1913 Ottoman coup d'état

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1913 Ottoman coup d'état

The 1913 coup d'état in the Ottoman Empire (January 23, 1913), also known as the Bab-ı Ali coup (Turkish: Bâb-ı Âlî Baskını), resulted in the grand vizier Kamil Pasha being driven from power and the replacement of Minister of War Nazım Pasha by İsmail Enver. It effectively ended the London Peace Conference and marked a significant point in the Ottoman government's progress towards centralization, giving de facto power to the triumvirate known as the Three Pashas.


While the inner circle of the Committee of Union and Progress (CUP) may already have decided earlier to stage a coup to end the prosecution of the CUP by the Ottoman government, the proximate occasion was the immediate threat that the government was to concede to a demand by the Great Powers that the town of Edirne (ancient Adrianople) should be handed over to Bulgaria.[1]

On 23 January 1913, a group of officers entered the Sublime Porte (Ottoman Turkish: Bab-ı Ali) while the Cabinet was in session and shot and assassinated the Minister of War, Nazım Pasha, while Kamil Pasha was forced to resign.[1]


The most notable effect of the coup was its strengthening of the reform movements in the Ottoman Empire, preceded by the 19th-century Tanzimat reforms, the short-lived Ottoman constitution of 1876, and the Young Turk Revolution in 1908. Though opposed in principle to the extension of local autonomy to the provinces, the Committee of Union and Progress, which had been further empowered by the coup, seemed inclined to reconcile with those in favor of greater extension of the millet system.


The coup essentially replaced the sultan's actual authority with a dictatorial triumvirate known as the Three Pashas: the interior minister, Mehmed Talat Pasha, the war minister, İsmail Enver, and the naval minister, Ahmed Djemal.


  1. ^ a b Erik-Jan Zürcher (2004). Turkey: A Modern History (Revised Edition ed.). I.B.Tauris. pp. 107 ff. ISBN 978-1-86064-958-5.