Critical systems thinking
Critical Systems Thinking according to Bammer (2003) "aims to combine systems thinking and participatory methods to address the challenges of problems characterised by large scale, complexity, uncertainty, impermanence, and imperfection. It allows nonlinear relationships, feedback loops, hierarchies, emergent properties and so on to be taken into account and Critical Systems Thinking has particularly problematised the issue of boundaries and their consequences for inclusion, exclusion and marginalisation".
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- G. Midgley (2000). Systemic intervention: Philosophy, methodology, and practice. New York : Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers.
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- Gabriele Bammer (2003). "Embedding Critical Systems Thinking in the Academy". CMS conference paper.
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