Critical systems thinking
Critical Systems Thinking according to Bammer (2003) "aims to combine systems thinking and participatory methods to address the challenges of problems characterised by large scale, complexity, uncertainty, impermanence, and imperfection. It allows nonlinear relationships, feedback loops, hierarchies, emergent properties and so on to be taken into account and Critical Systems Thinking has particularly problematised the issue of boundaries and their consequences for inclusion, exclusion and marginalisation".
See also 
- Trudi Cooper (2003). "Critical management, critical systems theory and System Dynamics", online paper.
- Robert L. Flood (1990). "Liberating Systems Theory: Toward Critical Systems Thinking", in: Human Relations, Vol. 43, No. 1, 49-75.
- Philip Graham (1999). "Critical Systems Theory: A Political Economy of Language, Thought, and Technology", in: Communication Research, Vol. 26, No. 4, 482-507.
- Kristo Ivanov (1991). Critical systems thinking and information technology. - In J. of Applied Systems Analysis, 18, 39-55. (ISSN 0308-9541).
- Michael C. Jackson (2000), Systems Approaches to Management, London: Springer 465 p
- Deiniol Lloyd-Jones (2004). "Technical Cosmopolitanism: Systems, Critical Theory and International Relations", POLIS Working Paper No. 6.
- G. Midgley (2000). Systemic intervention: Philosophy, methodology, and practice. New York : Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers.
- Stephen L. Payne (1992). "Critical systems thinking: A challenge or dilemma in its practice?", in: Systemic Practice and Action Research, Vol. 5, Nr 3 June, 237-249.
- Werner Ulrich (2003). A Brief Introduction to "Critical Systems Thinking for Professionals & Citizens"
- Gabriele Bammer (2003). "Embedding Critical Systems Thinking in the Academy". CMS conference paper.
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