Crime in Venezuela

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Murder rate (1 murder per 100,000 citizens) from 1998 to 2013. Source: Observatorio Venezolano de Violencia

Venezuela is one of the most violent countries on Earth.[1][2] In Venezuela, a person is murdered every 21 minutes.[3] Crimes have been so prevalent in Venezuela that the government no longer produces crime data.[4] Class tension has long been a part of life in the South American country, where armed robberies, carjackings and kidnappings are frequent. In 2013, the homicide rate was approximately 79 per 100,000, one of the world’s highest, having quadrupled in the past 15 years with over 200,000 murdered.[5] The capital Caracas has one of the greatest homicide rates of any large city in the world, with 122 homicides per 100,000 residents.[6] In 2008, polls indicated that crime was the number one concern of voters.[7] Venezuela has also been called "a source, transit, and destination country for men, women, and children subjected to sex trafficking and forced labor".[8] Crime rates are higher in 'barrios' or 'ranchos' (slum areas) after dark. Petty crime such as pick-pocketing is prevalent, particularly on public transport in Caracas. As a result of the high levels of crime, Venezuelans were forced to change their ways of life due to the large insecurities they continuously experienced.[9]

In 2009 the Venezuelan government created a security force called the Bolivarian National Police, which Hugo Chávez said that it "has succeeded in reducing homicides in at least one violent area of Caracas", and also created a new Experimental Security University. However, human rights groups still say the effort by the government was too "timid" and that police commit a portion of the crimes as well.[10][11] Plan Patria Segura, which was initiated by President Maduro to reduce crime, has also been criticized since there has been no changes in crime reported nearly a year after the introduction of the plan.[12]

Drug trade[edit]

Further information: Illegal drug trade in Venezuela

Venezuela is a significant route for drug trafficking, with Colombian cocaine and other drugs transiting Venezuela towards the United States and Europe. Venezuela ranks fourth in the world for cocaine seizures, behind Colombia, the United States, and Panama.[13]

Senior Venezuelan government officials have been known to associate with the narcotic terrorist organization FARC and "armed, abetted, and funded the FARC, even as it terrorized and kidnapped innocents".[14] In 2007, authorities in Colombia claimed that through laptops they had seized, they found that Hugo Chávez allegedly made payments of as much as $300 million USD to the FARC.[15]

There have been several incidents involving drugs being trafficked from Venezuela with supposed aid from corrupt officials. In September 2013, an incident involving men from the Venezuelan National Guard placing 31 suitcases containing 1.3 tons of cocaine on a Paris flight astonished French authorities.[16] According to former Venezuelan Supreme Court Justice Eladio Aponte, he was forced to acquit an army commander who had connections with a 2 metric ton shipment of cocaine. Aponte also claimed that Henry Rangel, former defense minister of Venezuela and General Clíver Alcalá Cordones were both involved with the drug trade in Venezuela.[16] Venezuelan officials have also been allegedly working with Mexican drug cartels.[16]

On 15 February 2014, a commander for the Venezuelan National Guard was stopped while driving to Valencia with his family and was arrested for having 554 kilos of cocaine in his possession.[17]

Murder rate[edit]

In Venezuela, a person is murdered every 21 minutes.[3] In 2013, the homicide rate was approximately 79 per 100,000, one of the world’s highest, having quadrupled in the past 15 years with over 200,000 murdered.[5] The country's body count of the previous decade mimics that of the Iraq War and in some instances had more civilian deaths even though the country is at peacetime.[18] The capital Caracas has one of the greatest homicide rates of any large city in the world, with 122 homicides per 100,000 residents.[6]

Corruption[edit]

Further information: Corruption in Venezuela

Corruption in Venezuela is high by world standards, and was so for much of the 20th century. The discovery of oil had worsened political corruption,[19] and by the late 1970s, Juan Pablo Pérez Alfonso's description of oil as "the Devil's excrement" had become a common expression in Venezuela.[20] Venezuela has been ranked one of the most corrupt countries on the Corruption Perceptions Index since the survey started in 1995. The 2010 ranking placed Venezuela at number 164, out of 178 ranked countries.[21]

According to some sources Venezuela's corruption includes widespread corruption in the police force.[22] Many victims are afraid to report crimes to the police because many officers are involved with criminals and may bring even more harm to the victims.[23] Human Rights Watch claims that the "police commit one of every five crimes" and that thousands of people have been killed by police officers acting with impunity (only 3% of officers have been charged in cases against them).[11] The Metropolitan Police force in Caracas was so corrupt that it was disbanded and were even accused of assisting some of the 17,000 kidnappings.[24] Medium says that the Venezuelan police are "seen as brutal and corrupt more likely to rob you than help".[25]

Human trafficking[edit]

According to the Trafficking in Persons Report 2014 by the State Department of the United States, "Venezuela is a source, transit, and destination country for men, women, and children subjected to sex trafficking and forced labor". The State Department also states that the "Government of Venezuela does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking" explaining that Venezuelan authorities trained government officials about trafficking, but the Venezuelan government "did not publicly document progress on prosecutions and convictions of trafficking offenders or on victim identification and assistance". Due to the Venezuelan government not complying to the standards of stopping human trafficking, the State Department placed Venezuelan on its "black list" as a Tier 3 country, which opened the possibility of Venezuela facing sanctions.[8][26][27]

Foreign Visitors[edit]

Venezuela is especially dangerous toward foreign travelers and investors who are visiting. This is due to Venezuela's economic problems. The United States State Department and Government of Canada has warned foreign visitors that they may be subjected to robbery, kidnapping for a ransom or sale to terrorist organizations and murder, and that their own diplomatic travelers are required to travel in armored vehicles.[28][29] The United Kingdom's Foreign and Commonwealth Office has advised against all travel to Venezuela.[30] Most visitors have been murdered during robberies and criminals do not discriminate against their victims. Recently, former Miss Venezuela 2004 winner Monica Spear and her husband were murdered with her 5 year old daughter being shot while visiting, and an elderly German tourist was murdered only a few weeks later.[31][32]

Crime Prevention[edit]

"Plan Patria Segura"[edit]

On 13 May 2013, President Nicolas Maduro initiated Plan Patria Segura saying "we have decided to fight to build a secure homeland".[33] The plan included the placement of 37,000 authorities throughout the country. The goal of Plan Patria Segura to disarm, prevent organized crime and drug enforcement. The methods of accomplishing these tasks were through surveillance, checking documents, verification checkpoints and to help guide communities.[34]

In 2014, a year after the plan was initiated, no changes in crime had been reported since murder rates throughout the country remained the same.[12]

Prisons[edit]

In the World Report 2014 by Human Rights Watch, the organization stated that "Venezuelan prisons are among the most violent in Latin America". They explained that "Weak security, deteriorating infrastructure, overcrowding, insufficient and poorly trained guards, and corruption allow armed gangs to effectively control prisons". They also mentioned that hundred of violent deaths occur at Venezuelan prisons each year.[35]

Lack of state authority[edit]

In Venezuelan prisons, there are reports of prisoners having easy access to firearms, drugs and alcohol. Carlos Nieto, head of Window to Freedom, alleges that heads of gangs acquire military weapons from the state saying, “They have the types of weapons that can only be obtained by the country’s armed forces. ... No one else has these.” Use of internet and mobile phones are also a commonplace where criminals can take part in street crime while in prison. One prisoner explained how, “If the guards mess with us, we shoot them” and that he had "seen a man have his head cut off and people play football with it.”[36]

Edgardo Lander, a sociologist and professor at the Central University of Venezuela with a PhD in sociology from Harvard University explained that Venezuelan prisons are "practically a school for criminals" since young inmates come out "more sort of trained and hardened than when they went in". He also explained that prison are controlled by gangs and that "very little has been done" to control them.[37]

"El Coliseo"[edit]

In Venezuelan prisons, inmates partake in gladiatorial matches to settle disputes. In 2011, the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights of the Organization of American States denounced the practice of "The Coliseum" saying "The Commission reiterates to the State the need to take immediate and effective steps to prevent such incidents from happening again" after 2 inmates died and 54 more were injured from these practices.[38]

However a year later, one "Coliseum" in Uribana left 2 dead and 128 injured. Those injured had to be assisted by a church in the area.[39][40]

Overcrowded facilities[edit]

Venezuelan rights groups report that the 34 prisons in Venezuela hold 50,000 people but are only supposed to hold about one-third of that. In 2012, La Planta, a prison built in 1964 with a capacity of 350 inmates, held almost 2,500 inmates with most armed with heavy weapons.[41]

See also[edit]

General:

Bibliography[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Venezuela, one of the most violent countries in the world". El Universal. 
  2. ^ "Venezuela: the most dangerous place on earth?". Channel 4. 
  3. ^ a b Castillo, Mariano (9 January 2014). "Beauty queen's killers nabbed, Venezuela says". CNN. Retrieved 10 January 2014. 
  4. ^ Gallegos, Raul (10 January 2014). "Miss Venezuela's Murder Is the Price of Politics". Bloomberg. Retrieved 10 January 2014. 
  5. ^ a b Rueda, Manuel. "How Did Venezuela Become So Violent?". Fusion. Retrieved 10 January 2014. 
  6. ^ a b "Venezuela Country Specific Information". United States Department of State. Retrieved 10 January 2014. 
  7. ^ "Crime threatens Chavez vote in Venezuela slums | Reuters". Uk.reuters.com. 14 November 2008. Retrieved 25 April 2010. 
  8. ^ a b Trafficking in Persons Report 2014. United States Department of State. 20 June 2014. pp. 407–408. Retrieved 21 June 2014. 
  9. ^ "Insecurity has changed the way of life". El Tiempo. 27 April 2014. Retrieved 27 April 2014. 
  10. ^ Romero, Simon (22 August 2010). "Venezuela, More Deadly Than Iraq, Wonders Why". The New York Times. Retrieved 18 April 2014. 
  11. ^ a b "World Report 2012: Venezuela". Report. Human Rights Watch. Retrieved 18 March 2014. 
  12. ^ a b Ventura, Marcel (14 April 2014). "Venezuela’s Agony: Weak President, Strong Generals, Riots and Cocaine". The Daily Beast. Retrieved 20 April 2014. 
  13. ^ World Drug Report 2010 Statistical Annex: Drug seizures. United Nations. 2010. Retrieved 22 June 2014. 
  14. ^ "Treasury Targets Venezuelan Government Officials Supporting the FARC". Press Release. United States Department of Treasury. Retrieved 5 March 2014. 
  15. ^ Padgett, Tim (3 September 2008). "Chávez and the Cash-Filled Suitcase". TIME. Retrieved 18 March 2014. 
  16. ^ a b c Meza, Alfredo (26 September 2013). "Corrupt military officials helping Venezuela drug trade flourish". El Pais. Retrieved 5 March 2014. 
  17. ^ Sanchez, Nora (15 February 2014). "Detienen a comandante de la Milicia con cargamento de drogas". El Universal. Retrieved 20 April 2014. 
  18. ^ Romero, Simon (22 August 2010). "Venezuela, More Deadly Than Iraq, Wonders Why". New York Times. Retrieved 10 January 2014. 
  19. ^ From 1917, "greater awareness of the country's oil potential had the pernicious effect of increasing the corruption and intrigue amongst Gomez's family and entourage, the consequences of which would be felt up to 1935 – B. S. McBeth (2002), Juan Vicente Gómez and the Oil Companies in Venezuela, 1908–1935, Cambridge University Press, p17.
  20. ^ "The perception of petroleum as the cause of Venezuela's corruption had become widespread during this period." – Coronil, F. (1988), The magical state: nature, money, and modernity in Venezuela, p353
  21. ^ El Universal, 21 January 2011, The truth of Pdval
  22. ^ Reel, M. "Crime Brings Venezuelans Into Streets". Washington Post (10 May 2006), p. A17. Accessed 24 June 2006.
  23. ^ Wills, Santiago (10 July 2013). "The World Is Getting More Corrupt, and These Are the 5 Worst Offenders". Fusion. Retrieved 18 March 2014. 
  24. ^ "Venezuela: Police corruption blamed for kidnapping epidemic". The Scotsman. 30 May 2011. Retrieved 18 March 2014. 
  25. ^ Beckhusen, Robert (20 February 2014). "Pro-Government Motorcycle Militias Terrorize Venezuela". Medium. Retrieved 21 March 2014. 
  26. ^ Pennington, Matthew (20 June 2014). "US Blacklists Thailand, Malaysia Over Trafficking". ABC News. Retrieved 21 June 2014. 
  27. ^ "The United States blacklists Venezuela in human trafficking". El Universal. 20 June 2014. Retrieved 21 June 2014. 
  28. ^ "Venezuela Travel Warning". United States Department of State. Retrieved 9 February 2014. 
  29. ^ "Venezuela". Government of Canada. Retrieved 9 February 2014. 
  30. ^ "FCO travel advice mapped: the world according to Britain's diplomats". The Guardian. 
  31. ^ "Venezuelan soap star Monica Spear, ex-husband murdered". NBC News. 7 February 2014. Retrieved 9 February 2014. 
  32. ^ "German tourist, 76, shot dead on Venezuelan island". Reuters. 7 February 2014. Retrieved 9 February 2014. 
  33. ^ "Presidente de Venezuela activa Plan Patria Segura". TeleSUR. 13 May 2013. Retrieved 20 April 2014. 
  34. ^ "Plan Patria Segura". Gobierno Bolivariano de Venezuela. Retrieved 20 April 2014. 
  35. ^ "WORLD REPORT | 2014". Report. Human Rights Watch. Retrieved 2 May 2014. 
  36. ^ Gupta, Girish (14 May 2012). "In Venezuela’s prisons, inmates are the wardens". Global Post. Retrieved 20 April 2014. 
  37. ^ Jay, Paul (19 April 2014). "The Modern History of Venezuela, Why Still So Much Crime? - Edgardo Lander on Reality Asserts Itself (7/9)". The Real News. Retrieved 20 April 2014. 
  38. ^ "IACHR Reiterates Need to Prevent Acts of Violence in Venezuelan Prison". Organization of American States. Retrieved 20 April 2014. 
  39. ^ "Riña colectiva de Uribana cobra dos vidas y deja 128 heridos". El Impulso. 29 February 2012. Retrieved 20 April 2014. 
  40. ^ "Coliseo en Uribana sigue y llega a 128 heridos Leer más en: http://www.ultimasnoticias.com.ve/noticias/actualidad/sucesos/coliseo-en-uribana-sigue-y-llega-a-128-heridos.aspx#ixzz2zP6WDmoB". Ultimas Noticica. 29 February 2012. Retrieved 20 April 2014. 
  41. ^ Gupta, Girish (18 May 2012). "Violence eases at overcrowded Venezuelan jail". Reuters. Retrieved 20 April 2014.