Credo Reference

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For the Wikipedia partnership with Credo, see Wikipedia:Credo accounts.
For other uses of "Credo", see Credo (disambiguation).
Type Private
Industry Reference/Database services
Headquarters 201 South Street, 4th Floor
Boston, Massachusetts, United States
Key people Chief Executive Officer: Mike Sweet
Products Credo General Reference
Credo Publisher Collections

Credo Reference or Credo (formerly Xrefer) is a company that offers online reference content by subscription and partners with libraries to develop information-literacy programs or produce library marketing plans and materials [1]. Founded in 1999, Credo Reference provides full-text online versions of about 1200 published reference works from more than 70 publishers in a variety of major subjects.[2] These include general and subject dictionaries as well as encyclopedias.[3] The company's customers are libraries, which subscribe to the service for their patrons' use.

In 2010, a review of general reference sources by Library Journal focused on Credo Reference and three similar services.[4] The review noted Credo Reference’s internal linking within the site from one reference work to another.


The company was founded as Xrefer in 1999. Xrefer initially provided free access to several dozen reference works.[5] The "xrefer plus" subscription service was launched in 2002, offering an expanded collection of reference materials. The freexrefer site was discontinued in June 2003.[6][7][8] The name Credo Reference was adopted in June 2007; the company also moved its England office from London to Oxford in that year.


  1. ^ Swoger, Bonnie. eReviews: Literati by Credo. Library Journal. 2012-05-15. Accessed: 2014-11-10.
  2. ^ Brynko, Barbara. Sweet: The Rise of Credo Reference. Information Today. 2011-06-16. Accessed: 2011-06-16. (Archived by WebCite at )
  3. ^ Jack O'Gorman (2008), Reference sources for small and medium-sized libraries (7th ed.), p. 11, ISBN 978-0-8389-0943-0 
  4. ^ Golderman, Gail; Connolly, Bruce. eReviews: General Reference Sources and Short Takes. 2011-06-15. Accessed: 2011-06-15. (Archived by WebCite® at )
  5. ^ Xrefer's front page as of August 17, 2000, via
  6. ^ "Free xrefer to Shut Down". Search Engine Showdown. May 19, 2003. 
  7. ^ "Archive as of February 4, 2003". 2003-02-04. Retrieved 2012-07-12. 
  8. ^ "Archive as of June 21, 2003". 2003-06-21. Retrieved 2012-07-12. 

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