Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts

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Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts
Croatian Academy of Science and Arts.JPG
The decorated facade of the Academy Palace, Zrinski Square in Zagreb
Abbreviation HAZU
Formation 1866 in Zagreb
Type National academy
Purpose/focus Science, arts, academics
Headquarters Croatia Zagreb, Croatia
Location 45°48′33″N 15°58′43″E / 45.80917°N 15.97861°E / 45.80917; 15.97861Coordinates: 45°48′33″N 15°58′43″E / 45.80917°N 15.97861°E / 45.80917; 15.97861
Membership 147 full members (as of May 2012)[1]
Chairman Zvonko Kusić
Main organ Presidency of the Academy[2]
Budget HRK 76.7 million (€10.5 million) (2010)[3]
Website Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts
Interior of the Academy Palace

The Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts (Latin: Academia Scientiarum et Artium Croatica, Croatian: Hrvatska akademija znanosti i umjetnosti, abbrev. HAZU) is the national academy of Croatia.

History[edit]

The institution was founded in Zagreb in 1866 as the Yugoslav Academy of Sciences and Arts.[4] The bishop and benefactor Josip Juraj Strossmayer, a prominent advocate of higher education during the 19th century Croatian national romanticism, set up a trust fund for this purpose and in 1860 submitted a large donation to the then viceroy (ban) of Croatia Josip Šokčević for the cause of being able to

bring together the best minds [...] and find a way in which books in the national languages could be produced in the Slavic South; the Academy should also take under its aegis all the areas of human science[5]

After some years of deliberations by the Croatian Parliament and the Emperor Franz Joseph, it was finally sanctioned by law in 1866. The official sponsor was Josip Juraj Strossmayer, while the first Chairman of the Academy was the distinguished Croatian historian Franjo Rački.[5] Đuro Daničić was elected for secretary general of the Academy, where he played a key role in preparing the Academy's Dictionary, "Croatian or Serbian Dictionary of JAZU".

The Academy's creation was the logical extension of the University of Zagreb, the institution initially created in 1669 and also renewed by bishop Strossmayer in 1874. Bishop Strossmayer also initiated the building of the Academy Palace in the Zrinjevac park of Zagreb, and the Palace was completed in 1880.[5] In 1884, the Palace also became a host of The Strossmayer Gallery of Old Masters that contained 256 works of art (mostly paintings).[5] The same is today one of the most prominent art galleries in Zagreb.

The Academy started publishing the academic journal Rad in 1867. In 1882, each of the individual scientific classes of the Academy started printing their own journals. In 1887, the Academy published the first "Ljetopis" as a year book, as well as several other publications in history and ethnology.

Ivan Supek, Mihailo Petrović, Dragutin Gorjanović-Kramberger and Lavoslav Ružička were JAZU members.

Name changes[edit]

The Academy briefly changed name from "Yugoslav" to "Croatian" between 1941 and 1945 during the Axis client regime of the Independent State of Croatia.

It was permanently renamed "Croatian" in 1991 after Croatia gained independence from Yugoslavia.

Departments[edit]

The Academy is divided into nine departments (classes):[6]

  • Department of Social Sciences
  • Department of Mathematical, Physical and Chemical Sciences
  • Department of Natural Sciences
  • Department of Medical Sciences
  • Department of Philological Sciences
  • Department of Literature
  • Department of Fine Arts
  • Department of Music and Musicology
  • Department of Technical Sciences

Membership[edit]

There are four classes of members:[7]

  • Full members
  • Associate members
  • Honorary members
  • Corresponding members

The number of full members and corresponding members is limited to 160 each, while the maximum number of associate members is 100.[7] Number of full members per department is limited to 24. Only the full members may carry the title of "academician" (English: F.C.A., Croatian: akademik (male members) or akademkinja (female members)).

Chairmen[edit]

Image Chairman Term
Franjo Rački photo.JPG Franjo Rački 1866–1886
Pavao Muhić 1886–1890
Josip Torbar 1890–1900
Tadija Smičiklas.jpg Tadija Smičiklas 1900–1914
Tomislav Maretic.JPG Tomislav Maretić 1914–1918
Vladimir Mažuranić 1918–1921
Gustav Janečak 1921–1924
Gavro Majnolović 1924–1933
Albert Bazala 1933–1941
Tomo Matić 1941–1946
Andrija Štampar 1946–1958
Grga Novak 1958–1978
Jakov Sirotković 1978–1991
Ivan Supek 1991–1997
Ivo Padovan 1997–2004
HAZU 71 Milan Mogus 17 lipnja 2008.jpg Milan Moguš 2004–2010
Zvonko Kusić 2010–present


See also[edit]

Notes and references[edit]

  1. ^ "Izabrani novi članovi Hrvatske akademije znanosti i umjetnosti" (Microsoft Word document) (Press release) (in Croatian). Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts. 10 May 2012. Retrieved 14 May 2012. 
  2. ^ "Presidency of the Academy". Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts. Retrieved 2009-01-15. 
  3. ^ "Financijski plan Hrvatske akademije znanosti i umjetnosti za 2010. godinu" (PDF) (in Croatian). Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts. Retrieved 2010-10-24. 
  4. ^ The adjective "Yugoslav" was coined in mid-19th century by the movement that sought national unity of the South Slavs from Austria-Hungary with their eastern neighbors. Its extent was likely ambiguous, e.g. in whether or not it meant to include Bulgarians and Macedonians. Later the term became associated specifically with the country and peoples of Yugoslavia.
  5. ^ a b c d "The Founding of the Academy". Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts. Retrieved 2009-01-17. 
  6. ^ "Classes of Academy". Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts. Retrieved 2009-01-14. 
  7. ^ a b "Members of Academy". Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts. Retrieved 2009-01-14. 

External links[edit]