||This article possibly contains original research. (November 2013)|
Covert racism is a form of racial discrimination that is disguised and subtle, rather than public or obvious. Concealed in the fabric of society, covert racism discriminates against individuals through often unnoticeable or seemingly passive methods. Covert, racially-biased decisions are often hidden or rationalized with an explanation that society is more willing to accept. These racial biases cause a variety of problems that work to empower the suppressors while diminishing the rights and powers of the oppressed. Covert racism often works subliminally, and often much of the discrimination is being done subconsciously. See Chester Pierce, "Offensive Mechanisms" in Floyd B. Barbour (Editor), The Black Seventies (Boston, Mass: Porter Sargent Publisher, 1970).
George M. Fredrickson states that racism possesses a generative force more powerful than mere class or caste self-interest alone and is suspicious of arguments that discount matters of ideology, thought and culture and overvalue those of instinct and habit. Others believe that racism in all its forms are part of the human psyche. Feelings of xenophobia or fear of those outside the group, has been part of primordial attitude deeply imbedded in human history. This article is regarding the fabric of racism in the United States, as it pertains to Americans who are descendants of Eurocentric cultures.
Background on race
Race itself is socially constructed and one "theory" which is still the most popular today, was promulgated by Judge Tucker that there exists natural, physical divisions among humans that are hereditary, reflected in morphology, and roughly but correctly captured by terms like Black, White, and Asian (or Negroid, Caucasoid, and Mongoloid). It has been proven to have been used to suppress and exploit the out group or "racialized others". The idea of race is multi-dimensional and multi-layered with unclear boundaries or rules. All humans belong to the same single species, Homo sapiens. Pure races do not exist in the human species, despite all the obvious physical differences among people from all over the world. The racial categories developed in the 18th century are simply labels for discussing and comparing the differences among members of the human race and used to facilitate slavery and colonialism. To classify people and distribute privileges and freedoms using visible but genetically insignificant traits, like skin colour.
The concept that discrimination can be based on "race" presupposes the existence of "race" itself. However, the US Government's Human Genome Project has announced that the most complete mapping of human DNA to date indicates that there is no distinct genetic basis to racial types. Based on this evidence, "racial characteristics" logically cannot exist either, such as group differences in eye color or human hair color.
According to the Human Genome Project, skin color does exist as a matter of science. So, that which is commonly referred to as "racism" could be more scientifically referred to as "skin color-aroused discrimination". The term "skin color aroused discrimination" has the benefit that it is based on verifiable science, is not based on disproved notions of science, and does not perpetuate a false belief in the disproved concept of biological "race".
Covert racism, sometimes called "color blind" racism, is less obvious but can be equally oppressive as overt racism. This "laissez-faire" form of racism is not governmentally sanctioned like the overt Jim Crow laws of the 1950s, and it is not always blatantly obvious. Covert racism comes in many forms including unnecessary politeness to a racial group, the use of political correctness.
History in the U.S.
With a strong prevailing history of slavery in the United States, racism has always been an issue. The enslavement of millions of Africans along with the huge influx of immigrants throughout its history has not only allowed great diversity but has created racial segregation. With the abolition of slavery different forms of segregation were implemented including Jim Crow laws and the later American political structures which invited extreme segregation within cities and the suburbanisation of the white working and middle class. As overt and obvious racial discrimination became less and less apparent and illegal the idea that the nation was homogenizing became popular. It was thought that as the U.S. accepts more immigrants from different cultures a sort of "melting pot" will occur and unify everyone under one creed. Along with this, ideologies formed that every group of immigrants goes through the same discrimination. Groups were thought to eventually assimilate, but racism remained and is still present today. Covert racism was and is still used to oppress everyone from White, Black, and Asian groups.
Another covert racial problem occurred when most of the black G.I.s returning from the war were denied money promised to them to go to school or buy a house. There were estimates that 25% of soldiers, serving in Vietnam were black, but anecdotal evidence were much higher. Black servicemen were likely to re-enlist at twice the rate of their white counterparts in the Navy, Marine Corps and Airforce and three times the rate in the Army. Not for any sense of adventure, they found the monetary rewards better compared to their home country and they were treated as equals or near equals.
Racially Constructed Barriers
In the United States covert racism is used to construct barriers that disable and oppress a racial group. Some of these methods are covertly racial profiling and the use of racial stereotypes. In the 1950s after World War II, urban areas were overtly divided into blocks by race. The wide acceptance of these divisions by the majority and the lack of social integration was covert. These blocks were close to toxic dumps, busy highways, and other undesirable locations throughout cities. Whites lived away from these areas and often time Realtors would not be able to show properties to whites within these areas. Apartments also could not rent to certain minority groups henceforth maintaining segregation. Until the late 1960s, the government sanctioned discrimination in housing markets by promulgating rules preventing blacks from receiving mortgages insured by the Federal Housing Administration.
Even today, FHA loans, a Federal Mortgage programme, goes to the white majority and reaches few minorities. In a study done in Syracuse, between 1996 and 2000, of the 2,169 FHA loans issued only 29 or 1.3 percent went to predominantly minority neighborhoods compared with 1,694 or 78.1 percent that went to white neighborhoods. Mortgage discrimination played a significant part in the real estate bubble that popped during the later part of 2008, it was found that minorities were disproportionately steered by lenders into subprime loans. In recent years many blacks and Latinos have been discriminated against when applying for jobs because of stereotypes about work ethic based on race. A phenomenon, in which, having a name that sounds "black" would mean the person not getting an interview. Minorities are less likely to obtain key information regarding job interviews and are often denied access to high-paying jobs.
Minorities are also denied access to a quality education, unlike whites in the U.S. This is usually because many poor areas are also predominantly minorities. This means lack of funding in schools. The levels of poverty and lack of educational opportunities perpetuate themselves creating an unbreakable cycle. Racial stereotypes emerge and these populations are further disenfranchised by individuals not helping or simply not caring. In the new Civil Rights Project report from UCLA, dated January 2009, it stated that schools are more segregated today than they have been in the 1950s. Millions of non-white students are locked into "dropout factory" high schools, where huge percentages do not graduate, and few are well prepared for college or a future in the US economy.
Prisons are another place where covert racism occurs. Prisons are filled with racial minorities due to the way the U.S. judicial system works and how police work on the street. Black men are more likely to be convicted and spend more time in prison than whites who did the same crimes. This could be perpetuated by the beliefs held by police on the street level who make split-second decisions, sometimes based on nothing more than subconscious racist stereotypes. Since the beating of Rodney King (1991), was videotaped and was broadcast around the world, Local and Federal law-enforcement agencies have opened investigations to determine whether indeed there is a pattern of police brutality, not only in Los Angeles but around the country.
Demographic differences in Healthcare
In the United States, health disparities are well documented in ethnic minorities such as African Americans, Native Americans, Asian Americans, and Hispanics. When compared to whites, these minority groups have higher incidence of chronic diseases, higher mortality, and poorer health outcomes. Among the disease-specific examples of racial and ethnic disparities in the United States is the cancer incidence rate among African Americans, which is 25% higher than among whites. In addition, adult African Americans and Hispanics have approximately twice the risk as whites of developing diabetes. Minorities also have higher rates of cardiovascular disease, HIV/AIDS, and infant mortality than whites. Caucasian Americans have much lower life expectancy than Asian Americans. A 2001 study found large racial differences exist in healthy life expectancy at lower levels of education.
Public spending is highly correlated with age; average per capita public spending for seniors was more than five times that for children ($6,921 versus $1,225). Average public spending for non-Hispanic blacks ($2,973) was slightly higher than that for whites ($2,675), while spending for Hispanics ($1,967) was significantly lower than the population average ($2,612). Total public spending is also strongly correlated with self-reported health status ($13,770 for those reporting "poor" health versus $1,279 for those reporting "excellent" health).
There is a great deal of research into inequalities in health care. In some cases these inequalities are caused by income disparities that result in lack of health insurance and other barriers to receiving services. In other cases, inequalities in health care reflect a systemic bias in the way medical procedures and treatments are prescribed for different ethnic groups. Raj Bhopal writes that the history of racism in science and medicine shows that people and institutions behave according to the ethos of their times. Nancy Krieger wrote that racism underlies unexplained inequities in health care, including treatment for heart disease, renal failure, bladder cancer, and pneumonia. Raj Bhopal writes that these inequalities have been documented in numerous studies. The consistent and repeated findings were that black Americans received less health care than white Americans —particularly when the care involved expensive new technology. One recent study has found that when minority and white patients use the same hospital, they are given the same standard of care.
Power and Colormute society
Another problem dealing with covert racism is the presence of inequality vs. inequity. Often an attempt at overall equality is made by trying to provide everyone with the same opportunities. Inequity occurs when the conditions and opportunities provided are not equal to those of the majority of Americans. This generally occurs in the education system in the U.S. This unfairness in the system is not overtly in place but stems from a perpetuated injustice and is often maintained through the invisibility of it.
Covert racism uses discursive repertoires to perpetuate racism and to suppress the "racialized" groups. The White majority and this is stronger in the older generations, are afraid of saying the wrong thing and being labeled as racist, so they confine themselves to the social circle they are most comfortable in — an all-white one. This translates in some part of the division of neighborhoods into school districts that avoid integration, they end up investing on the "whiteness" of their neighbourhoods. The wealthy also control some of these divisions, which results in the minorities being excluded due to the low levels of income in most minority neighborhoods. The residential and social segregation of whites from blacks in the United States creates a socialization process that limits whites' chances for developing meaningful relationships with blacks and other minorities. The segregation experienced by whites from blacks fosters segregated lifestyles and leads them to develop positive views about themselves and negative views about blacks.
In 2004 in her book Colormute: Race Talk Dilemmas in an American School, Mica Pollock called for a strategy within American schools—"a strategy of questioning the validity of race categories to describe human diversity even while keeping race categories strategically available for the analysis of local and national racial inequalities". Later, in 2008, Pollock served as editor for Everyday Antiracism: Getting Real About Race in School. In this book "leading experts offer concrete and realistic strategies for dealing with race in schools in a groundbreaking book that should become required reading for every teacher in the country."
- Laissez-Faire Racism
- Race card
- African-American history
- Race and longevity
- Second-class citizen
- White flight
- Miller RM; Fredrickson, George M. (August 1990). "Review — The Arrogance of Race: Historical Perspectives on Slavery, Racism, and Social Inequality. by George M. Fredrickson". The Journal of Southern History (Southern Historical Association) 56 (3): 575–6. doi:10.2307/2210337. JSTOR 2210337.
- Ian F. Haney Lopez (Winter 1994). "The Social Construction of Race: Some Observations on Illusion, Fabrication, and Choice". Harvard Civil Rights-Civil Liberties Law Review. Retrieved December 22, 2011.
- Obasogie, Osagie K. (July 1, 2009). "Return of the race myth?". New Scientist. Retrieved December 22, 2011.
- "Minorities, Race, and Genomics". Retrieved 2009-05-12.
- Amodio DM (January 2009). "Intergroup anxiety effects on the control of racial stereotypes: A psychoneuroendocrine analysisstar, open". Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 45 (1): 60–7. doi:10.1016/j.jesp.2008.08.009.
- Weir, Margaret (Summer 1993). "Race And Urban Poverty: Comparing Europe And America". Brookings Review. Retrieved December 22, 2011.
- "'Melting pot' America". BBC News. May 12, 2006. Retrieved April 30, 2010.
- Ebony - Google Boeken. Books.google.com. Retrieved December 22, 2011.
- Weir, Margaret (Summer 1993). "Race And Urban Poverty: Comparing Europe And America". Brookings Review. Retrieved December 22, 2011.
- [dead link]
- Sieh, Maureen (May 21, 2002). "Few FHA loans go to minorities, study says". The Post-Standard. Retrieved December 22, 2011.
- Nasiripour, Shahien (October 1, 2009). "Minorities More Likely To Be Denied Refinancing". Huffington Post. Retrieved December 22, 2011.
- Krueger, Alan B. (December 12, 2002). "Economic Scene; Sticks and stones can break bones, but the wrong name can make a job hard to find". The New York Times. Retrieved April 30, 2010.
- "Worries Facing Minority Education". Eserver.org. 1995-05-05. Retrieved December 22, 2011.
- "VDARE.com". VDARE.com. Retrieved 2011-12-22.
- Corsi, Jerome. "Paved with Good Intentions: The Failure of Race Relations in Contemporary America (9780965638340): Jared Taylor: Books". Amazon.com. Retrieved December 22, 2011.
- "US Schools are More Segregated Today than in the 1950s". Project Censored. Retrieved December 22, 2011.
- "Race and Prison". Drug War Facts. Retrieved December 22, 2011.
- Cawthorne, Alexandra (April 15, 2009). "Weathering the Storm: Black Men in the Recession". Center for American Progress. Retrieved December 22, 2011.
- Stevenson, Richard W.; Egan, Timothy (March 18, 1991). "Seven Minutes In Los Angeles - A special report.; Videotaped Beating by Officers Puts Full Glare on Brutality Issue". The New York Times. Retrieved April 30, 2010.
- Goldberg, J., Hayes, W., and Huntley, J. "Understanding Health Disparities." Health Policy Institute of Ohio (November 2004), page 3.
- American Public Health Association (APHA), Eliminating Health Disparities: Toolkit (2004).
- "Study: Race, Location Affects Longevity". Associated Press. September 16, 2006. Retrieved December 22, 2011.
- Crimmins EM, Saito Y (June 2001). "Trends in healthy life expectancy in the United States, 1970–1990: gender, racial, and educational differences". Soc Sci Med 52 (11): 1629–41. doi:10.1016/S0277-9536(00)00273-2. PMID 11327137.
- "The Distribution Of Public Spending For Health Care In The United States, 2002". Content.healthaffairs.org. 2008-07-29. Retrieved December 22, 2011.
- "How Trends in the Health Care System Affect Low-Income Adults: Identifying Access Problems and Financial Burdens", Issue Brief: Kaiser Commission on Medicaid and the Uninsured, December 21, 2007. Retrieved February 26, 2008.
- Bhopal R (June 1998). "Spectre of racism in health and health care: lessons from history and the United States". BMJ 316 (7149): 1970–3. doi:10.1136/bmj.316.7149.1970. PMC 1113412. PMID 9641943.
- Oberman A, Cutter G (September 1984). "Issues in the natural history and treatment of coronary heart disease in black populations: surgical treatment". Am. Heart J. 108 (3 Pt 2): 688–94. doi:10.1016/0002-8703(84)90656-2. PMID 6332513.
- Kjellstrand CM (June 1988). "Age, sex, and race inequality in renal transplantation". Arch. Intern. Med. 148 (6): 1305–9. doi:10.1001/archinte.148.6.1305. PMID 3288159.
- Mayer WJ, McWhorter WP (June 1989). "Black/white differences in non-treatment of bladder cancer patients and implications for survival". Am J Public Health 79 (6): 772–5. doi:10.2105/AJPH.79.6.772. PMC 1349641. PMID 2729474.
- Yergan J, Flood AB, LoGerfo JP, Diehr P. Relationship between patient race and the intensity of hospital services. Med Care. 1987;25:592–603.
- "Black-white disparities in health care". JAMA 263 (17): 2344–6. May 1990. doi:10.1001/jama.263.17.2344. PMID 2182918.
- Darrell J. Gaskin, Christine S. Spencer, Patrick Richard, Gerard F. Anderson, Neil R. Powe, and Thomas A. LaVeist, "Do Hospitals Provide Lower-Quality Care To Minorities Than To Whites?," Health Affairs, March/April 2008
- "In the Literature: Do Hospitals Provide Lower-Quality Care To Minorities Than To Whites?," The Commonwealth Fund, March 11, 2008
- "Every Place Has a Ghetto...": The Significance of Whites' Social and Residential Segregation Eduardo Bonilla-Silva and David G. Embrick Symbolic Interaction Summer 2007, Vol. 30, No. 3, Pages 323-345
- Pollock, Mica (2004). Colormute: Race Talk Dilemmas in an American School. Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0-691-11695-2.
- When Race Matters: 'Colormuteness' in American Schools: An Interview with Faculty Member Mica Pollock. HGSE News, Harvard Graduate School of Education.
- Fredrickson, George M (1988). The arrogance of race: historical perspectives on slavery, racism, and social inequality. Wesleyan University Press. ISBN 978-0-8195-6217-3.
- Race Bending: "Mixed" Youth Practicing Strategic Racialization in California Race Talk Dilemma in an American School by Mica Pollock.
- In RACISTS BEWARE: UNCOVERING RACIAL POLITICS IN THE POSTMODERN SOCIETY, Dei identifies and subjects to close scrutiny the new race-bending logics of what he calls "postmodern" societies
- Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences Transnational Media Literacy Analytic Reflections on a Program With Latina Teens Lucila Vargas University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
- 2009 Denver University Law Review, Article: Hillary Clinton, Sarah Palin, and Michelle Obama: Performing Gender, Race, and Class on the Campaign Trail
- Kleg, M. (1993). Hate, Prejudice, and Racism. Albany: State University of New York Press.
- Berreby, David. Sept./Oct. 2000. Race Counts. From "The Sciences".
- Brodkin, Karen. 1998. How Jews Became White Folks. Rutgers University Press.
- Dyer, Richard. 1994. White. Routledge.
- Gallagher, Charles A. 2003. Playing the White Ethnic Card: Using Ethnic Identity to Deny Contemporary Racism. Routledge.
- Lipsitz, George. 1998. The Possessive Investment in Whiteness. Temple University Press.
- Pierce, Chester M. (1970). "Offensive Mechanisms". In Floyd B. Barbour. The Black Seventies. Porter Sargent. OCLC 108950.
- Jared Taylor. 2004 Edition. Paved with Good Intentions: The Failure of Race Relations in Contemporary America