Criticism of Hinduism
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Some of the practices and beliefs held by Hindus have been criticized, both by Hindus and non-Hindus. Early Hindu reformers, such as Raja Ram Mohan Roy, had discrimination based on the Caste system. Though Vedic Hinduism treats every living thing with respect and states that every living thing in this world has equal rights of existence. It is said in Hinduism that no person/animal should be killed unless it becomes a threat for humanity. However, these misconceptions about wrong practices in Hinduism are no longer prevalent in Independent India.
Untouchables used to live separately within a separate subcultural context of their own, outside the inhabited limits of villages and townships. No other castes would interfere with their social life since untouchables were lower in social ranking than even those of the shudra varna. As a result, Dalits were commonly banned from fully participating in Hindu religious life (they could not pray with the rest of the social classes or enter the religious establishments).
The inclusion of lower castes into the mainstream was argued for by Mahatma Gandhi who called them "Harijans" (people of God). The term Dalit is used now and the term Harijan has gone out of use. Many recent political leaders consider it offensive as it is synonymous to being the people of Brahmin.. As per prominent Dalit leader Dr. B. R. Ambedkar's wishes, reservation system with percentage quotas for admissions in universities and jobs has been in place for many lower castes since independence of India to bring them to the upper echelons of society. Caste-based discrimination is not unique to Hindus in India, neither caste system is limited with India, Al-Akhdam of Yemen, Songbun of North Korea, Hukou of China, and others are regarded as the caste system as well.
The caste system is a hierarchical system that assigns people different classes in society, similar to the 'middle class, upper class' system used in many western societies. The relatively unique part of the caste system is that one's caste is inherited from one's parents and acts as a representation of one's ancestry. The system has occasionally been criticized for restricting one's professional capabilities as well as for acting as a reason for discrimination. A controversial effect of the Caste system is the religious belief that people can't 'marry out of their castes'. The caste doctrine is observed most actively by the more rural populations in India and by the older generations..
The true essence of caste system was NOT by ones birth or by one's parents inheritance but it WAS by ones acts or by profession/heredity. i.e. A Shudra can become a Brahmin, or Kshtriya can be come Shudra or Vysys or reversal. Which actually happened in a well known person born in Shudra family is called as Brahmin due to his profession of writing some highly scholarly writings.
Later the essence was either misinterpreted or intentionally not followed for different reasons may be selfish to promote their generation or could be for easy of identification. Subsequently Modern India followed caste inheritance by birth may for ease of administration and to avoid misuse use of dynamism in change of the caste by deeds. So, at top level, Hindu caste system was actually based on one's deeds but subsequently it was seemed to be based on birth.
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