Counties of Romania

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Timiş County Arad County Bihor County Satu Mare County Maramureş County Sălaj County Cluj County Bistriţa-Năsăud Caraş-Severin Hunedoara County Alba County Sibiu County Mureş County Suceava County Harghita County Botoşani County Braşov County Covasna County Neamţ County Iaşi County Vaslui County Bacău County Vrancea County Galați County Tulcea County Constanţa County Mehedinţi County Gorj County Vâlcea County Argeş County Dâmboviţa County Prahova County Buzău County Brăila County Ialomiţa County Călăraşi County Giurgiu County Teleorman County Dolj County Olt County Ilfov County BucharestOutline showing the territory of modern Romania and its division into 41 counties and the Bucharest municipal district.
The 41 counties of Romania and Municipality of Bucharest (clickable imagemap)

A total of 41 counties (Romanian: județe) and the municipality of Bucharest constitute the official administrative divisions of Romania. They represent the country's NUTS-3 (Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics – Level 3) statistical subdivisions within the European Union and each of them serves as the local level of government within its borders. Most counties are named after a major river, while some are named after notable cities within them, such as the county seat.

The earliest organization into județe of the Principalities of Wallachia and Moldavia (where they were termed ținuturi) dates back to at least the late 14th century. For most of the time since modern Romania was formed in 1859, the administrative division system has been similar to the French departments one. The system was changed several times since then, and the number of counties varied over time, from the 71 județe that existed before World War II to only 39 after 1968. The current format has largely been in place since 1968 as only small changes have been made since then, the last of which was in 1997.

According to 2011 census data from the Romanian National Institute of Statistics, the average population of Romania's 41 counties is about 445,000, with Iași County as the most populous (772,000) and Covasna County (210,000) the least. The average county's land area is 5,809 square kilometres (2,243 sq mi), with Timiș County (8,697 square kilometres (3,358 sq mi)) the largest and Ilfov County (1,583 square kilometres (611 sq mi)) the smallest. The Municipality of Bucharest, which has the same administrative level as that of a county, is both more populous and much smaller than any county, with 1,883,425 people and 228 square kilometres (88 sq mi).

History[edit]

Colored map showing the territory of Romania and its division into 71 counties before the World War II.
The 71 counties of Romania between 1925 and World War II
Outline showing the territory of present Romania and its into counties superimposed over the colored map of the inter-war counties.
Current counties imposed over the inter-war counties

The earliest organization into județe (for Wallachia), and ținuturi (for Moldavia), dates back at least to the late 14th century.[note 1][1][2][3] Inspired from the organization of the late Byzantine Empire, each județ was ruled by a jude (or pârcălab for a ținut), a person officially appointed with administrative and judicial functions.[3][4] Transylvania was divided into royal counties headed by comes (royal counts) with administrative and judicial functions.[3]

After modern Romania was formed in 1859 through the union of Wallachia and the rump of Moldavia, the administrative division was modernized using the French administrative system as a model, with județ as the basic administrative unit.[5][6] Aside from the 1950–1968 period, this system has remained in place until today. Since 1864, for each județ there exists a prefect, a subordinate of the Ministry of Internal Affairs and representative of the government inside the county; he is also the head of local administration for areas not delegated to local authorities.[5][6] Until 1948, each județ was further divided into several plăși, each administered by a pretor.[7]

After the adoption of a new Constitution in 1923, the traditional local administrative systems of the newly acquired regions of Transylvania, Bukovina and Bessarabia were made uniform in 1925 with that of the Romanian Old Kingdom. County borders were kept largely intact, with few adjustments, and the total number of counties was raised to 71; this lasted until the beginning of World War II.[6]

In 1938, King Carol II modified the law on the administration of the Romanian territory according to the fascist model.[8] Ten ținuturi (approx. translation "lands") were created, ruled by Rezidenți Regali (Royal Residents), appointed directly by the Monarch. The ținuturi represented another layer of administration between counties and the country, as the county borders were not erased.[5][9]

Due to the territorial changes during World War II, this style of administration did not last, and the administration at the județ level was reintroduced after the war.[5] Between 1941–1944, Romania administered the territory between the Dniester and Southern Bug rivers known as Transnistria, which consisted of 13 separate counties.[10]

After taking over the administration of the country in 1945, the Communist Party changed the administrative model to that of the Soviet Union (regions and raions) in 1950, but changed it back in 1968.[11] Nevertheless, the county borders set then were quite different from those present during the interbellum, as only 39 counties were formed from the 56 remaining after the war.[12]

In 1981, Giurgiu and Călărași were split from Ialomița and the former county of Ilfov,[12] while in 1997, Ilfov County, which had been a dependency of the Municipality of Bucharest for nearly two decades, was reinstated.[13][14] The county borders set in 1968 are still largely in place today, but the functions of different authorities have changed due to administrative reforms in the 1990s.[5][6]

At present, Romania is divided into 41 counties and one municipality (Bucharest); these are assigned as the NUTS-3 geocode statistical subdivision scheme of Romania within the European Union.[15] Each of the counties is further divided into cities (some of which have municipality status) and communes. The prefect and his administration have executive prerogatives within the county limits, while limited legislative powers are assigned to a County Council elected every four years during local elections.[16] The territorial districts of the Romanian judicial system overlap with county borders, thus avoiding further complication in the separation of powers on the government.[5]

Current list[edit]


County
County seat
Name origin
[note 2][17]
Development
region

ISO code
[note 3]
Postal code
[note 4][18]
Area code
[note 5][19]
NUTS code
[note 6][20]
Population
(2011)[21]
Area
[22]
Map
Alba
Coat of arms of Alba County
Alba Iulia
Coat of arms of Alba Iulia
Alba River Center AB 51 58 RO121 342,376 6,242 km2 (2,410 sq mi) Map of Romania highlighting Alba County
Arad
Coat of arms of Arad County
Arad
Coat of arms of Arad
county seat West AR 31 57 RO421 430,629 7,754 km2 (2,994 sq mi) Map of Romania highlighting Arad County
Argeș
Coat of arms of Argeș County
Pitești
Coat of arms of Pitești
Argeș River South-Muntenia AG 11 48 RO311 612,431 6,862 km2 (2,649 sq mi) Map of Romania highlighting Argeș County
Bacău
Coat of arms of Bacău County
Bacău
Coat of arms of Bacău
county seat North-East BC 60 34 RO211 616,168 6,621 km2 (2,556 sq mi) Map of Romania highlighting Bacău County
Bihor
Coat of arms of Bihor County
Oradea
Coat of arms of Oradea
Biharia commune North-West BH 41 59 RO111 575,398 7,544 km2 (2,913 sq mi) Map of Romania highlighting Bihor County
Bistrița-Năsăud
Coat of arms of Bistrița-Năsăud County
Bistrița
Coat of arms of Bistrița
Bistrița River and Năsăud city North-West BN 42 63 RO112 286,225 5,355 km2 (2,068 sq mi) Map of Romania highlighting Bistrița-Năsăud County
Botoșani
Coat of arms of Botoșani County
Botoșani
Coat of arms of Botoșani
county seat North-East BT 71 31 RO212 412,626 4,986 km2 (1,925 sq mi) Map of Romania highlighting Botoșani County
Brașov
Coat of arms of Brașov County
Brașov
Coat of arms of Brașov
county seat Center BV 50 68 RO122 549,217 5,363 km2 (2,071 sq mi) Map of Romania highlighting Brașov County
Brăila
Coat of arms of Brăila County
Brăila
Coat of arms of Brăila
county seat South-East BR 81 39 RO221 321,212 4,766 km2 (1,840 sq mi) Map of Romania highlighting Brăila County
București
Coat of arms of Bucharest
(Municipality of Bucharest)
[note 7]
last name Bucur[23] Bucharest-Ilfov B 01–06
[note 8]
1x
[note 9]
RO321 1,883,425 228 km2 (88 sq mi) Map of Romania highlighting the location of Bucharest
Buzău
Coat of arms of Buzău County
Buzău
Coat of arms of Buzău
Buzău River South-East BZ 12 38 RO222 451,069 6,103 km2 (2,356 sq mi) Map of Romania highlighting Buzău County
Caraș-Severin
Coat of arms of Caraș-Severin County
Reșița
Coat of arms of Reșița
defunct Caraș and Severin Counties West CS 32 55 RO422 295,579 8,514 km2 (3,287 sq mi) Map of Romania highlighting Caraș-Severin County
Călărași
Coat of arms of Călărași County
Călărași
Coat of arms of Călărași
county seat South-Muntenia CL 91 42 RO312 306,691 5,088 km2 (1,964 sq mi) Map of Romania highlighting Călărași County
Cluj
Coat of arms of Cluj County
Cluj-Napoca
Coat of arms of Cluj-Napoca
county seat North-West CJ 40 64 RO113 691,106 6,674 km2 (2,577 sq mi) Map of Romania highlighting Cluj County
Constanța
Coat of arms of Constanța County
Constanța
Coat of arms of Constanța
county seat South-East CT 90 41 RO223 684,082 7,071 km2 (2,730 sq mi) Map of Romania highlighting Constanța County
Covasna
Coat of arms of Covasna County
Sfântu Gheorghe
Coat of arms of Sfântu Gheorghe
Covasna River Center CV 52 67 RO123 210,177 3,710 km2 (1,430 sq mi) Map of Romania highlighting Covasna County
Dâmbovița
Coat of arms of Dâmbovița County
Târgoviște
Coat of arms of Târgoviște
Dâmbovița River South-Muntenia DB 13 45 RO313 518,745 4,054 km2 (1,565 sq mi) Map of Romania highlighting Dâmbovița County
Dolj
Coat of arms of Dolj County
Craiova
Coat of arms of Craiova
Jiu River[note 10] South-West Oltenia DJ 20 51 RO411 660,544 7,414 km2 (2,863 sq mi) Map of Romania highlighting Dolj County
Galați
Coat of arms of Galați County
Galați
Coat of arms of Galați
county seat South-East GL 80 36 RO224 536,167 4,466 km2 (1,724 sq mi) Map of Romania highlighting Galați County
Giurgiu
Coat of arms of Giurgiu County
Giurgiu
Coat of arms of Giurgiu
county seat South-Muntenia GR 08 46 RO314 281,422 3,526 km2 (1,361 sq mi) Map of Romania highlighting Giurgiu County
Gorj
Coat of arms of Gorj County
Târgu Jiu
Coat of arms of Târgu Jiu
Jiu River[note 11] South-West Oltenia GJ 21 53 RO412 341,594 5,602 km2 (2,163 sq mi) Map of Romania highlighting Gorj County
Harghita
Coat of arms of Harghita County
Miercurea Ciuc
Coat of arms of Miercurea-Ciuc
Harghita Mountains Center HR 53 66 RO124 310,867 6,639 km2 (2,563 sq mi) Map of Romania highlighting Harghita County
Hunedoara
Coat of arms of Hunedoara County
Deva
Coat of arms of Deva
Hunedoara city West HD 33 54 RO423 418,565 7,063 km2 (2,727 sq mi) Map of Romania highlighting Hunedoara County
Ialomița
Coat of arms of Ialomița County
Slobozia
Coat of arms of Slobozia
Ialomița River South-Muntenia IL 92 43 RO315 274,148 4,453 km2 (1,719 sq mi) Map of Romania highlighting Ialomița County
Iași
Coat of arms of Iași County
Iași
Coat of arms of Iași
county seat North-East IS 70 32 RO213 772,348 5,476 km2 (2,114 sq mi) Map of Romania highlighting Iași County
Ilfov
Coat of arms of Ilfov County
Buftea
Coat of arms of Buftea
Ilfov River Bucharest-Ilfov IF 07 1x
[note 9]
RO322 388,738 1,583 km2 (611 sq mi) Map of Romania highlighting Ilfov County
Maramureș
Coat of arms of Maramureș County
Baia Mare
Coat of arms of Baia Mare
Maramureș historical region North-West MM 43 62 RO114 478,659 6,304 km2 (2,434 sq mi) Map of Romania highlighting Maramureș County
Mehedinți
Coat of arms of Mehedinți County
Drobeta-Turnu Severin
Coat of arms of Drobeta-Turnu Severin
Mehadia commune South-West Oltenia MH 22 52 RO413 265,390 4,933 km2 (1,905 sq mi) Map of Romania highlighting Mehedinți County
Mureș
Coat of arms of Mureș County
Târgu Mureș
Coat of arms of Târgu Mureș
Mureș River Center MS 54 65 RO125 550,846 6,714 km2 (2,592 sq mi) Map of Romania highlighting Mureș County
Neamț
Coat of arms of Neamț County
Piatra Neamț
Coat of arms of Piatra Neamț
Neamț River North-East NT 61 33 RO214 470,766 5,896 km2 (2,276 sq mi) Map of Romania highlighting Neamț County
Olt
Coat of arms of Olt County
Slatina
Coat of arms of Slatina
Olt River South-West Oltenia OT 23 49 RO414 436,400 5,498 km2 (2,123 sq mi) Map of Romania highlighting Olt County
Prahova
Coat of arms of Prahova County
Ploiești
Coat of arms of Ploiești
Prahova River South-Muntenia PH 10 44 RO316 762,886 4,716 km2 (1,821 sq mi) Map of Romania highlighting Prahova County
Satu Mare
Coat of arms of Satu Mare County
Satu Mare
Coat of arms of Satu Mare
county seat North-West SM 44 61 RO115 344,360 4,418 km2 (1,706 sq mi) Map of Romania highlighting Satu Mare County
Sălaj
Coat of arms of Sălaj County
Zalău
Coat of arms of Zalău
Sălaj River North-West SJ 45 60 RO116 224,384 3,864 km2 (1,492 sq mi) Map of Romania highlighting Sălaj County
Sibiu
Coat of arms of Sibiu County
Sibiu
Coat of arms of Sibiu
county seat Center SB 55 69 RO126 397,322 5,432 km2 (2,097 sq mi) Map of Romania highlighting Sibiu County
Suceava
Coat of arms of Suceava County
Suceava
Coat of arms of Suceava
Suceava River North-East SV 72 30 RO215 634,810 8,553 km2 (3,302 sq mi) Map of Romania highlighting Suceava County
Teleorman
Coat of arms of Teleorman County
Alexandria
Coat of arms of Alexandria
Teleorman River South-Muntenia TR 14 47 RO317 380,123 5,790 km2 (2,240 sq mi) Map of Romania highlighting Teleorman County
Timiș
Coat of arms of Timiș County
Timișoara
Coat of arms of Timișoara
Timiș River West TM 30 56 RO424 683,540 8,697 km2 (3,358 sq mi) Map of Romania highlighting Timiș County
Tulcea
Coat of arms of Tulcea County
Tulcea
Coat of arms of Tulcea
county seat South-East TL 82 40 RO225 213,083 8,499 km2 (3,281 sq mi) Map of Romania highlighting Tulcea County
Vaslui
Coat of arms of Vaslui County
Vaslui
Coat of arms of Vaslui
Vaslui River North-East VS 73 35 RO216 395,499 5,318 km2 (2,053 sq mi) Map of Romania highlighting Vaslui County
Vâlcea
Coat of arms of Vâlcea County
Râmnicu Vâlcea
Coat of arms of Râmnicu Vâlcea
medieval county of Vîlcea[1][note 12] South-West Oltenia VL 24 50 RO415 371,714 5,765 km2 (2,226 sq mi) Map of Romania highlighting Vâlcea County
Vrancea
Coat of arms of Vrancea County
Focșani
Coat of arms of Focșani
medieval county of Vrancha[24][note 13] South-East VN 62 37 RO226 340,310 4,857 km2 (1,875 sq mi) Map of Romania highlighting Vrancea County

See also[edit]

Coat of arms of Romania
This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
Romania

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Județ originates from the Latin judicium and ținut probably from the Latin tenutum.
  2. ^ Most of the names of the present counties originate from one of the larger rivers that flow through the county. In a number of cases, the name of the county seat or another large city in the county is the same as that river.
  3. ^ These are the ISO 3166-2:RO codes which coincide with the license plate ones; they are also used as usual abbreviations, such as in mailing addresses.
  4. ^ The postal code format is of the type xxyzw, with xx being the numbers associated with the county; the digits y, z, and w indicate the city, the street, part of the street, or even the building of the address.
  5. ^ Landline phone numbers are of the type +40-abb-xxx-xxx, where 40 is the country code, bb is the area code, and a is a digit indicating the operator: 2 for the former national operator, Romtelecom, and 3 for the other ground telephone networks. Mobile phone numbers, however, only start with the digit 7 (for a) and do not follow county borders.
  6. ^ The development region code follows the format ROxyz, where x is the macroregion number, y represents the development region and is either 1 or 2, and z is the county number within the region.
  7. ^ Bucharest is not a county, but a municipality that has an identical administrative status to all the other 41 counties.
  8. ^ Due to Bucharest's significantly larger population, it has a different postal code for each of its six sectors.
  9. ^ a b Bucharest and Ilfov county have the same code. Due to their large population, phone numbers have only the suffix "1" (unlike two-digit suffixes for counties) followed by seven digits (only six digits for anywhere else).
  10. ^ Dolj is a shortened form of Dolu (Slavic for "valley") Jiu, in reference to the county's location in the lower part of Jiu river.
  11. ^ Gorj is a shortened form of Gora (Slavic for "mountain") Jiu, in reference to the county's location in the upper part of Jiu river.
  12. ^ Vâlcea is the Romanian word for a narrow valley.
  13. ^ Vran is a Dacian word believed to mean "forest" or "mountain".

References[edit]


  1. ^ a b "Primele atestari documentare ale judetului Valcea (First Historical Mentions of Vâlcea County)" (in Romanian). National Institute of Statistics (Romania). Retrieved 2010-01-23. 
  2. ^ Cornel Șomâcu (2009-09-09). De la sat la județ în istoria Olteniei (From Village to County in the History of Oltenia) (in Romanian). Vertical. ISSN 1841-6063. Retrieved 2010-08-22. 
  3. ^ a b c Cosmin Dariescu (2008). "21: Organizarea administrativ-teritorială a Țării Românești și a Moldovei în evul mediu (21: Administrative Divisions in Wallachia and Moldavia in the Middle Ages)". Istoria statului și dreptului românesc din antichitate până la Marea Unire (History of Romanian State and Law from Antiquity until the Unification) (in Romanian). C.H. Beck. pp. 47–51. ISBN 978-973-115-337-7. 
  4. ^ Cosmin Dariescu (2008). "16: Domnia în Țările Române medievale (16: Rulers in the Romanian Principalities in the Middle Ages)". Istoria statului și dreptului românesc din antichitate până la Marea Unire (History of Romanian State and Law from Antiquity until the Unification) (in Romanian). C.H. Beck. pp. 35–39. ISBN 978-973-115-337-7. 
  5. ^ a b c d e f "Scurtă privire istorică (Short View on History)" (in Romanian). Instituția Prefectului județul Argeș. Retrieved 2010-01-22. 
  6. ^ a b c d (PDF) 2003–2005 National Human Development Report: Local Governance in Romania (Report). United Nations Development Programme. p. 35. http://hdr.undp.org/en/reports/nationalreports/europethecis/romania/romania_2005_en.pdf.
  7. ^ Valeriu Nicolescu. "Un ținut de legendă, județul Buzău (A legendary Land, Buzau County)" (in Romanian). Buzau.com. Retrieved 2010-01-22. 
  8. ^ Günther H. Tontsch (2000). "Juristische Literatur zur rumänischen Verwaltungsgeschichte im 19. und 20. Jahrhundert (Law Literature on the Romanian Administrative History in the 19th and 20th Centuries)". Jahrbuch für Europäische Verwaltungsgeschichte (Yearbook of European Administrative History) (in German) 12. Baden-Baden: Nomos Verlag. p. 285. ISSN 0937-7107. 
  9. ^ Ioan Scurtu, Theodora Stănescu-Stanciu, Georgiana Margareta Scurtu (2002). "8.7. Decret-lege pentru reforma electorală (Law Decree for electoral reform)". Istoria românilor între anii 1918–1940 (The History of the Romanians in 1918–1940) (in Romanian). University of Bucharest. 
  10. ^ Anatol Petrenci (2006). Basarabia în timpul celui de-al doilea război mondial: 1939–1945 (Bessarabia During the Second World War: 1939–1945) (in Romanian). Chișinău, Moldova: Ed. Prut Internațional. ISBN 978-9975-69-049-2. 
  11. ^ "Istoria Banatului – În linii mari (History of Banat – A Quick View)" (in Romanian). Vestul.ro. 2008-09-10. Retrieved 2010-10-22. 
  12. ^ a b Petre Mihai Bacanu (2010-03-11). "Cum ar trebui să arate harta redesenată a României? (How Should Romania's Redrawn Map Look Like?)" (in Romanian). România Liberă. Retrieved 2010-08-29. 
  13. ^ "Prezentarea Judetului Ilfov (Overview of Ilfov County)" (PDF) (in Romanian). National Institute of Statistics (Romania). Retrieved 2010-08-01. 
  14. ^ "Istoria Ilfov (History of Ilfov)" (in Romanian). Camera de Comert si Industrie a Judetului Ilfov. Retrieved 2010-08-23. 
  15. ^ "Nomenclature of territorial units for statistics – Introduction". Eurostat. Retrieved 2010-08-22. 
  16. ^ "CEMR – Members – Romania". Council of European Municipalities and Regions. Retrieved 2010-08-22. 
  17. ^ "Istoria numelor județelor din România. De unde provine denumirea regiunii în care locuiți" (in Romanian). Retrieved 2013-01-30. 
  18. ^ "Postal code search" (in Romanian). Compania Nationala Posta Romania SA. Retrieved 2010-08-22. 
  19. ^ "List of the county prefixes in Romania" (in Romanian). National Regulatory Authority for Communications and Information Technology (Romania). 2005-04-26. Retrieved 2010-08-22. 
  20. ^ "Publications Office, European Union, EU". Simap – Information about European public procurement. Retrieved 2010-08-29. 
  21. ^
    (in Romanian) (XLS) Population at the Censuses of 1948, 1956, 1966, 1977, 1992, 2002 and 2011 – By Localities and Counties (Report). National Institute of Statistics (Romania). 2013-07-04. pp. 1-2. http://www.recensamantromania.ro/wp-content/uploads/2013/07/sR_TAB_1.xls. Retrieved 2013-07-06.
  22. ^ (in Romanian) (PDF) Romanian Statistical Yearbook 2008 – Geography, Meteorology, and Environment (Report). National Institute of Statistics (Romania). 2007-07-01. p. 18. http://www.insse.ro/cms/files/pdf/ro/cap1.pdf. Retrieved 2010-08-29.
  23. ^ "DEX online – Search: "bucura"". Romanian Etymological Dictionary 1958–1966 (in Romanian). Dexonline.ro. Retrieved 2010-08-23. 
  24. ^ "Județul Vrancea (Vrancea County)" (in Romanian). National Institute of Statistics (Romania). Retrieved 2010-08-23. 

External links[edit]