Crimean Tatar alphabet

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For modern Crimean Tatar language Latin and Cyrillic alphabets are used. Latin script dominates in Internet and Cyrillic in printed production. Historically Arabic script was also used.

History[edit]

Arabic[edit]

An example of Crimean Tatar Arabic script.

Crimean Tatars used Arabic script from 16th century to 1928 when it was replaced with Latin alphabet based on Yañalif. Crimean variant contained couple of modified Arabic letters.

Isolated Final Medial Initial Name Modern
Latin
elif a, â
hemze -
be b, p (word-finally)
pe p
te t
se s
cim c
çim ç
ha -
h
dal d
zel z
re r
ze z
je j
sin s
şin ş
sad s
ﺿ dad d, z
t
z
ayn -
ğayn ğ
fe f
qaf q
kef
(kef-i arabiy)
k (g, ñ)1
gef
(kef-i farsiy)
g
nef
(kef-i nuniy, sağır kef)
ñ
lâm l
mim m
nun n
vav v, o, ö, u, ü
he -, e, a
lâm-elif la, lâ
ye y, ı, i

1 — Letter (kef) was often used in place of and .

First Latin[edit]

An example of Crimean Tatar Latin alphabet of 1920s.

In 1928 during Latinisation in USSR Crimean Tatar Arabic alphabet was replaced by Latin alphabet based on Yañalif. This alphabet contained number of differences from modern variant. In particular letters Ь ь, Ƣ ƣ, N̡ n̡, Ɵ ө, X x, Ƶ ƶ, I i instead of modern  â, Ğ ğ, I ı, İ i, Ñ ñ, Ö ö, Ü ü, İ i and I ı.

Alphabet of 1928 Alphabet of 1997 Alphabet of 1928 Alphabet of 1997 Alphabet of 1928 Alphabet of 1997
A a a Ь ь ı R r r
B b b K k k S s s
C c c Q q q Ş ş ş
Ç ç ç Ƣ ƣ ğ T t t
D d d L l l U u u
E e e M m m Y y ü
F f f N n n V v v
G g g N̡ n̡ ñ X x h
H h h O o o Z z z
I i i Ɵ ө ö Ƶ ƶ j
J j y P p p

Modern alphabets[edit]

Latin[edit]

Crimean Tatar Latin script on the table in Bakhchisaray.

Modern Latin alphabet for Crimean Tatar was introduced in 1990s. It is based on Turkish alphabet with three special letters — Q, Ñ, Â. Its official use in Crimea was accepted in 1997 by Crimean Parliament.

A a* B b C c Ç ç D d E e F f G g
Ğ ğ H h I ı İ i J j K k L l M m
N n Ñ ñ O o Ö ö P p Q q R r S s
Ş ş T t U u Ü ü V v Y y Z z
Ââ is not recognized as separate letter. It is used to show softness of a consonant followed by Aa.

Cyrillic[edit]

"Welcome to Crimea" (Qırımğa hoş keldiñiz!) written in Crimean Tatar Cyrillic, airport bus, Simferopol International Airport

Cyrillic for Crimean Tatar was introduced in 1938 as part of Cyrillization of languages in Soviet Union. It is based on Russian alphabet with no special letters. From 1928 to 1990s that was the only alphabet used for Crimean Tatar.

А а Б б В в Г г Гъ гъ* Д д Е е Ё ё
Ж ж З з И и Й й К к Къ къ* Л л М м
Н н Нъ нъ* О о П п Р р С с Т т У у
Ф ф Х х Ц ц Ч ч Дж дж* Ш ш Щ щ Ъ ъ
Ы ы Ь ь Э э Ю ю Я я
Гъ (ğ), къ (q), нъ (ñ) and дж (c) are separate letters.

Cyrillic to Latin transliteration[edit]

Cyrillic Latin Notes
А а A a
Б б B b
В в V v
Г г G g
Гъ гъ Ğ ğ
Д д D d
Е е E e following a consonant
Ye ye word-initially, following a vowel or ь
Ё ё Ö ö following a consonant
Yö yö word-initially in "soft" words
Yo yo word-initially in "hard" words; following a vowel, ь or ъ
Ж ж J j
З з Z z
И и İ i
Й й Y y
К к K k
Къ къ Q q
Л л L l
М м M m
Н н N n
Нъ нъ Ñ ñ
О о Ö ö if о is the first letter in a "soft" word
O o in other cases
П п P p
Р р R r
С с S s
Т т T t
У у Ü ü if у is the first letter in a "soft" word
U u in other cases
Ф ф F f
Х х H h
Ц ц Ts ts
Ч ч Ç ç
Дж дж C c
Ш ш Ş ş
Щ щ Şç şç
ъ is not a separate letter in Cyrillic
Ы ы I ı
ь no special signs for softness
Э э E e
Ю ю Ü ü following a consonant
Yü yü word-initially, following a vowel or ь in "soft" words
Yu yu word-initially, following a vowel or ь in "hard" words
Я я Â â following a consonant
Ya ya word-initially, following a vowel or ь

References[edit]

  • Кай И.С. Руководство для обучения крымско-татарскому языку по новому алфавиту — Симферополь, 1928.
  • Alem-i-Medeniye