 
On August 12, 2011, it was confirmed that a new Counter Strike game was in development at Valve Software and Hidden Path Entertainment, which also codevelops Counter-Strike: Source, going under the title Global Offensive. The game was released on multiple platforms, Xbox 360, PS3 and PC as well as Mac OSX and is aimed as a competition to other FPS games such as the Call of Duty and the Battlefield series. The closed beta testing was released on November 30, 2011, only for those who received the keys in "Penny Arcade Expo" and Eurogamer. Since then several beta keys have been handed out to those who have completed an online survey. An open beta was planned sometime between July 21, 2012 and the game's release on August 21, 2012. At this point in time a fully released game is now available for purchase on Steam.
|This section requires expansion. (February 2009)|
Counter-Strike received generally favorable reviews. The New York Times reported that E-Sports Entertainment ESEA League started the first professional fantasy e-sports league in 2004  around the game of Counter-Strike. Some credit the move into professional competitive team play with prizes as a major factor in Counter-Strike's longevity and success.
Counter-Strike faced controversy in April 2007 when Jack Thompson, a now-disbarred attorney from Florida, predicted that the perpetrator of the Virginia Tech Massacre had been trained to kill in the game, well before Seung-Hui Cho (the shooter) was identified. News sources originally stated that Seung-Hui Cho only played the game in high school, however no video games whatsoever were found in the gunman's dorm room, and there is no evidence that he ever played Counter-Strike. Thompson also blamed Counter-Strike for the February 14, 2008 Northern Illinois University shooting perpetrated by Steven Kazmierczak on the day after the shooting. It is reported that Kazmierczak did play Counter-Strike in college.
On January 17, 2008, a Brazilian federal court order prohibiting all sales of Counter-Strike and EverQuest and imposing the immediate withdrawal of these from all stores began to be enforced. The federal Brazilian judge Carlos Alberto Simões de Tomaz, of the Minas Gerais judiciary section, ordered the ban in October 2007 because, according to him, the games "bring imminent stimulus to the subversion of the social order, attempting against the democratic and rightful state and against the public safety." The move has been described by media as a publicity stunt on the regulation of video game violence and sexually explicit content, and also as a hasty decision that ignored much more violent games. As all versions of Counter-Strike were very popular in Brazil at the time, the decision was met with considerable uproar by the Brazilian gaming community. Some media have reported that the game tested by the judge contained mods likening the scenario to Rio de Janeiro's favelas and adding Brazilian Military Police uniforms to player models, which might have worsened the case for Counter-Strike. The game's developer Valve did not comment on the episode. As of June 18, 2009, a regional federal court order lifting the prohibition on the sale of Counter-Strike was published. The game is now being sold again in Brazil.
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- Were video games to blame for massacre?
- Playing the blame game
- Only In Brazil: Brazilian Government Bans Counter-Strike, EverQuest, Fun
- Brazil bans popular video games seen to incite violence – Yahoo! News
- Brazil bans popular video games seen to incite violence – Science & Technology – MSN Malaysia News – News
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