County of Montbéliard

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County of Montbéliard
Grafschaft Mömpelgard  (German)
Comté de Montbéliard  (French)
State of the Holy Roman Empire
Blason Bourgogne-comté ancien(aigle).svg
1042–1793

Gules, two fishes Or addorsed
Coat of arms

Capital Montbéliard
Government Principality
Historical era Middle Ages
Early modern period
 -  Established by Conrad II 1042
 -  Acquired by County of Württemberg 1444
 -  Württemberg raised to duchy 1495
 -  Occupied by France 1793
 -  Ceded to France 1796

The County of Montbéliard (French: Comté de Montbéliard; German: Grafschaft Mömpelgard), was a feudal county of the Holy Roman Empire based around the city of Montbéliard in the present-day Franche-Comté region of France. From 1444 onwards it was held by the House of Württemberg.

History[edit]

The county was established in 1042 by Emperor Conrad II on the territory of the County of Burgundy, part of the Kingdom of Arles, a constituent of the Empire since 1033. It was led by a line of Counts of Montbéliard descending from Conrad's vassal Louis of Mousson in Upper Lorraine, husband of Countess Sophie of Bar, and their successors from the Scarpone family. In 1163 Lord Amadeus II of Montfaucon became Count of Montbéliard by marriage to Sophie, daughter of Count Theodoric II (Thierry II), who left no male heirs.

In 1407, the marriage of Countess Henriette, heiress of Count Stephen of Montfaucon with Eberhard IV of Württemberg tipped the county into the fold of the Swabian nobility in Germany. In addition to the County of Montbéliard, Countess Henrietta brought wedding dowries: fiefdoms, such as lordships in Granges[disambiguation needed] (Bourg), Clerval, Passavant, Etobon, Porrentruy, with the fiefdoms of Saint-Hippolyte, and lands of Franquemont (Goumois). Some of them were in the County of Burgundy, but the countess administered the County of Burgundy by the sovereign right by virtue of the legacy that is of her grandfather Stephen of Montfaucon, and the tribute that she received from the Burgundian Duke John the Fearless. By the advent of this marriage, inheritance of the County of Montbéliard and its dependencies added to Württemberg who brought the lordship of Riquewihr, Ferrette and the County of Horbourg in Alsace.

Eberhard IV died in 1419 and upon Henriette's death in 1444, Montbéliard was adjudicated to their son Count Ludwig I of Württemberg-Urach. His son Eberhard V annexed Montbéliard as part of the united County of Württemberg, though it still retained its status as an immediate territory and separate county within the County. It was not a vassalagee of Württemberg; it was his equal but hereditary committed to the marriage of Count Eberhard IV by Henriette. De facto, the Romance territory would retain "all its rights, traditions and customs, as well as its language" as it was customary in the vast Holy Roman Empire. In 1495 the Count of Montbeliard Eberhard V of Württemberg was raised to the rank of Duke and the county became the "Principality of Montbéliard". Under the exiled Duke Ulrich, it turned Protestant in 1524.

In spite of vicissitudes, Montbéliard was ruled by junior branches of the House of Württemberg for several centuries. Count Frederick I of Montbéliard again inherited the Württemberg duchy in 1593, but in 1617 the county was again separated for his younger son Ludwig Frederick and ruled by his descendants until it fell back to Württemberg in 1723. With the annexation in 1748 of the "Four Lands" (land dependent HéricourtChâtelotClémont - Blamont) by King Louis XV of France, the Principality was reduced to a "single county" until the French Revolution, or more precisely until November 1793.

Integration into France[edit]

In 1793, the County of Montbéliard was occupied by the First French Republic, bringing it forty new townships (Abbévillers, Aibre, Allenjoie, Allondans, Arbouans, Audincourt, Badevel, Bart, Bavans, Bethoncourt, Bretigney, Brognard, Courcelles-lès-Montbéliard, Couthenans, Dambenois, Dampierre-les-Bois, Dasle, Désandans, Dung, Étouvans, Étupes, Exincourt, Fesches-le-Châtel, Grand-Charmont, Issans, Laire, Montbéliard, Nommay, Présentevillers, Raynans, Sainte-Marie, Sainte-Suzanne, Saint-Julien-lès-Montbéliard, Semondans, Sochaux, Taillecourt, Valentigney, Le Vernoy, Vieux-Charmont and Voujeaucourt). With Mandeure, from the Republic of Mandeure annexed at the same time, these municipalities were first linked to the département of Haute-Saône, constituting the new district of Montbéliard in 1793, including 3 cantons (Audincourt, Désandans and Montbéliard).

After the French forces under Jean Victor Marie Moreau had campaigned Württemberg in the course of the War of the First Coalition in 1796, Duke Frederick II Eugene finally renounce all rights to Montbéliard. In 1797, the cantons were transferred to the département Mont-Terrible. The département was abolished in 1800, being annexed to the Haut-Rhin département. With the new arrangement put in place that year, there were more than 2 cantons (Audincourt and Montbéliard) in the District of Porrentruy. In 1814, Haut-Rhin lost the territories which had been part of Mont-Terrible and returned them to Switzerland, with the exception of Montbéliard, which was transferred to the department of Doubs.

Rulers[edit]

Gules, two fishes Or addorsed, bordured multiply: gules, Or, gules, Or
House of Montfaucon-Montbéliard
Quartered — I and IV: Or, three stag's antlers sable; II and III: gules, two fishes Or addorsed
House of Württemberg-Mömpelgard

House of Scarpone[edit]

House of Montfaucon[edit]

House of Württemberg[edit]

House of Württemberg-Mömpelgard[edit]

Coordinates: 47°30′37″N 6°47′56″E / 47.51028°N 6.79889°E / 47.51028; 6.79889