List of monarchs of Luxembourg

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Coat of arms of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg

The territory of Luxembourg was ruled successively by counts, dukes and grand dukes. It was part of the medieval Kingdom of Germany, and later the Holy Roman Empire until it became a sovereign state in 1815.

Counts of Luxembourg[edit]

Elder House of Luxembourg[edit]

Main article: House of Luxembourg
Image Name Date of birth Date of death Reign Relationship with predecessor
Siegfried I of Luxembourg.jpg
Siegfried 922 28 October 998 963
to
28 October 998
Arms of the Counts of Luxembourg.svg
Henry I 964 27 February 1026 28 October 998
to
27 February 1026
his son
Heinrich von Bayern.jpg
Henry II 1007 16 October 1047 27 February 1026
to
16 October 1047
his nephew
Giselbert zoon van Reginar Lankhals.jpg
Giselbert 1007 14 August 1059 16 October 1047
to
14 August 1059
his brother
Conrad I, Count of Luxembourg.png
Conrad I 1040 8 August 1086 14 August 1059
to
8 August 1086
his son
Arms of the Counts of Luxembourg.svg
Henry III 1070 1096 8 August 1086
to
1096
his son
William, Count of Luxembourg.png
William I 1081 1131 1096
to
1131
his brother
Conrad II, Count of Luxembourg.png
Conrad II 1106 1136 1131
to
1136
his son

House of Luxembourg-Namur[edit]

Main article: House of Luxembourg
Image Name Date of birth Date of death Reign Relationship with predecessor
Henry IV, Count of Luxembourg.png
Henry IV
the Blind
1112 14 August 1196 1136
to
14 August 1196
his first cousin

House of Hohenstaufen[edit]

Main article: House of Hohenstaufen
Image Name Date of birth Date of death Reign Relationship with predecessor
Othon Ier de Bourgogne.jpg Otto June/July 1170 13 January 1200 1196
to
1197
his third-cousin once removed

House of Luxembourg-Namur[edit]

Main article: House of Luxembourg
Image Name Date of birth Date of death Reign Relationship with predecessor
Ermesinda.jpg
Ermesinde July 1186 12 February 1247 1197
to
12 February 1247
Henry IV's only daughter and Otto's fourth cousin
Bar Arms.svg
Theobald I 1158 13 February 1214 1197
to
13 February 1214
her first husband and co-ruler
Waleran III of Limburg.png
Waleran 1180 2 July 1226 May 1214
to
2 July 1226
her second husband and co-ruler

House of Luxembourg-Limburg[edit]

Main article: House of Luxembourg
Image Name Date of birth Date of death Reign Relationship with predecessor
Henry Le Blond.jpg
Henry V
the Blonde
1216 24 December 1281 12 February 1247
to
24 December 1281
their son
Hendrik VI van Luxemburg.jpg
Henry VI
the Condemned
1240 5 June 1288 24 December 1281
to
5 June 1288
his son
Henry7Luc.jpg
Henry VII 1275/1270 24 August 1313 5 June 1288
to
24 August 1313
his son
John of Luxemburg.PNG
John
the Blind
10 August 1296 26 August 1346 24 August 1313
to
26 August 1346
his son
Charles IV-John Ocko votive picture-fragment.jpg
Charles I 14 May 1316 29 November 1378 26 August 1346
to
1353
his son
VaclavLux2.jpg
Wenceslaus I 25 February 1337 7 December 1383 1353
to
13 March 1354
his brother

Dukes of Luxembourg[edit]

In 1354 the county was elevated to a duchy.

House of Luxembourg-Limburg[edit]

Main article: House of Luxembourg
Image Name Date of birth Date of death Reign Relationship with predecessor
Wenceslaus of Luxembourg.jpg
Wenceslaus I 25 February 1337 7 December 1383 13 March 1354
to
7 December 1383
himself as count
VaclavnaVotobraze.jpg
Wenceslas II
the Lazy
26 February 1361 16 August 1419 7 December 1383
to
1388
his nephew
Jošt Lucemburský.jpg
Jobst December 1351 18 January 1411 1388
to
18 January 1411
his cousin
Jan van Eyck 011.jpg
Elisabeth I November 1390 2 August 1451 18 January 1411
to
1443
his heiress & first cousin once removed
Anthony August 1384 25 October 1415 18 January 1411
to
25 October 1415
her first husband and co-ruler
John III Duke of Bavaria-Straubing.png
John II
the Pitiless
1374 6 January 1425 10 March 1418
to
6 January 1425
her second husband and co-ruler

As Elisabeth had no surviving children, she sold Luxembourg to Philip III, Duke of Burgundy in 1441 but only to succeed upon her death. Philip captured the city of Luxembourg in 1443, but did not assume the ducal title because of conflicting claims by Anne of Austria, the closest Luxembourg relative.

Claimants[edit]

Image Name Date of birth Date of death Reign Relationship with predecessor
Jan van Eyck 011.jpg
Elisabeth I November 1390 2 August 1451 1443
to
2 August 1451
Ladislas the Posthumous 001.jpg
Ladislaus
the Posthumous
22 February 1440 23 November 1457 2 August 1451
to
23 November 1457
her first cousin once removed
Counts of Habsburg Arms.svg
Anne 12 April 1432 13 November 1462 23 November 1457
to
13 November 1462
his sister
JudenhutGroschenObvEnlarged.jpg
William
the Brave
30 April 1425 17 September 1482 her husband and co-pretender
Elżbieta Rakuszanka (1436-1505).JPG
Elisabeth II 1436 30 August 1505 13 November 1462
to
1467
her sister
Casimir IV Jagiellon.jpg
Casimir Jagiellon 30 November 1427 7 June 1492 her husband and co-pretender
Georg of Podebrady.jpg
George of Poděbrady 23 April 1420 22 March 1471 1458
to
1471
claimed title as king of Bohemia[1]

House of Valois-Burgundy[edit]

In 1467, when Elisabeth II of Austria, last rival claimant to the title, renounced her rights, Philip III's son, Charles, Duke of Burgundy, assumed the title of duke of Luxembourg, making it a subsidiary title of the Duke of Burgundy.

Image Name Date of birth Date of death Reign Relationship with predecessor
Philip the good.jpg
Philip I
the Good
31 July 1396 15 June 1467 1443
to
15 June 1467
Elisabeth I's second cousin once removed and usurper
Charles the Bold 1460.jpg
Charles II
the Bold
10 November 1433 5 January 1477 15 June 1467
to
5 January 1477
his son
Mary of burgundy pocher.jpg
Mary I
the Rich
13 February 1457 27 March 1482 5 January 1477
to
27 March 1482
his daughter
Bernhard Strigel 007.jpg
Maximilian I
the Last Knight
22 March 1459 12 January 1519 her husband and co-ruler

House of Habsburg[edit]

Main article: House of Habsburg

In 1482 Luxembourg passed to the House of Habsburg. After the abdication of Emperor Charles V, the duchy of Luxembourg fell to the Spanish line of the House of Habsburg.

Image Name Date of birth Date of death Reign Relationship with predecessor
Meister der Magdalenenlegende 001.jpg
Philip II
the Handsome
22 July 1478 25 September 1506 27 March 1482
to
25 September 1506
their son
Charles5orley.jpg
Charles III
the Golden One
24 February 1500 21 September 1558 25 September 1506
to
16 January 1556
his son
King PhilipII of Spain.jpg
Philip III
the Prudent
21 May 1527 13 September 1598 16 January 1556
to
13 September 1598
his son
Landvoogden Albrecht en Isabella van Oostenrijk.jpg
Isabella Clara Eugenia 12 August 1566 1 December 1633 6 May 1598
to
13 July 1621
his daughter
Albert 15 November 1559 13 July 1621 his son-in-law
Philip IV of Spain - Velázquez 1644.jpg
Philip IV
the Great
8 April 1605 17 September 1665 31 July 1621
to
17 September 1665
their nephew
Rey Carlos II.jpg
Charles IV
the Bewitched
6 November 1661 1 November 1700 17 September 1665
to
1 November 1700
his son

During the War of Spanish Succession, 1701–1714, the duchy was disputed between Philip of Anjou, grandson of Louis XIV of France, from the House of Bourbon and Charles of Austria, son of Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor, from the House of Habsburg. In 1712 Luxembourg and Namur were ceded to Maximilian II Emanuel, Elector of Bavaria by his French allies, but with the end of the war in 1713 with the Treaty of Utrecht Max. Emanuel was restored Elector of Bavaria. In 1713 the duchy fell to the Austrian branch of the House of Habsburg.

House of Bourbon[edit]

Main article: House of Bourbon
Image Name Date of birth Date of death Reign Relationship with predecessor
King Philip V of Spain.jpg
Philip V
Philippe de France
19 December 1683 9 July 1746 1 November 1700
to
1712
his grandnephew

House of Wittelsbach[edit]

Main article: House of Wittelsbach
Image Name Date of birth Date of death Reign Relationship with predecessor
Joseph Vivien 001.jpg
Maximilian II
Maximilian Emanuel Ludwig Maria Joseph Kajetan
Anton Nikolaus Franz
Ignaz Felix
11 July 1662 26 February 1726 1712
to
11 April 1713
his uncle

House of Habsburg[edit]

Image Name Date of birth Date of death Reign Relationship with predecessor
Johann Gottfried Auerbach 004.jpg
Charles V
Karl Franz Joseph
Wenceslau Balthasar Johann
Anton Ignatius
1 October 1685 20 October 1740 11 April 1713
to
20 October 1740
his second cousin
Queen Maria Theresia.jpg
Maria II Theresa
Maria Theresa
Walburga Amalia Christina
13 May 1717 29 November 1780 20 October 1740
to
29 November 1780
his daughter

House of Habsburg-Lorraine[edit]

Image Name Date of birth Date of death Reign Relationship with predecessor
Johann Zoffany 007.jpg
Francis I
François Étienne
8 December 1708 18 August 1765 21 November 1740
to
18 August 1765
her husband
Joseph Hickel Joseph II.jpg
Joseph
Joseph Benedikt August Johannes Anton Michael Adam
13 March 1741 20 February 1790 29 November 1780
to
20 February 1790
their son
Johann Daniel Donat, Emperor Leopold II in the Regalia of the Golden Fleece (1806).png
Leopold
Peter Leopold Joseph Anton Joachim Pius Gotthard
5 May 1747 1 March 1792 20 February 1790
to
1 March 1792
his brother
Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor at age 25, 1792.png
Francis II
Francis Joseph Charles
12 February 1768 2 March 1835 1 March 1792
to
1794
his son

Luxembourg was occupied by French revolutionaries between 1794 and 1813. At the Vienna Congress, it was elevated to a grand duchy and given in personal union to William I of the Netherlands.

Grand Dukes of Luxembourg[edit]

Grand Duke of Luxembourg's Standard.

The Grand Duke of Luxembourg is the head of state of Luxembourg. Luxembourg is the world's only sovereign extant Grand Duchy, a status to which Luxembourg was promoted in 1815 upon its unification with the Netherlands under the House of Orange-Nassau.

The Luxembourgian constitution defines the Grand Duke's position:

The Grand Duke is the head of state, symbol of its unity, and guarantor of national independence. He exercises executive power in accordance with the Constitution and the laws of the country.[2]

House of Orange-Nassau[edit]

Image Name Date of birth Date of death Reign Relationship with predecessor
Willem I in kroningsmantel.jpg
Guillaume I
Willem Frederik
(Prince William VI of Orange)
24 August 1772 12 December 1843 15 March 1815
to
7 October 1840
Francis' third cousin
and
Anne's direct descendant
WillemIINL3.jpg
Guillaume II
Willem Frederik George Lodewijk
6 December 1792 17 March 1849 7 October 1840
to
17 March 1849
his son
Portrait of King Willem III of the Netherlands, Nicolaas Pieneman (1856).jpg
Guillaume III
Willem Alexander Paul Frederik Lodewijk
17 February 1817 23 November 1890 17 March 1849
to
23 November 1890
his son

House of Nassau-Weilburg[edit]

Under the 1783 Nassau Family Pact, those territories of the Nassau family in the Holy Roman Empire at the time of the Pact (Luxembourg and Nassau) were bound by semi-Salic law, which allowed inheritance by females or through the female line only upon extinction of male members of the dynasty. When William III died leaving only his daughter Wilhelmina as an heir, the crown of the Netherlands, not being bound by the family pact, passed to Wilhelmina. However, the crown of Luxembourg passed to a male of another branch of the House of Nassau: Adolphe, the dispossessed Duke of Nassau and head of the branch of Nassau-Weilburg.

In 1905, Grand Duke Adolphe's younger half-brother, Prince Nikolaus Wilhelm of Nassau, died, having left a son Georg Nikolaus, Count von Merenberg who was, however, the product of a morganatic marriage, and therefore not legally a member of the House of Nassau. In 1907, Adolphe's only son, William IV, Grand Duke of Luxembourg, obtained passage of a law confirming the right of his eldest daughter, Marie-Adélaïde, to succeed to the throne in virtue of the absence of any remaining dynastic males of the House of Nassau, as originally stipulated in the Nassau Family Pact. She became the grand duchy's first reigning female monarch upon her father's death in 1912, and upon her own abdication in 1919, was succeeded by her younger sister Charlotte, who married Felix of Bourbon-Parma, a prince of the former Duchy of Parma. Charlotte's descendants have since reigned as the continued dynasty of Nassau, and also constitute a cadet branch of the House of Bourbon-Parma.

Name Portrait Birth Marriages Death Succession right
Adolphe
23 November 1890 –
17 November 1905
Adolfluxembourg1817-6.jpg
24 July 1817
Wiesbaden (Prussia)
(1) Grand Duchess Elizabeth
31 January 1844
[1 child (stillborn)]
(2) Grand Duchess Adelheid-Marie
23 April 1851
[5 children]
17 November 1905
Colmar-Berg
Nephew of
William III
Guillaume IV
17 November 1905 –
25 February 1912
Guillaume IV of Luxembourg.png
22 April 1852
Wiesbaden (Prussia)
Grand Duchess Marie Anne
[6 children]
25 February 1912
Colmar-Berg
Son of
Adolphe
Marie-Adélaïde
25 February 1912 –
14 January 1919
(abdicated)
Marie-Adélaïde.gif
14 June 1894
Colmar-Berg
Unmarried
[childless]
24 January 1924
Lenggries (Germany)
Daughter of
William IV
Charlotte
14 January 1919 –
12 November 1964
(abdicated)
Charlotte, Grand Duchess of Luxembourg.jpg
23 January 1896
Colmar-Berg
Prince Felix
6 November 1919
[6 children]
9 July 1985
Fischbach
Daughter of
William IV /
Sister of
Marie-Adélaïde
Jean
12 November 1964 –
7 October 2000
(abdicated)
Grand Duke Jean 29.09.2006.jpg
5 January 1921
Colmar-Berg
Grand Duchess Joséphine Charlotte
9 April 1953
[5 children]
Living Son of
Charlotte
Henri
7 October 2000 –
Present
Henri of Luxembourg (2009).jpg
16 April 1955
Betzdorf
Grand Duchess Maria Teresa
4 February/14 February 1981
[5 children]
Living Son of
Jean

Henri, Grand Duke of Luxembourg Jean, Grand Duke of Luxembourg Charlotte, Grand Duchess of Luxembourg Marie-Adélaïde, Grand Duchess of Luxembourg William IV, Grand Duke of Luxembourg Adolphe, Grand Duke of Luxembourg William III of the Netherlands William II of the Netherlands William I of the Netherlands

See also[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ [1]
  2. ^ (French) "Constitution de Luxembourg" (PDF). Service central de législation. Retrieved 1 July 2007. 

References[edit]