Crepidotus

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Crepidotus
Crepidotus spec. - Lindsey 4b.jpg
Crepidotus variabilis
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Fungi
Division: Basidiomycota
Class: Basidiomycetes
Order: Agaricales
Family: Crepidotaceae
Genus: Crepidotus
(Fr.) Staude
Type species
Crepidotus mollus
(Schaeff.) Staude
Synonyms[2]

1879 Phialocybe P.Karst.
1886 Calathinus Quél.
1887 Dochmiopus Pat.
1889 Octojuga Fayod
1889 Pleurotellus Fayod
1903 Tremellopsis Pat.
1909 Tremellastrum Clem.
1959 Pellidiscus Donk[1]

Crepidotus is a genus of fungi in the family Crepidotaceae. Species of Crepidotus all have small, convex to fan-shaped sessile caps and grow on wood or plant debris. The genus has been studied extensively, and monographs of the North American,[3] European[4][5] and Neotropical[6] species have been published.

Crepidotus means cracked ear.[7]

Description[edit]

Members of this genus are small, convex to fan-shaped, and sessile. Species have cheilocystidia[8] Spore prints are yellow-brown to brown. All species of Crepidotus are known to be secondary decomposers of plant matter; most are saprobic on wood. Little is known about the ebility of various species; the usually small and insubstantial specimens discourage mycophagy.

Taxonomy[edit]

Elias Magnus Fries first circumscribed Crepidotus in 1821 as a tribe in the genus Agaricus,[9] although he later (1836–1838) revised his concept.[10] In 1857, Staude elevated Tribus Crepidotus to a genus, with Agaricus mollis (Schaeff) as the type species.[11] Early descriptions of the genus contained between six and forty-six species, depending on the author.[12][13][14][15][16][17][18]

In 1947, Rolf Singer wrote a monograph about the genus, and unlike prior treatments, used microscopic characters to help delineate infrageneric (i.e., below genus-level classification) relationships.[19] Based on his revisions, the genus included 30 species. Soon after, Pilát (1950) extended Singer's monograph, including additional species to bring the total species to 75.[20] However, many of his Crepidotus taxa would later be transferred to other genera. Currently, approximately 150 species are widely accepted,[8][21] although many more have been described.

Phylogeny[edit]

Modern phylogenetic analysis using sequencing data from the 28S rRNA gene region shows that Crepidotus is monophyletic, and that Singer's original concept for the genus may be too narrowly defined.[22] This research showed that a natural evolutionary lineage results if some Pleurotellus species and several taxa formerly aligned with Melanomphalia are included in the generic description.

Distribution[edit]

Crepidotus species are cosmopolitan in distribution, and are well-documented from the Northern temperate[23][24][25] and South American regions.[26][27]

Species list[edit]

Historically, many species of Crepidotus have been described due to differences in single morphological character traits. Phylogenetic analysis is showing that these morphological differences are often due to phenotypic plasticity — species may adapt to different environments by assuming variations in growth forms. Recent taxonomic revisions have shown that several species formerly considered unique are conspecific.[28][29][30] Further study is required to more accurately delineate infrageneric relationships in this taxa.

  • Crepidotus alabamensis
  • Crepidotus albescens
  • Crepidotus antillarum
  • Crepidotus appalachianensis
  • Crepidotus applanatus - "Flat crep"
  • Crepidotus aureus
  • Crepidotus autochthonus
  • Crepidotus betulae
  • Crepidotus brunnescens
  • Crepidotus brunswickianus
  • Crepidotus calolepis
  • Crepidotus carpaticus
  • Crepidotus caspari var. subglobisporus[31]
  • Crepidotus cesatii
  • Crepidotus cinnabarinus
  • Crepidotus cristatus[32]
  • Crepidotus croceitinctus
  • Crepidotus crocophyllus
  • Crepidotus distortus
  • Crepidotus epibryus
  • Crepidotus eucalyptinus[31]
  • Crepidotus fragilis
  • Crepidotus fraxinicola
  • Crepidotus fusisporus
  • Crepidotus inhonestus
  • Crepidotus latifolius
  • Crepidotus longicomatus[33]
  • Crepidotus lundellii
  • Crepidotus luteolus
  • Crepidotus macedonicus[34]
  • Crepidotus malachius
  • Crepidotus martini
  • Crepidotus melleus
  • Crepidotus mollis - "Soft Crepidotus" or "Soft slipper toadstool"
  • Crepidotus muscigenus
  • Crepidotus nephrodes
  • Crepidotus nyssicola
  • Crepidotus occidentalis
  • Crepidotus palmarum
  • Crepidotus podocarpi
  • Crepidotus rubrovinosus[35]
  • Crepidotus septicoides
  • Crepidotus sinuosus
  • Crepidotus sphaerosporus
  • Crepidotus subaffinis
  • Crepidotus submollis
  • Crepidotus stenocystis[31]
  • Crepidotus thermophilus[36]
  • Crepidotus subverrucisporus
  • Crepidotus uber
  • Crepidotus variabilis
  • Crepidotus versutus - "Evasive agaric"
  • Crepidotus virgineus[33]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Petersen G, Knudsen H, Seberg O. (2010). "Alignment, clade robustness and fungal phylogenetics—Crepidotaceae and sister families revisited". Cladistics 26 (1): 62–71. doi:10.1111/j.1096-0031.2009.00279.x. 
  2. ^ "Crepidotus (Fr.) Staude 1857". MycoBank. International Mycological Association. Retrieved 2010-12-17. 
  3. ^ Hesler LR, Smith AH. (1965). North American Species of Crepidotus. Hafner Publishing Company, NY. 168 pp.
  4. ^ Nordstein S. (1990). The Genus Crepidotus (Basidiomycotina, Agaricales) in Norway. Synopsis Fungorum, Norway. 115 pp.
  5. ^ Senn-Irlet B. 1994. Systematisch-taxonomische Studien in der Mykologie: Die Gattung Crepidotus (Agaricales, Basidiomycetes). Ph.D. Dissertation, Universität Lausanne, Switzerland. 267 pp.
  6. ^ Singer R. (1973). Monograph of the neotropical species of Crepidotus. Beihefte Nova Hedwigia 44: 241–484.
  7. ^ Crepidotus crocophyllus, the orange crep
  8. ^ a b Singer, Rolf (1986). The Agaricales in modern taxonomy. Koenigstein: Koeltz Scientific Books. ISBN 3-87429-254-1. 
  9. ^ Fries E. (1821). Systema Mycologicum. Vol. 1. Reprint 1952, Johnson Reprint Corp. 520 pp.
  10. ^ Fries E. (1836-1838). Epicrisis Systematis Mycologici, Synopsis Hymenomycetum. Reprint 1989, Shiva Offset Press, India. 610 pp.
  11. ^ Staude F. (1857). Die Schwéamme Mitteldeutschlands, Insbesondere des Herzogthums Coburg. Coburg, Germany.
  12. ^ Peck CH. (1886). New York species of Pleurotus, Claudopus, and Crepidotus. Annual Report of the Trustees of the State Museum of Natural History 39: 58-73.
  13. ^ Quélet L. (1888). Flore Mycologique de la France. Reprint 1962, A. Asher and Co., Amsterdam. 492 pp.
  14. ^ Murrill WA. (1913). The Agaricaceae of tropical North America—VI. Mycologia 5: 18-36.
  15. ^ Murrill WA. (1917). Crepidotus (Fries) Quél. North American Flora 10: 148-158.
  16. ^ Kauffman CH. (1918). The Agaricaceae of Michigan, Vol. I. Wynkoop Hallenbeck Crawford Co., State Printers, Lansing, MI. 924 pp.
  17. ^ Imai S. (1938). Studies on the Agaricaceae of Hokkaido II. Journal of the Faculty of Agriculture Hokkaido Imperial University 43: 238-243.
  18. ^ Lange JE. (1938). Studies in the agarics of Denmark XII. Dansk Botanisk Arkiv. 9: 50-53.
  19. ^ Singer R. (1947). Contributions toward a monograph of the genus “Crepidotus”. Lilloa 13: 59- 95.
  20. ^ Pilát, A. (1950). Revision of the types of some extra-European species of the genus Crepidotus Fr. Transactions of the British Mycological Society 33: 215–249.
  21. ^ Bisby, Guy Richard; Ainsworth, G. C.; Kirk, P. M.; Aptroot, André (2001). Ainsworth & Bisby's Dictionary of the fungi / by P. M. Kirk... [et al.]; with the assistance of A. Aptroot... [et al.] Oxon: CAB International. ISBN 0-85199-377-X. 
  22. ^ Aime C. (2001). Biosystematic studies in Crepidotus and the Crepidotaceae (Basidiomycetes, Agaricales). Ph.D. dissertation, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia. 194 pp.
  23. ^ Watling R, Gregory NM. (1989). British Fungus Flora: Agarics and Boleti 6/Crepidotaceae, Pleurotaceae and other Pleurotoid agarics. Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh. 157 pp.
  24. ^ Senn-Irlet B. (1995). The genus Crepidotus in Europe. Persoonia 16: 1-80.
  25. ^ Stangl J, Krieglsteiner GJ, Enderle M. (1991). Die gattung Crepidotus (Fries) Staude 1987 in Deutschland unter besonderer berücksichtigung augsburger funde. Zeitschrift für Mykologie 57: 117-148.
  26. ^ Singer R, Moser M. (1965). Forest mycology and forest communities in South America. I. The early fall aspect of the mycoflora of the Cordillera Pelada (Chile), with a mycogeographic analysis and conclusions regarding the heterogeneity of the Valdivian Floral district. Mycopathology et Mycologia Applicata 26:129-191.
  27. ^ Senn-Irlet B, and de Meijer AAR. (1998). The genus Crepidotus from the state of Paraná, Brazil. Mycotaxon 66: 165-199.
  28. ^ Bandala VM, Montoya L. (2000). A taxonomic revision of some American Crepidotus. Mycologia 92(2): 341-353.
  29. ^ Ripkova S, Aime MC. (2005). Crepidotus crocophyllus includes C. nephrodes. Mycotaxon 91: 397-403.
  30. ^ Bandala VM, Montoya L. (2008). Type studies in the genus Crepidotus. Mycotaxon 103: 235-254.
  31. ^ a b c Poudzar Z. (2005). Notes on some European species of the genus Crepidotus (Agaricales). Czech Mycology 57(3-4): 299-305.
  32. ^ Senn-Irlet B, Immerzeel G. (2003). Crepidotus cristatus, a new yellow species from the Netherlands. Persoonia 18(2): 231-237.
  33. ^ a b Takahashi H. (2003). New species of Clitocybe and Crepidotus (Agaricales) from eastern Honshu, Japan. Mycoscience 44(2): 103-107.
  34. ^ Ripkova S. (2002). Crepidotus macedonicus, a new species for Central Europe. Mycotaxon 84: 111-118.
  35. ^ Bandala VM, Montoya L, Horak E. (2006). Crepidotus rubrovinosus sp nov and Crepidotus septicoides, found in the cloud forest of eastern Mexico, with notes on Crepidotus fusisporus var. longicystis. Mycologia 98(1): 131-140.
  36. ^ Aime MC, Baroni TJ, Miller OK Jr. (2002). Crepidotus thermophilus comb. nov., a reassessment of Melanomphalia thermophila, a rarely collected tropical agaric. Mycologia 94(6): 1059-1065.

External links[edit]