Crafts in Kosovo

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Since 1881, Pristina

The road for the genuine craftsmanship identification is hard to overcome because the records in the facility miss, excluding the of Ethem Zurnaxhiu's family.[1]
In addition, some really characteristic examples: In the church of Saint Premtes exists a record that the mural painting has been done by the Greek artist Astrap, documented because of the appended artists signature. The sofi Sinan Pasha's mosque, where the same technique was used - al’seco, as in the first layer of depiction in the al’arabesco style in the 16th century, and in the second layer in the al’barok style in the 18th century, not any signature of the creators of the time was found.[2] This occurrence may be understandable given the Islamic concept and the time of creation, but is surprising that it affects the contemporary creators. For instance, the mosque in the Mamushë Countryside has its mural painting with the verses of Kur’an with the al’seco technique, but no signature of its creator Meli Zenko from Gostivar has been found.

Writing the creators and the masters name in the technical documentation should be mandatory, because on the contrary we will be guilty in front of the next inherited generations. In the lack of the relevant facts of the creators and time of creation of the composition of material culture of the ancient city, it can be said that the authentic craftsmanship aboriginal starts with the introduction and development of the civilization in this area in the 1st century. Roman-era graves monuments, done by the local masters and other crafty facilities belonging to the Early Byzantines-era. One of the early craft centers of the city was the space in the first elbow of the gizzard, after the locality of the Top angels, in the place where now are the public enterprise magazines Cylen of Prizren, once the Idriz Ahmed Buza's mill.[3] Facts demonstrate the early development of life and crafts in this area of the city. In Prizren, there were evidenced the Roman-era graves and remains. In this territory, later on, the manufacturing of guns and pistols was developed and exported in large quantity in Europe, Asia and Africa.[4]
The decoration of these arms with gold, silver, amber and wood carving was done by the masters of the city.

Leatherworkers[edit]

(Albanian: Qyrkatarët (pronounced-tʃyɾkataɾət)

Are the first craftsman, connecting it to prehistory when the thread of the horn was used for adopting the animal leather for the human needs.
In 1591 in the ancient city there were five families of leatherworkers.[5] In the period of the 19th century, Muhamud Rotulli pasha for the needs of the reconstruction of the Prizren Castle and development of the crafts, in the city came the gogs from Ohrid. During the middle-era, in the city lived small groups of gogs, as the descendants of Romanised Illyrians[6] The most known master of the time was Stanoje N (1829-189), who taught the craft to Spasoje Arsić (1888-1946), keeping him as a worker for 20 years.
This craft was also practiced by: Staja Stajonević (1880-1950), Jovan Andrejević, Lubomir Zvezdić, Zhivko Dimić, Vuk Nedeljković, Veselin Kujundžić, Lazar Ristić-Kuzlila, Cani Stojković, Aliriza Shpejti (1934) and his son Fitim Shpejti (1964) are the only Kosovar, after the middle-era, that practiced the craft of leather. The masters of leather have had their shops in the bazaar of blacksmiths while the processing of the leather was done in the provinces out of the bazaar. In the year 1947 the Prizren’s Cooperative of Furman was found, which merged other crafts like: (tabakxhinjte), midgutworkers and millworkers, which functioned until 1966.

The processing of leather, the cutting and sewing was done manually, whereas the tools were: the kallavar which was used for the corrosion of the leather to exhale the fat, the barrel for currying of the leather, where the leather dyed in the corn liquid for 15 days, bran and salt, which was mixed and the 1 meter spline, that was used to flatten the leather. The processed leather was cut with a sharp knife whiles the sewing was done with the special triangular needle with a doubled thread called izmir. Since the year 1935, the sewing machine called “The Singer”-USA. After the disintegration of the cooperative, the only master in town left was Aliriza Shpejti, who teamwise with his son brought innovation in the tools of work and production, perfecting the composition. In this way the kallavar-i was replaced with the special machine Singer and the sewing with the electromotive machine, a German manufacture 1980 firm called PA-FF The production takes the market sale of the time and corresponds the new clothing trend. Thus, jackets different lengths were produced, working gloves and mops bagana made from the lamb belly, which were used by the people of the time.

Time creations
Aliriza Shpejti

Color makers[edit]

(Albanian: Bojaxhinjtë (pronounced-bɔjadʒiɲtə)

With hand tools, they have colored the silk fibers, the cotton wool, the fabrics sewed for clothing and the household equipments.
With this craft, the family of Zija Dida with brothers and the family of Fehim Bojaxhiu worked and also developed the imported trade of color, the family of Jusuf Hoxha, respectively his son Hëzëri until 1941, whereas as far as 1959 Sylejman Gorali and his father worked with a rare finesse with locative bio colors, then the ones imported.
The last one had his shop under the destroyed coffee-tea shop, at the left side of the Lumbardh river.
Jusuf Hoxha worked at the Nallbant bazaar, whereas Zija Dida and Fehim Bojaxhiu had their shops in Arasta bazaar altogether with Abdullah Veliu, whose work inherited their sons Galip and Muharrem Hisari.

Woolmakers[edit]

Ending 23 operations with hand tools, they have developed the wool. They used the Šar sheep’s wool, with thin fibers not longer than 4 centimeters. Mainly the Šar, Prokletije and Sandžak sheep’s wool was used. Wools are different forms, mainly hemispherical. The ones done in Has are longer, the ones in Gorë, Lumë, Vrimë, Billushë, Hoçë, Vlashnë and Žur have a flattened top. Wools have usually white color, with special order are the red ones. With this craft, many Prizren citizens have worked, like the family of Muharrem Hala, Xhelal Shaqini, Reshad, Nexhat and Mithat Canhasi, and Lutvi Hallaqi.

The woolmakers work was continued by the Sadik N.'s family through his son Mahmut, by the headmaster Kapllan through his son Hajdar, who opened shops also in Shkodër, Tiranë and Đakovica. The family of Idriz Godani is considered the earliest that worked this craft, who was inherited to his sons Haki, Ymer and Ali and their sons Hadi, Halil and Jahja, who continued the craft in Tetovo. Jashar Gjurgjialo, while working this craft since his childhood, inherited it his sons Sami, Abdylkadri, Zylfikarit and Mugjail. Even though he worked in narrow provinces, he marked prosperity by supplying not only Kosova, but exporting in Ethiopia in 1964 round 20.000 wool across the prizrenian trader Sima Vasilević. His hierships, not only provide wool for the country needs but they also export special wool in USA. The activity of making wool has been perfected through time, now in replacement of the 23 hand operations, in the last year the final phase has been provided by advanced machines.

Threaders[edit]

(Albanian: Gajtanxhinjtë (pronounced-gajtandʒiɲtə)

Have twisted strips of glass from the fibers of silk, silver, or gold for the decoration of man and woman clothes. The threaders tools were mainly the twister and the threads that could be large or small with 8 to 24 scions. By the end of the 18th century, the tools that were made from wood, now were made from metal. The works of the threaders were raw material for the sewers, so the threaders work affected the sewers. The threaders worked with a lot of supplies, depending on the order in 4, 8, or 12 floors of twisted thread fiber, with adapted colorists or contrasts meeting the requirements of the time. From the threads they made stamps for vests and bundles for hats. Most of the threaders did the coloring of the material from silk and cotton, using many multi-colored mess tins. At first the natural colors were used, then the ones from the import. The most famous threader family was the one of Mustafa Kazazi (1823-1898) fromGjakova. This craft was practiced by his sons Rasim (1878-1958) and Qazim (1884-1968) and his girls Muqereme Hasli and Magbule Paçarizi, who still work. From this family many of Prizren’s sewers were supplied, especially the Jedrashi family. With the manufacture of threads worked the family of Tefik Rada, manufacturing 20 meters of silky thread with a manufacturing machine the year 1875. The other machines manufactured silver, gold and cotton thread. In this family the thread was manufactured only for the needs of the finalization of the threaders craft.

Abedin Skenderi

Sewers[edit]

Computerised machines
Golden Vest.

With their sensitive workmanship they built the ancient city, decorating the daily life and enriched the celebrations. With one needle, with large and twisted threads with red, blue, yellow or black cloth, they sewed forms of flowers, sheets of traditional motives of the ancient city of Prizren. In the many forms of art in clothing, that the sewers did, the most outstanding ones are: the gold and silver vest, doublet, long dresses, yellow vests, wavy vests, man’s overcoat and trousers.[7] The work of sewers meets the wishes and needs of the population according to the province. Therefore for ‘Opojën’ are created dimi jun-basma sewed with black or silver threads. For Lumën, from which Peshkopija and the countries of Vrima were supplied, there are created vests and bridehood doublets. For the Muslims of Župa of Prizren, are manufactured the vests with three stamps and black threads, silver vests with black threads. For the Gora, are manufactured silver doublet with thread forms with contrast colors even very tough ones like: yellow, black and white. The sewers had their shops at the Sewers-neighborhood, however they also had their shops at the Arasta bazaar, that evolved the shops under the bazaar bridge. In were the first sewer’s shops and the successors of Hamdi Sokoli. Sewers were also around the Gazi Mehmed pasha’s hamam and nearby the Arasta bazaar’s mosque, in the place where now the Social Accounting Society is located because it has been wrecked for the urban adjustment in 1961-62. After this destruction, the threaders withdrew at their homes and their activity almost died. With this craft, many families worked, like: the family of Hamdi Sokoli, Kadri, Abedin and Ismet Skenderi brothers, Rexhep Shasivari, who inherited the craft to his son Tefik Rada, whose work is still alive with the automatic machinery.

The sewer Hamzë Sali Jedrashi (1888-1939), had his shop in the circle of the Gazi Mehmet pasha’s hamam, where worked 19 workers.
The craft, he inherited from his father Saliu and submitted it to his sons Alixhaviti, Nehati and Salajdin Jedrashi.
This family did the intensive job of the sewers of the city, importing from the firms like: Hakim Freres and Han Zhaki of Sicily.[8]

Gjylsever Skenderi
silver doublet
Pillow cover

Silkers[edit]

(Albanian: Mëndafshpunuesit (pronounced-məndafʃpunuɛsit)
For the face at the time of the baptism

Where the widest craftsman in the extension of the city. With this craft, 70% of the workers were woman of the ancient city. From their childhood the woman started plotting braids on threads through 4 or more nails embedded at one side, while at the other side of the hole, they submitted the wanted product. In the second phase, they started ranking the pearls for the decoration of the shirts. In this way, on the top of the needle with a thread the product was created, without force and total concentration. In the early times, before the industry development, the whole population of the ancient city owned the productions of this home done craft, where the redundancies were exported in Asia, Africa and Europe.[9] The most wanted proceedings were the ones made from silk, cotton and wool. The Prizren citizens have early achieved their own manufacturing technology of the silk yarns. The most famous for this craft was the Akuçu family. Mikreme Akçiu's mother and grandmother cultivated silk layering the mulberry leaves and the silk worms on a special mulberry wood. After 10 days, the silk vesicles form Bembuxmori, which are fed with the mulberry leaves for 40 days. Then they were boiled, which extracted the silk fibers. The cotton fabrics were made the same way. According to the traditional and modern models, the created cloths with silk were: the silk fabrics, cradle and table coverings, the bride veil and sheets. The created creations were placed in the Kosovar markets and wider. They have imported wholesale silk, cotton and wool fibers and sold with retail the creators of the city. According to the century composition of the silk fibers and in the intention of the promotion of traditional manufacture, the white mulberry saplings are planted on the two sides of the road Prizren-Kukës, in the years 1935-36. According to this tradition, is established the silk plant Printeks of Prizren, year 1961. One of the most famous family is the one of Xhemile Akiçi (1802-1877). The tradition was inherited to her daughters, Bademe, Delir e Miremja up to their daughters Emine, Myzeqereme and the brides Hyrmete, Emsale, Mebusane and Nuraje.

Patternmakers[edit]

Patternmakers

The craft which appeared later in the ancient city, in 1941, when Javad Kuklibegu, fleeing from Skoplje because of the Bulgarian occupation, founded the workshop in the service areas of the primary school in Ralin, along with Idriz Ahmed Edge a the trader from Prizren. After two or three years of work, J. Kuklibegu returned to Skopje, while Idriz A.Buza continued working on top with the master Sarik. They practiced craft to Fahredin Zurnaxhiu (1927-1999), who continued the work at home with family members, even after the Second World War, by selling the products through the dealer Idriz Buza. This activity was further developed by his son Turhan, with intensity and cost efficiency. By Fahredini learned and continued the mastery his boys Idriz edge, Ymer and Nuri, while Mehmet-Metushi, and Ismet discontinued operations in 1988. In the period of 1941-45, as patternmakers worked temporarily the citizens Nuri Brina, Aqif Rexhepi and Zija Gjergjizi, and since 1957 with this deal craft also worked Rrystem Bakçini and Zyhdi Bardhi. Craft work tools of patternworkers are mostly hand tools. The shape for each color and template, is made from the craftsmen using the wood of the lime tree. Actions are developed on the table covered with blankets, while close by placed is the kasnak with the desired colors and the filçi, in which the template is dyed and then printed in tylbet laid on the table. Each color is printed separately and after being fully dried. To ensure the productivity some tables are set, while the drying is done with objects hanging in space for circulating air or under the sunshine. Black coloring requires a different process and special care. Main material is the cotton, previously imported from England, which rests on Degërmi-dimensions of 80x80 centimeters, and in them lie the colors by being pressed with templates. Colours are imported, but previously produced by plants, mixed with çitra, to be thickened. Works were created mainly for women: amarka and tasllëku for the head; namazbez-karakalem for older women and for the namaz praying; rastëkli mafesi for the sad wives and widows; hotoseshami for the head, with sharp colors and contrasts, for the Has region ; handkerchiefs for the bridehood cry for the Podrima region.

Silverworkers[edit]

The 'Sinan' pasha mosque

Are among the most famous masters of the ancient city, the guilders of whom the Ottoman resources of the 16th century have written.[10] Working with hand tools and shedding and shaping with the filigree technique objects of art from silver, gold, copper, amber and valuable stones, made the ancient city famous worldwide. The created creations, with casting or filigree are numerous. With casting are made the tobacco boxes, smoking ashtrays, rings, collars, earrings, stamps for shirt sleeves, jewelery for hair and forehead of women, big serving planes, water or wine glasses and cups. With the filigree technique, not only the processed objects with inflow were decorated, but many valuable metallic art works were created. The metal was crawled with the rotated indented cylinder with hand force in order to create the thin and long fibers, from which the thick dantella or lacra were made for the construction of the creation in process. The Silverworkers bazaar, where the Prizren’s silverworkers worked, due to the high value creations, it was recognized from the ancient times even out of the Balkan Peninsula.

New generations continued working this craft, adding new forms, according to the time and fashion. Mentioning Kolë and Ndua Preni. Deda Gjeçi, after whom continued the work Mila, Jaku and Engjëlli (who created the model of the sail ship weighing 2 kilograms). After the World War II, in Prizren was established the Cooperative of the silverworkers Filigran, where were hired many of the creators of this craft. The manufacturing started in the compact way, supporting on the hand work. The initiative of the establishment of this Cooperative started in 1946, while the work started on 1 of January 1947. The registration in the League of the Cooperative of Crafts in Belgrade was done on 13 of January 1947, on the name The Processing Cooperative of Silverworkers (with a limited guarantee) in Prizren. The participation for the establishment gave 81 headmasters of the silverworking, where the primary capital was 1.000 din. And in the second year it was 2.000 din. The first President of the Cooperative was Jak Mjeda, with the Secretary and Cashier Cin Mjeda. The service areas of the Cooperative were the Dimitrije Tucović street number 12, at the hotel Union. Later on the Cooperative was renamed Filigran – The Filigree Cooperative craft in Prizren. In the 1989, this Cooperative transformed into an enterprise for the manufacturing of jewelries from silver and gold. From the year of 1961, the service areas were located at the Mateja Gubec street. From 11 creators, the number raised to 81 participants the first year, and into 153 the third year. For the first time, the woman started working this craft. The compacted masters of the Cooperative, marked the culmination with the monumental creations with special values that were given to the statesman. On 21 May 1949, 7 headmasters and 3 assistants worked with outpouring and filigree one working table, that contented 15 kilograms of silver. Later the templates of the culture-historic monument Sinan Pasha mosque in Prizren was worked by the 3 headmasters and 2 assistants, pouring and working 2 kg of silver. This work was given to the President of Egypt, Gamal Abdel Naser, on the occasion of his visit to Belgrade and Sarajevo. A silver ornamental slope was worked by the master Ekrem Makazxhi-Pupa. In 1968 the relay of The 25 of May was done and at that year it was commenced from the Monumental Complex of Ladovica. This monument stayed at the 25 May in Belgrade until the year 1990 and then the monument’s destiny is not known. Unfavorable political and social conditions that ruled over the ancient city and the systematic tracking of Albanians caused massive population displacements, where the special registration for the displaced, the lost and the political asylees in the period 1912-1990 of the Association for the Return of displaced Albanians fromits land-Prizren branch, that is a very large number of the city creators families were forced to leave their hometown and to cease operations of their crafts. Unfortunately after the year 1989 and 1991, the state of creation and operation of the crafts was miserable, risking her disappearance. On these conditions the new generation of creators was formed, mentioning Faruk Shala, Shadi Kryeziu and Lon Bytyçi acting within the enterprise honor. As creators of the original creations distinguish: Ali Jetishi, Nexhmidin Pasuli, Blerim Shishko, Orhan Shala (1954) and Eshref Celina (1955), who founded the enterprise called Famipa. It creates silver belts, sets of jewelries for woman. They also worked the famous sailing ship called Santa Maria with all its details.

Silwerworkers
Silver jewelry
'Santa Maria'
Neruz
The League of Prizren Residence jewelry
The Ismail Qemail silver car
The silver crown

Tinners[edit]

Mostly with hand tools, they created the household, such as bins, haran, pot, gjygymë, kettle, fërtere, trays, sini, sahanë with lids, bowls for melting butter and xhevze. As a material they used copper, brass and lead, where tin was used to shine the objects. Vessels form created through the technique of metal casting or beating with iron or wooden hammer. Characterized by their creativity products, therefore the decoration of the surfaces aligned with petty carving different motives. In this creativity are distinguished older craftsmen families: Đorđe Filipović, the Jovan Patenković, Marko Lukić, Luka Tomić, Đorđe Jovanović, Krste Nedeljković-Laka, Petra Lakić and Banđel Bozdić, then in the penultimate generation families: Steve Tomić, Spasa Patenković and Sima Tomić, while today's generation, which does not work anymore, the families of: Vela Patenković, Života Vasilević and Vuk Stanković. Due to the established tradition and creative values, the tiners have their bazaar, located on the left side of the Arasta bazaar and at its end, which collapsed in 1962, giving its space to the construction of the hotel Theranda.Unfortunately, creativity in this craft is flickering due to the penetration of industrial products. Some families from generation of tiners still do repairs inherited objects, but behind them, this activity early in the ancient city will be completely extinguished.

Scissor workers[edit]

After the silverworkers, they were the most piquant creators of the ancient city, because they have shaped swords, sabers, knives and different weapons, decorating them with fibers of gold, silver and copper. They also produced containers for household, scissors, boxes for cigarettes, knives for cutting letter, jewelry and rings. These creations mentioned, are being exported to the markets of Europe and Asia, and are still wanted in tourism. Scissor workers, used hand tools, and machines using the hand and the foot. For the metal melting they used the fire in the chimney, then molding them in templates, to win the form and deep lines, molding in the melted gold or silver. Today, for this job, there are electro motives. The most vibrant creator in this section of crafts, was Ekrem Makazxhiu, who in the inherited shop from his grandfathers in the Silverworkers bazaar, worked this craft since 1775. He taught the craft his son Abdylkadri and he his sons: Ismet who migrated to Turkey, and Ekrem (1926-1986), who worked in the Silverworkers Cooperative Filigran. After his retirement, he taught the craft to Duran Pupa and Abdylkadri who still keep on working the craft with a huge intensity. This family, long time ago, used to produce metallic fingers for sewing with the thread.

Ismail Makasxhi

Knifeworkers[edit]

Were the early craftsman of the ancient city, whose work show the sources of the 16th century[11]
In the half of the 19th century, the weapon production decreased at the point where it just switched off. Their tools were the saw, lima, drill, hand sharpener, hammer etc. The fluids used for this craft were the horns of the ram, bull buffalo or deer and the iron bars and later on the steel ones. The finalized objects obtained by the casting, in order to be to be reinforced, they have been immersed into water or fat. The cover was worked by the knifeworkers according to their dedication, like: the abbreviation knife, the spoon knife, the shepherds knife, the watermelons knife, the pear knife, the straight knife, the kurban knife, the Shkodran knife, the decorated knife, the Skopje knife, one edged knife, two edged knife, and the sheep’s shear knife. Ali Shiliku has demonstrated his master in his unique creations, that are showcased at museums. At his old age, he still is working at his shop in front of Tarikat Halvet in Prizren with his old hand tools that gathered with his creations, they present the special value of the material culture of the ancient city. In March 1948, the Cooperative of the Knifeworkers was established. On the June month of that year, the number of the cooperatives increased to 29, on July 31, August 41 and on December of the same year the number arrived at 51 cooperatives. In the beginning, the Cooperative was located at the old shops of the Bazhdarhane, after that at the adapted shops in Jenimahall and lastly at the building built for military needs called Islahana where the Cooperative was registered as an enterprise for manufacturing the metals Famipa, to which now gather 3 crafts: the silverworkers, scissor workers and the knifeworkers, who continue the thousand Years tradition.

Ali Shiniku
Knifeworkers

Blacksmiths[edit]

Functional creations for house

The old masters of the city, with the technique of beating or spilling have manufactured agricultural and other craft’s tools like: the iron for ironing, forks, pallet, support for chimneys, supporting hella’s, retaining lamps, stamps for the decoration of the doors, chains, collar for herd dogs and iron fences. A large number of them, notably the round link chains, open or closed, then come the decorating stars for the house and shops doors and for the fences, that belong to the special values inherited of the treasured material culture of the city.
Because of the values and constant demands, blacksmiths have had their bazaars at seven sides of the ancient city: at the Sewers neighborhood, Tabakhane, and in Bazhdarhane. With this craft are many citizens who have inherited these from their ancestors, worked, such as: Musa Jusufi, Bajram Hamze, Abaz Hamze, Kurtesh Hallbaku, Osman Hallbaku, Rasim Ibrahimi, Ibrahim Bajrami, Ali Alibajra, Jashar Fetahu, Shaqir Ibrahimi, Hasan Limani, Muharrem Selimi and Ramadan Hasani, while the generation that inherited is: Abdullah Alibajra, Fahredin Halabaku, Isa Palicko, Mushmek Ademi, Kurtesh Dervishi, Ilijaz Selimi, Liman Hasani, Qemal Shaqiri, Nexhmidin Cukiqi and Minaq Limani.

It is a characteristic about this craft that all men of the house are involved, since their childhood, and there are plenty of serious work for each of them. It is important to mention that nowadays a lot of work is done with welding and sawing vehicles.

Ironed fences

Carpenters[edit]

Carpenters, who with their own hand tools sculpt objects for everyday use, in terms of original artistic developement they have created : crates for coins, boards for ranking and counting money, decorative triskelion tables, cradles, spike-ceilings, different furnitures, like closets, shelfs, doors and windows. From their fabrication handrails of the windows, roofs and crates are distinguished, where the mastery and the art of wood carving are mostly expressed. This creation of theirs was under the influence of Dibran school of wood carving, so a lot of Prizren houses, after spike-ceiling, started to apply cannonball-ceiling, by adapting in this direction even the other parts of the house. The city of Prizren was the most famous producer of guns in the Ballkans. There were a few special kinds of guns that Prizren produced, like celina, arnaurka etc.

Ramadan- Ramçe Rexhepllari

Leathermakers[edit]

From the leather they created: belts, narrow belts men, kollana cartridges decorated with metal clips for the tail and knees of the horse, English, German and French saddles, under different the mountain conditions. The chains for the legs done by the blacksmiths or later fabricated, had different forms. They also made horse bells, that had two different meanings: one was that it was used as a signal to warn the pedestrians to leave room for the carriage and for safety of the surprised intimidation of the passing by horse. The eyelids of the horse were decorated with medaled vertebrae for its orientation. The Saraç’s have existed thousand years ago with the ever changing creations. At the middle of the 18th century, the most famous creator was Riza Begu. At 1818 Ahmet Hashim abandoned his mill in Leban of the Leskovc and checked into Prizren, serving as a jail guard at the Prizren Castle(1838), where the cavalry of the Ottoman army was located. His son Bajram was taught the craft. He started making original forms, importing the army innovative forms of the house devices. The tradition is being continued by his son Ali Baba, who still saves with pride 4 metal objects, that are his grandfathers Ahmet who took them at the critical moment of the abundance of the house in Lebanon. These objects are: one gjygym (17x10 centimeters), one sahan (14x12 centimeters), one tas-çorbë (16x14 centimeters) and a cooper ashtray.

Ramadan Shala

Pottery makers[edit]

This craft is supposed to be the eldest craft at the ancient city of Prizren.[12] From the 19th century at the old space at the ancient city, there were only a few bulber shops at the Bazhdarhane neighborhood, at the north-east part of the city. With this craft was the Babaroga family coming from Peć and family Furjanović from Gnjilane. As the first ones extinguished the work at 1962, they still work at the small store. The headmaster of the Furjanoviq family was handy to create even prehistoric Ilyrian cups. He died at 1984 but the tradition was followed by his son. The main tool used for this craft was the flintlock of the bulb who brought down the plate of wood on which the pastry moving soil (clay) was manually shaped. One of the most characteristic products of this craft were the acoustic pipes, that were hanged onto the mosques dome’s wall.[13] The existence of these is proven to be at the Sinan Pasha Mosque (Prizren)’s Mosque. The acoustic pipes are listed at a regulated rank and are tall 27,5 centimeters, at the middle they are wide 15 centimeters and at the edges 10,5 centimeters. One side is open while the other one is closed, but there is also a hole at the middle from 3-4 centimeters, that was put at the dome space. The smaller pipes with the dimensions 15x11 centimeters, were hanged at homes.

Pillowers[edit]

They made pillow coverings mostly filled with wool or cotton. Above these coverings placed on were the selected fabrics mainly by sateen embroidered with gold or silver threads. The most famous pillows were the white blinkers jajgi, decorated at the edges with threads tentene. These were put at the corners of the room with a pure perfection. According to the old Prizrena’s heritage, a real care was put into the blinker adjustment, because the mirror of the civilization lied at that a prizrenas home. He had to fascinate the visitor at his first contact by this. In order the pillows to be flat, before the ironing they were water dropped or at winter snow casted. The work of the pillowers has not been interrupted, today they are orientated into the production of the object for the Oda’s, for the village needs, and their craft is mixed with the one of the quilters. With this craft before worked Hëzër Cufi with 5-7 assistants. According to the inheritance and the necessity of the time of creation, the seating of the armchair craft was established. Many masters work in this direction, but the most famous one is the threader Sefedin Kazazi.

Photographers[edit]

Of the ancient city, with photo-machines and reproduction machines transmitted into the photo letter the individual figures, groups and families, and the old motives of the ancient city. The earliest photography’s with the city motives were made by foreign masters. The photographer Spiridon Grančević who photographed the Castle of Prizren[disambiguation needed], and the mountain of Cylen before the latest burn at 1913. The other photography was done by an unknown Austrian author published on 1914 at one of the newspapers of Vienna, where the city was reported as to be occupied by the Austrian-Hungarian. The newspaper was brought to Prizren at 1975, and the reproduction of the photography was done through Ymer Turtulla. One photography of special interest is the one with the nine cuffed Kabashi Albanians. Another photography was done by Sibidin Todorović, done at the day the Serbian Army invaded to annex that region that was part of the Ottoman Empire. The motives of the 1914-15 of Prizren, Peć and Đakovica are saved as several glass negatives, today located at the Popular Museum of Belgrade. The early creation of the masters of photography was expressed through the angle of the photography, the pose, the lighting of the facility to be photographed. Then with extra care, was the re-tushing of the negative done and the letter was chosen. According to the recipient, the photography was decorated with the flowers. At the second phase of this craft, was the colorization. At first the colorization of the photographies was done at the photo letter, not at the negative, and then every dot was colored with special colors. At the beginning the coloring was done with the exaggerated photographies, and then with the four postals template one (9x12 centimeters). The first photographers in the ancient city at 1920-1925, were Sherif and Raif Koro brothers. This is a proven fact according to the document released by the prefect of the Šar circle, number 12484 on 11 October 1933[14] The ancient city has many photographer’s now, but the most famous ones are: Asaf Nurkollari (“Šar”), Selim Meca (“Meca”), Bashkim Qakallari (“Star”), Agron Raifi (“Agron”), Naxhi Bylygbasha.

Artists[edit]

The early figures that were painted were the fields that prove the oldness of the figurative art, from the prehistory of the 2nd-3rd century, after whom pass the figured coins, mural pictures, olio pictures, graphs and drawings. The earliest painting saved at the ancient city is The lady with the Christ of the 12th century, painted after the phase IV of the constructions of Bazilika of the Saint Premtes church.[15] The copy of this painting is exposed to several exhibitions in Paris, Vienna, Budapest and Prague. One of the eldest pictures with the Prizren’s man figure was the portrait of Nikollë Ndou, done before 1910 and has the signature Trupe of an unidentified author, that is supposed to be Austrian. In 1914, a Bulgar soldier-painter whose name is not known, created the portrait of the citizen Xeladin Vlana from the family of Abdyl Kazazi. The portrait was located at the Shefki Kazazi’s house, but it was then burned. At the period of 1928-1930, the Beograd painter Luba Ivanoviq created several series of drawings. At the period of 1941-1945 in Prizren, lived and toughed at the High school Gjon Buzuku, Rrok Zojzi, later an ethnolog, who created many olio paintings and drawings of the movies of Prizren. In the year 1942, the famous Albanian sculpturist Odhise Paskali (1903-1985) created the monument of Abdyl Frashëri from 19 kilograms weight and dimensions of 99x33x29 centimeters. Around the year 1941, the painting talent was brought by the Prizren’s Bajram Sokoli (1921), creating his most famous motives like: The city with snow, olio. In 1952, he created the picture called: The Panorama of the Ancient city of Prizren(olio, 45x70 centimeters). One other famous Prizrenian painter is Matej Rodiqi (1929), whose creations provided him immortality.
He is the winner of the prize The silver medal for the postage stamps of Buenos Aires (1961). The other famous Prizrenian painter is Simon Shiroka (1927-1994), whose creations identify with the craft of silverworking. The most famous artists are: Enver Krasniqi (1923-1984), Hyda Leskovçani (1924-1980), Hamdi Bardhi (1932-), Tahsim Shehu (1938-1995), Rexhep Vërmica and Dashnor Uka. The first institution with the specialized theme in Kosovo is the Galery of the Figurative Arts of the League of Prizren, 1975. The most piquant creator of caricature is Ramadan Zaplluzha with 3.000 published caricatures and 200 of them not.

Creation in process
Compositions in vase.

Watchmakers[edit]

(Albanian: Orëpunuesit (pronounced-ɔɾəpunuɛsit)

The history and tradition of Sahatçiu family as watchmakers begins around 1850, when Mehmet Kazazi opens his watchmaker shop in the city of Peja and changed his surname from Kazazi to Sahatçiu. This change results from the Ottoman which rules in these regions and surnames are often given based on practiced craft. Hence, the surname is made from the word "Saatci" which means "Watchmaker". The skill of repairing clocks and watches Mehmet(Kazazi)Sahatçiu gave to his sons Selim and Adem and then from one generation to another until present day. One of the Adem successors Xhavit Sahatciu, in 1960 moved from Peja to Prishtina where he opens his shop "ANKER", first at the old Qarshia of Prishtina, near the Divanjoll, behind the former Main Post Office, and then from 1964 until the present day in the main street of Prishtina, Mother Theresa boulevard. During 1960s many of the craftsmen had emigrated from Kosovo Pristina to Turkey. Some watchmakers from Prishtina, lured by promises and propaganda for a better life fled to Turkey. Only a few watchmaker stores remained in Prishtina among them: Qehaja family, Panduklu, Vëzdëk, Karakushevic among others. Opening the master watchmaker's shop in Pristina Xhavit Sahatciu brought a new spirit and an advanced expertise in this noble craft thanks to new experiences that he made during his study visits in Croatia, Italy and Switzerland. His shop becomes a modern repair center for prestigious world watches and clocks. Master Xhavit passed away in the year 2000 leaving behind his prestigious shop and his descendants continued this respected tradition of master watchmakers. -Perhaps the oldest family tradition in watch and clock repair and retail in Kosova, five generation of Sahatçiu family. Sahatçiu watchmakers passionately repairs and sells wide range of clocks and watches including the "Haute Couture" ones.

References[edit]

  1. ^ E.Haskuka, v.c, 120-144
  2. ^ A.Gërguri, ‘Conservation and restoration of mural paintings Sofi Sinan Pasha Mosque in Prizren, Kosovo Antiquities’, 1987, 87-91
  3. ^ E. Haskuka,” Village cadastral parcels of Gërnçar”, 1952-1956, v.c., 123-126
  4. ^ E. Haskuka, v.c., 123-126
  5. ^ E.Haskuka, v.c., 131
  6. ^ E.Haskuka, v.c., 105
  7. ^ E. Haskuka v.c., 185
  8. ^ matrapazi Hajredin Vullkani
  9. ^ Ha.Kaleshi, Notes from the past of Prizren during the Turkish period, The progress, 7-8, Pristina 1961, 506
  10. ^ H.Kaleshi, v.c., 505
  11. ^ H. Kaleshi, v.c., 505
  12. ^ E. Haskuka, v.c., 134; E.Shukriu, Dardania paraurbane, “Dukagjini”, Peć 1996, 106
  13. ^ A. Gërguri, Konservimi dhe restaurimi i pictures murale në Xhaminë e Sofi Sinan-pashës në Prizren, Antikitetet e Kosovës, Pristina 1987, 91
  14. ^ Ngastra kadastrale 3400, sipas regjistrimit të vitit 1953
  15. ^ E. Shukriu, Kisha e Shën Premtes në Prizren, Buletini i Fakultetit Filozofik XXI, Prishtinë 1993, 96

Literature[edit]

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  • H. Kaleshi-H. Jurgen Korurumpi, Prizrenski vilajet, Përparimi, f.97.
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