Portrait of Coventry Patmore, by John Singer Sargent, 1894
23 July 1823|
|Died||26 November 1896
|Occupation||Poet and critic|
The eldest son of author Peter George Patmore, Coventry Patmore was born at Woodford in Essex and was privately educated. He was his father's intimate and constant companion and inherited from him his early literary enthusiasm. It was Coventry's ambition to become an artist. He showed much promise, earning the silver palette of the Society of Arts in 1838. In 1839 he was sent to school in France for six months, where he began to write poetry. On his return, his father planned to publish some of these youthful poems; Coventry, however, had become interested in science and poetry was set aside.
At this time Patmore's father was financially embarrassed; and in 1846 Richard Monckton Milnes, 1st Baron Houghton obtained for Coventry the post of printed book supernumary assistant at the British Museum, a post he occupied for nineteen years, devoting his spare time to poetry. In 1847 he married Emily Augusta Andrews, daughter of Dr. Andrews of Camberwell, and by 1851 they had had two sons, Coventry (born 1848) and Tennyson (born 1850). Three daughters followed – Emily (born 1853), Bertha (born 1855) and Gertrude (born 1857), before their last child, a son (Henry John), was born in 1860.
He later returned to writing however, enthused by the success of Alfred Lord Tennyson; and in 1844 he published a small volume of Poems, which was original but uneven. Patmore, distressed at its reception, bought up the remainder of the edition and destroyed it. What upset him most was a cruel review in Blackwood's Magazine; but the enthusiasm of his friends, together with their more constructive criticism, helped foster his talent. The publication of this volume bore immediate fruit by causing its author to be introduced to various men of letters, including Dante Gabriel Rossetti, through whom Patmore became known to William Holman Hunt, and was thus drawn into the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood, contributing his poem "The Seasons" to The Germ.
In his time at the British Museum Patmore was instrumental in starting the Volunteer Movement in 1852. He wrote an important letter to The Times on the subject, and stirred up much martial enthusiasm among his colleagues.
In 1853 he republished Tamerton Church Tower, the more successful of his pieces from Poems of 1844, adding several new poems which showed distinct advance, both in conception and treatment; and in the following year (1854) the first part of his best-known poem, The Angel in the House appeared. The Angel in the House is a long narrative and lyric poem, with four sections composed over a period of years: The Betrothed and The Espousals (1856) which eulogize his first wife; followed by Faithful For Ever (1860); and The Victories of Love (1862). The four works were published together in 1863 and have come to symbolise the Victorian feminine ideal – which was not necessarily the ideal amongst feminists of the period.
By 1861 the family was living in Elm Cottage, North End, Hampstead. On 5 July 1862 Emily died after a lengthy and lingering illness, and shortly afterwards Coventry joined the Roman Catholic church.
In 1865 he re-married, his second wife being Marianne Byles, daughter of James Byles of Bowden Hall, Gloucester; a year later he purchased Buxted Hall in Surrey, the history of which he wrote in How I managed my Estate (1886). In 1877 he published The Unknown Eros, which contains his finest poetic work, and in the following year Amelia, his own favourite among his poems, together with an interesting essay on English Metrical Law, appeared. This departure into criticism continued in 1879 with a volume of papers entitled Principle in Art, and again in 1893 with Religio Poetae.
His second wife Marianne died in 1880, and in 1881 he married Harriet Robson from Bletchingley in Surrey (born 1840). Their son Francis was born in 1882. In later years he lived at Lymington, where he died in 1896. He was buried in Lymington churchyard.
A collected edition of Patmore's poems appeared in two volumes in 1886, with a characteristic preface which might serve as the author's epitaph. "I have written little," it runs; "but it is all my best; I have never spoken when I had nothing to say, nor spared time or labour to make my words true. I have respected posterity; and should there be a posterity which cares for letters, I dare to hope that it will respect me." The sincerity which underlies this statement, combined with a certain lack of humour which peers through its naïveté, points to two of the principal characteristics of Patmore's earlier poetry; characteristics which came to be almost unconsciously merged and harmonized as his style and his intention drew together into unity.
His best work is found in the volume of odes called The Unknown Eros, which is full not only of passages but entire poems in which exalted thought is expressed in poetry of the richest and most dignified melody. Spirituality informs his inspiration; the poetry is glowing and alive. The magnificent piece in praise of winter, the solemn and beautiful cadences of "Departure," and the homely but elevated pathos of "The Toys," are in their manner unsurpassed in English poetry. His somewhat reactionary political opinions, which also find expression in his odes, find less praise today although they can certainly be said to reflect, as do his essays, a serious and very active mind. Patmore is today one of the least-known but best-regarded Victorian poets.
His son Henry John Patmore (1860–83) also became a poet.
In X-Men: Season 1 Episode 1, Patmore's poem "Farewell", from the collection "The Unknown Eros", is paraphrased by the character Beast, "With faint heart averted feet and many a tear, in our opposed path to persevere." The character also follows the quote with, "A minor poet for a minor obstacle."
- Principles in Art, George Bell and Sons, 1889.
- Courage in Politics and other Essays, Oxford University Press, 1921.
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- “Distinction,” The Eclectic Magazine, Vol. LII, 1890
- "Three Essayettes," The Eclectic Magazine, Vol. LVI, July/December 1892.
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- "Mr. Coventry Patmore's Poems," The National Review, Vol. VI, January/April 1858.
- McSweeney, Kerry (2000). "The Angel in the House," Victorian Poetry, Vol. 38, Number 2, Summer.
- Hartnell, Elaine (1996). "'Nothing but Sweet and Womanly': A Hagiography of Patmore's Angel," Victorian Poetry, Vol. 34, No. 4, Coventry Patmore: 1823–1896. In Memoriam.
- Gosse, Edmund (1897). "The History of a Poem," The North American Review, Vol. 164, No. 484.
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- "Advertising". South Australian Register (1839–1900) (Adelaide, SA, AU: National Library of Australia). 13 September 1862. p. 2. Retrieved 28 September 2012.
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- See Vesica piscis.
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- ——— (1921), The Idea of Coventry Patmore, Oxford University Press.
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- Dunn, John J. (1969). "Love and Eroticism: Coventry Patmore's Mystical Imagery," Victorian Poetry, Vol. 7, No. 3.
- Edmond, Rod (1981). "Death Sequences: Patmore, Hardy, and the New Domestic Elegy," Victorian Poetry, Vol. 19, No. 2.
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- ——— (1923), "Coventry Patmore", The North American Review 218 (813).
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- ——— (1905), "Mr. Gosse on Coventry Patmore", The Bookman, XXVIII (163).
- Gelpi, Barbara Charlesworth (1996). "King Cophetua and Coventry Patmore," Victorian Poetry, Vol. 34, No. 4, Coventry Patmore: 1823–1896. In Memoriam.
- Gosse, Edmund (1897), "Coventry Patmore: A Portrait", The Living Age XIII.
- ——— (1905), Coventry Patmore, Charles Scribner's Sons.
- Gwynn, Aubrey (1924). "A Daughter of Coventry Patmore," Studies: An Irish Quarterly Review, Vol. 13, No. 51.
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- ——— (1933), Patmore: A Study in Poetry, Oxford University Press.
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- Pearce, Brian Louis (1996). "Coventry Patmore (1823–1896)," RSA Journal, Vol. 144, No. 5467.
- Pierson, Robert M. (1996). "Coventry Patmore's Ideas Concerning English Prosody and "The Unknown Eros" Read Accordingly," Victorian Poetry, Vol. 34, No. 4, Coventry Patmore: 1823–1896. In Memoriam.
- Roberts, Gerald (2012). "Hopkins and Patmore: Tory Politics and Poetry," History Today, Vol. 62 (1), pp. 30–36.
- Reid, John Cowie (1957). The Mind and Art of Coventry Patmore, Greenwood Press.
- Roth, Sister Mary Augustine (1961), Coventry Patmore's "Essay on English Metrical Law (PDF), The Catholic University of America Press.
- Russell, Matthew (1877). "Coventry Patmore," The Irish Monthly, Vol. 5.
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- Tovey, Duncan (1897). "Coventry Patmore." In Reviews and Essays in English Literature, George Bell * Sons.
- Weinig, Mary Anthony (1981). Coventry Patmore, Twayne Publishers.
- Woodworth, Elizabeth (2006). "Elizabeth Barrett Browning, Coventry Patmore, and Alfred Tennyson on Napoleon III: The Hero-Poet and Carlylean Heroics," Victorian Poetry, Vol. 44, No. 4, Elizabeth Barrett Browning, 1806–2006: A Bicentenary Issue.
- Vere, Audrey de (1889). "Coventry Patmore's Poetry." In Essays, Chiefly Literary and Ethical, Macmillan & Co.
|Wikisource has original works written by or about:
Coventry Kersey Dighton Patmore
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|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Coventry Patmore.|
- Works by Coventry Patmore at Project Gutenberg
- Works by or about Coventry Patmore at Internet Archive (search optimized for the non-Beta site)
- Works by Coventry Patmore at LibriVox (public domain audiobooks)
- Poem of the Week: The Two Deserts by Coventry Patmore
- Archival material relating to Coventry Patmore listed at the UK National Archives