Criticism of Twelver Shia Islam
|The Fourteen Infallibles|
Criticism of Twelver Shia Islam dates from the initial rift between the primary factions of Islam, the Sunni and Shia. Further, Shia commentators and authorities, such as Musa al-Musawi and Ali Shariati, have criticised practices and beliefs which have become prevalent in the Shia community, engaging in self-criticism in an attempt to reform the faith.
- 1 Similarities to Roman Catholicism
- 2 The Occultation
- 3 Usuli versus Akhbari
- 4 Nikah mut‘ah
- 5 Taqiyya (dissimulation)
- 6 Disrespect to Abu Bakr, Umar and Uthman
- 7 Mourning Husayn and self-flagellation during Ashura
- 8 Child Imams
- 9 Infallibility of Imams
- 10 Fatimah's divine revelations
- 11 Khums
- 12 Three prayer times per day
- 13 Rejection of predestination
- 14 Corruption of the Quran
- 15 See also
- 16 References
Similarities to Roman Catholicism
Twelvers have often been criticized mainly by Sunnis, but even some Protestant Christians, for beliefs and practices that are seen as like Catholicism having deviated from the teachings of its founder and having only been introduced during later stages. This comparison to Catholicism extends from the Twelver focus on Husayn and Fatima, much like the Catholic focus of Jesus and Mary, and the associated elaborate mourning myths that surround them, to praying to the Imams, making pilgrimage to their shrines, celebrating their anniversaries and displaying their representations like the vast and elaborate Catholic institution of saint-veneration, and even as far as the similarities of an overmighty clerical class and an undercurrent of mysticism and philosophy.
According to Twelver Shia Islam, the 12th and final Imam, who is also referred to as the prophesied redeemer of Islam known as the Mahdi, went into occultation in 873. However, this belief has long been criticized by Sunni scholars who “often speculate that the twelfth Imam never existed, but was a myth designed to keep the Shia cause alive.” Meanwhile, western scholars have also cast doubt upon the existence of an occulted Imam. According to Robert Gleave, the occultation of the 12th Imam “became subsequent orthodox doctrine” after none of the competing theories that sought to explain the succession to a childless 11th Imam “seemed satisfactory”. According to Bernard Lewis, the occultation and subsequent return of the Imam became a characteristic Shia doctrine following the “suppression of many risings and the disappearance of their leaders”; where the leader disappears and “his followers say that he is not dead; he has gone into concealment”. With each new leader “who disappeared and did not return”, this belief was “enriched” and became more detailed and “essential” as a “feature of Shia Islam.”
However, according to Wilferd Madelung in Encyclopedia of Islam, the doctrine of the Occultation was well-documented by traditions of the Imams before the occultation of the Twelfth Imam whom the majority of the Imamiyya came to consider as the Mahdi after the death of the eleventh. As an example he mentions that "the pattern was already set in regard to Muḥammad b. al-Ḥanafiyya, whose death was denied by the Kaysāniyya [q.v.]. They believed that he was hidden in the mountains of Raḍwā and would return to rule the world. Similar beliefs arose around Muḥammad b. al-Ḥanafiyya’s son Abū Hashim" Moreover, Madelung names several Sunni scholars who have similar beliefs.
Usuli versus Akhbari
Twelvers of the Akhbari and Usuli branches have for centuries debated over the interpretation of religious texts and the responsibilities of Twelver scholars in the absence of the Hidden 12th Imam. This culminated during the latter half of the 18th century with the violent suppression of Akhbari’s, especially under the direction of Usuli scholar Muhammad Baqir Behbahani.
On the one hand, Akhbaris (nowadays a small minority) reject the use of reasoning in deriving religious laws and verdicts. They believe the Qur'an and Sunnah (traditions of Muhammad and the Imams) provide all the laws necessary for their followers, and that reasoning is open to errors from imperfect scholars in the absence of an infallible Imam. They also criticise what they see as the transgressions of Twelver scholars, in gradually acquiring for themselves the powers and responsibilities of the Hidden Imam. Some Akhbaris have reported their belief this was, among others explanations, a result of the greed for power and wealth of Usuli scholars over laymen.
On the other hand, Usulis criticise the rigidity and narrow-mindedness of the Akhbaris and interpret the religious texts and take on much of the roles of the 12th Imam in accordance with the naturally evolving requirements of the Twelver Shia community.
Nikah mut‘ah (lit. "pleasure marriage"), is a fixed-term marriage practiced in Twelver Shia Islam. The duration of this type of marriage is fixed at its inception and is then automatically dissolved upon completion of its term. For this reason, nikah mut‘ah has been widely criticised as the religious cover and legalization of prostitution. The Christian missionary Thomas Patrick Hughes criticized Mut'ah as allowing the continuation of "one of the abominable practices of ancient Arabia." 
According to Karen Ruffle, assistant professor of religion at University of Toronto, even though mutʿah is prohibited by Sunni schools of law, there are several types of similar marriages including misyar and ʿurfi marriage, that gained popularity in parts of Sunni world. Moreover, according to Shia (and some orientalists, e.g. Encyclopedia of Islam), nikah mut‘ah was practiced at the time of Muhammad, but was outlawed by the second Caliph, Umar ibn Khattab. Therefore, it is forbidden among Sunnis, but Shia consider Umar's account as legally and religiously invalid, as they argue it's legitimated by Quran 4:24. Shia have systematically contested the criticism that it is a cover for prostitution, and argue their rationales regarding the legal uniqueness of temporary marriage, which distinguishes Mut'ah ideologically from prostitution. Children born of temporary marriages are considered legitimate, and have equal status in law with their siblings born of permanent marriages, and do inherit from both parents. Women must observe a period of celibacy (idda) to allow for the identification of a child’s legitimate father, and a woman can only be married to one person at a time, be it temporary or permanent. Some scholars also view Mut'ah as a means of eradicating prostitution from society.
Taqiyya is a Shia practice under which it is permissible to hide one's faith in order to preserve life. The Shia have been criticised for this practice, an act deemed against the virtues of bravery and courage. Critics argue that the Twelvers have taken dissimulation far beyond life-threatening situations and have allowed its use in any scenario that is judged to benefit the continuation or propagation of the Twelver creed, as is emphasized by the "celebrated" reputed saying of the 6th Imam Ja'far al-Sadiq, “[t]aqiyyah is my religion and the religion of my forefathers”; along with his other often quoted saying from Kitab al-Kafi: "[n]ine tenths of faith is taqiyya." According to Patricia Crone, Twelvers even extended the use of taqiyya “to protect their secret wisdom from exposure to the uncomprehending masses (including their own co-religionists), who might pervert it or denounce it as heretical." This view has been supported by Faysal Noor in his book Taqiyyah: The Other Face. 
The practice of concealing one's beliefs in dangerous circumstances originates in the Qur'an, which deems blameless those who disguise their beliefs in such cases.[non-primary source needed] The practice of taqiyya in difficult circumstances is considered legitimate by Muslims of various sects. Sunni and Shia commentators alike observe that verse [Quran 16:106] refers to the case of 'Ammar b. Yasir, who was forced to renounce his beliefs under physical duress and torture. This practice was emphasized in Shia Islam whereby adherents may conceal their religion when they are under threat, persecution, or compulsion. Taqiyya was developed to protect Shia who were usually in minority and under pressure. In the Shia view, taqiyya is lawful in situations where there is overwhelming danger of loss of life or property and where no danger to religion would occur thereby. Shia commentators have argued that taqiyya has precedents from the time of Muhammad, including the story of Ammar ibn Yasir, Such commentators argue that to not avoid certain death is illogical, and that dissimulation is permissible under various circumstances, such as to preserve life, to protect the chastity of women, or avoid destitution.
Disrespect to Abu Bakr, Umar and Uthman
One allegation commonly leveled against the Twelvers is that they disrespect the Sunni Caliphs Abu Bakr, Umar and Uthman who supported Mohammad as per Sunni belief during the early days of Islam but later turned enemies of Mohammad's household (Ahl al Bayt) as per Shia belief. Such Shia practices include the recited Dua Sanamain Quraish, which calls God's curse on the first two Sunni caliphs following Muhammad's death, Abu Bakr and Umar. Following the Safavid empire's conversion to the Shia sect of Islam, the first three caliphs, whom the Shia felt usurped Ali's right to be caliph, were cursed during Friday sermons.
- The Raafidis are the opposite: they love the Prophet's family (ahl al-bayt) - or so they claim, but they hate the Saahaaba, whom they curse, denounce as kaafirs, and criticize.
During the 1960s, when an incipient ecumenical movement called for the unification of Shia and Sunni Islam, religious writers cited this "disrespect" for the Sahabah as a barrier to unification. In 1980s and 1990s, three major religious writers in Egypt, Saudi Arabia, and Pakistan again cited this argument, noting that until all "profanity" against the Sahabah was abandoned, dialogue with Shia scholars could not begin.
Mourning Husayn and self-flagellation during Ashura
Twelvers have been criticised for the practice of self-flagellation during Ashura, the observation of the martyrdom of Husayn traditionally accompanied by acts of ritual self-harm, which is often described as barbaric. These acts have not only been criticised by non-Shia; the Supreme Leader of Iran, Ayatollah Khamenei issued a fatwa in 14 June 1994 banning this practice. He considered it irreligious and not suitable for good Muslims.
More importantly though, according to Salafi Sunni scholars such as Ibn Taymiyyah and Abd al-Aziz ibn Baz, the Shia practice of Ashura is a blatant and primary example of their propensity to follow Bid‘ah (religious innovation). They argue that the annual mourning occasion for Husayn (or any other individual) was never instituted or practiced by Muhammad – not even for his closest family members - and hence has no validity in Islam.
Three of the Twelve Imams, held by the Shia to be God's representatives on Earth, were less than ten years old when they assumed the undisputed and exclusive leadership of the Twelver Shia community. The ninth Imam, Muhammad al-Taqi was 7 and a half years old at the time he assumed the imamate; the 10th Imam Ali al-Hadi was between 6.5 and 8.5 years, and the 12th and final Imam Muhammad al-Mahdi was 4 and a half years old. Pakistani Islamic scholar and polemicist Ehsan Elahi Zaheer argues against the possibility of these personalities assuming the leadership of the Imamate at such young ages. Wilferd Madelung notes, however, that in Shia belief the knowledge of an Imam comes from "inspiration, not acquisition", and thus that even a young imam is not considered unprepared, receiving revelation upon the death of his predecessor.
Infallibility of Imams
There are several attributes considered by Twelvers to be necessary for the Imams and these conditions are held to be proved both by traditions and by logical necessity. Thus in Shi'ism, the Imams are considered to be designated, sinless or infallible (Ismah) and the best of the people. Twelver Shia Islam has been criticized for exaggerating the holiness and infallibility of its Imams. Al-Kulayni in al-Kafi claims that the Imams know when they die and they do not die unless by their own choice, they know everything in the past and in the future and every time when God informs Muhammad, He orders him to inform Ali too. In Islamic Government Khomeini writes: "Amongst the necessities in our doctrine is that our Imams have a dignity which no favored angel nor sent prophet could ever reach. As it has been narrated, the Imams were lights under the shadow of the throne before creating this world”. According to critics this purity is close to that of the prophet Muhammad, if not quite on the same level, and reflects excessiveness of view. Shia Islam has been criticised for magnifying the role of the Imams sometimes larger than that of Muhammad.
Fatimah's divine revelations
According to some Twelver Shia scholars, Muhammad's daughter Fatimah received divine revelations after her father's death.During the 75 days that Fatimah had contact and communication with Gabriel, her husband Ali wrote down and recorded the revelations that were made to Fatimah which she dictated to him, to form the Book of Fatimah.
Sunni critics argue that Fatimah never received divine revelations
According to Twelver religious practice, Khums is an annual taxation on 20% of all profits. This wealth is collected and managed by Shia religious leaders. However, according to scholars such as Musa al-Musawi, the modern development of the practice of collecting khums exclusively by Shia religious leaders, especially the sayyid clerical elite, is simply a case of the usurpation of the place of the hidden Imam Mahdi and as a way of enriching the clerical class.
Three prayer times per day
While Sunnis have 5 salat (prayer) sessions per day, Twelvers can opt to pray only 3 times per day by doubling their prayers on 2 occasions - combining the 2nd prayer with the 3rd and the 4th prayer with the 5th. However, Sunnis argue this very practice defeats the purpose of having 5 distinct prayers, since God ordered 5 prayers for 5 separate times of the day rather than 3 prayers for 3 separate times of the day and that Shia have misrepresented the ambiguity of the issue in the Quran for their own convenience. Twelvers extract this ruling from the two most important sources of jurisprudence which are the Holy Quran and the Sunnah of the Messenger Muhammad who was praying this way, as it is also reported by Sunni sources, thus backing their claims accepted within a Sunni point of view. It is even reported from the hadith that the Messenger did this so that no one among his Ummah should be put to [unnecessary] hardship, thus rejecting any accusation of not basing their actions from Quran and Traditions.
Rejection of predestination
Twelvers reject predestination. This has led to Sunni criticism of Twelvers, along with their associated belief in Bada' (change in God's will), as being deniers of God's complete sovereignty and as being imitators of the Mu'tazila school of Islamic theology.
Corruption of the Quran
Despite continual denials, Twelvers are often criticised by Sunnis for allegedly believing that the Quran was altered by the Sahaba (companions of Muhammad). In reality, Shi'as use the same Quran books as Sunnies such as the ones printed in Saudi Arabia.
- Brunner, Rainer; Ende, Werner, eds. (2001). The Twelver Shia in Modern Times: Religious Culture and Political History. BRILL. p. 178. ISBN 9789004118034.
The intellectual history of Twelver Shia Islam in the 20th century has witnessed quite a few attempts by religious scholars and lay intellectuals at religious reform, which nearly inevitably meant criticism of existing practices. The reformers have concentrated on various aspects of Shia popular religion with a high symbolic value which determine the outward appearance of Shia Islam and its relation to mainstream Sunni Islam. Not least because of that strong symbolism they have deemed these practices to be against the true spirit of Shia Islam, even against the spirit of Islam itself.
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Testimony in support of the Mahdīship of the Twelfth Imām by these Sunnī authors, as also of later ones like the Mālikī scholar Ibn al-Ṣabbāg̲h̲ al-Isfāḳusī al-Makkī (d. 855/1451), a Mag̲h̲ribī resident in Mecca, and, more recently, the Ḥanafī Naḳs̲h̲bandī S̲h̲ayk̲h̲ Sulaymān b. Ibrāhīm al-Ḳundūzī al-Balk̲h̲ī (d. 1294/1877 in Istanbul), was regularly noted by Imāmī apologists. The works of al-Gand̲j̲i and Kamāl al-Dīn Ibn Ṭalḥa were extensively quoted already by ʿAlī b. ʿĪsā al-Irbilī (d. 692/1293) in his Kas̲h̲f al-g̲h̲umma fī maʿrifat al-aʾimma, which in turn won positive comment from Sunnī authors because of its extensive reliance on Sunnī sources. Further support for the Mahdīship of the Twelfth Imām came from Ṣūfī circles. Already Abū Bakr al-Bayhaḳī (d. 458/1066) had noted that some Ṣūfī gnostics (d̲j̲amāʿa min ahl al-kas̲h̲f) agreed with the Imāmī doctrine about the identity of the Mahdī and his g̲h̲ayba. The Persian Ṣūfī Ṣadr al-Dīn Ibrāhīm al-Ḥammūyī (late 7th/13th century) supported Imāmī doctrine on the Mahdī in his Farāʾid al-simṭayn. The Egyptian Ṣūfī al-S̲h̲aʿrānī, while generally showing no sympathy for S̲h̲īʿism. affirmed in his al-Yawāḳīt wa ’l-d̲j̲awāhir (written in 958/1551) that the Mahdīwas a son of Imām al-Ḥasan al-ʿAskarī born in the year 255/869 and would remain alive until his meeting with Jesus. His advent could be expected after the year 1030/1621. He based his assertion on the testimony of the Ṣūfī S̲h̲ayk̲h̲ Ḥasan al-ʿIrāḳī, who claimed to have met the Mahdī, and on a spurious quotation from Ibn al-ʿArabī’s al-Futūḥāt al-Makkiyya identifying the Expected Mahdī with the Twelfth Imām. This quotation of Ibn al-ʿArabī was noted and accepted by both Imāmī and Sunnī scholars. The Egyptian S̲h̲ayk̲h̲ al-Ṣabbān (d. 1206/1792), in his Isʿāf al-rāg̲h̲ibīn fī sīrat al-Muṣṭafā wa-faḍāʾil ahl baytih al-ṭāhirīn, censured Ibn al-ʿArabī for supporting such a view against the clear evidence of the traditions accepted by Sunnī scholars.Missing or empty
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Later, during the 1920s, there were intense public campaigns by the Soviet government against the rituals of Ashura, denounced as barbaric practices, and a vestige of feudalism.
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- Joining Prayers and Other related Issues
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