Croatian American

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Croatian American
Američki Hrvati
Johnowendominis2.jpg
Anthony F. Lucas.jpg
Ivan Meštrovic.jpg
Cukela Capt Louis USMC h79333.jpg
Peter Tomich.jpg
Roger Maris Indians.png
Vanka1946.jpg
Ron Kovic 2.JPG
Mark Russinovich.jpg
Rudy T Space and Missile Center Feb 26, 2009.jpg
NickSaban LSU-AL-07t.jpg
BBelichick.jpg
Governor John Kasich.jpg
John Malkovich KVIFF.jpg
EliWallach-1.jpg
GeorgeMikan.jpg
Capricia Marshall.jpg
Fred Couples.jpg
Mark Begich, official Senate photo portrait, 2009.jpg
Krist Novoselic 15A.jpg
PatMiletich.png
Judah Friedlander at the 2008 Tribeca Film Festival.JPG
Jenna Elfman in 2009.jpg
BillRancic Web.jpg
Denniskucinich1.jpg
Rob Ninkovich 2011.JPG
!Daved.JPG
Teresa Scanlan at Langley Air Force Base.jpg
Total population
Croatian
411,427 Americans[1]
0.21% of the US population (2012)
Regions with significant populations
Pennsylvania, Illinois, Ohio, California, New York, Wisconsin, Indiana, Michigan, Tennessee, Louisiana, and Missouri
Languages
American English and Croatian
Religion
Predominantly Roman Catholicism
Related ethnic groups
European American

Croatian Americans (Croatian: Američki Hrvati) are Americans of Croatian descent.

Demographics[edit]

Numbers[edit]

According to the 2007 US Community Survey, there were 420,763 Americans of full or partial Croatian descent.[2] According to the United States Census Bureau of Statistics (1990) there were over 344,270 Croatian Americans who identified themselves as being of Croatian descent or being born in Croatia.[3] It is estimated by the Republic of Croatia's State Office for the Croats Abroad that there are around 1,200,000 Croats and their descendants living in the US today.[4]

In the 2006-2010 American Community Survey, the states with the largest Croatian-American populations are:[5]

History[edit]

  • 1880 estimate: 20,000[6]
  • 1980 census: 252,970[7]
  • 1990 census: 544,270[8]
  • 2000 census: 374,241[8]
  • 2004 community survey: 401,208[9]

History[edit]

It is very difficult to establish when the first Croatian people came to the United States. Some written documents indicate that individuals or small groups of Croatians (notably seafarers from the Dalmatian coastal regions) arrived in the United States some two or three hundred years ago. At least two theories of a pre-Columbian contact by Dalmatian sailors have appeared within the last 30 years or so.

But significant emigration from the region of Croatia can be said to date from the late 1890s and early 1900s, peaking around 1910, when many Croatians, the majority of them Roman Catholics, began emigrating to the United States. Many were economic immigrants, while others considered themselves political refugees.

Like other immigrants of that period, they migrated to find employment. Many of them, mostly single young men but, often, married women with or without their families, settled in small towns in Pennsylvania and New York as coal miners or steelworkers. Many also settled in factory towns and farming areas in Midwestern states such as Wisconsin, Minnesota, Indiana, Illinois, and Iowa. For most of the single men, the stay was only temporary. Once they had saved enough money, many Croatian men returned to Croatia. However, those who did choose to stay found permanent homes where they had found jobs and sent for their families.

Within a comparatively short period of time, Croatians could be found all over the United States from New York to California, from New Orleans to Minneapolis-St. Paul. As it went through its most rapid expansion during the time of the 1890-1914 Great Migration and shortly thereafter from the onset of the First World War to the general clampdown on immigration in 1924, Croats and other South and West Slavs and members of other groups peaking in influx at the time were prominent in the history of the mining industry in the Iron Range of Minnesota; much the same is the case with the forestry-related industries there, elsewhere in Minnesota and in much of Wisconsin. A notable Croatian-American from the Iron Range was Rudy Perpich, the 34th and 36th Governor of the state representing the Democrat/Farmer-Labor Party; he served terms in office from 29 December 1976 to 4 January 1979, and from 3 January 1983 to 7 January 1991, spans of time which add up to make him the longest-serving governor in the state's history. In private life, Dr Perpich was a dentist and after leaving office in 1991 assisted the post-Communist government of Croatia[10] He was born in Carson Lake, Minnesota (now part of Hibbing) on 27 June 1928 and died of cancer in Minnetonka on 21 September 1995.

A new wave of Croatian immigrants began to arrive after World War II. These were mostly political refugees, including orphans whose parents had been killed during the war, individuals and families fleeing Yugoslavia's Communist regime. Most of these Croatians settled in established Croatian colonies, often among relatives and friends.

It was assumed that this would be the end of Croatian immigration. But, beginning in 1965, America saw a new influx of Croatians, some of them political refugees, most of them younger families seeking economic security and a prosperity impossible to find in Yugoslavia.

Those arriving in the 1960s and the decades that followed settled mostly in larger cities. These immigrants were better educated and more liberal than their forebears in America, but they were also influenced by the new European standard of life and opposed to the Communist ideology forcefully imposed upon them in the totalitarian state of Yugoslavia.

They sought "the good life"-a decent job, a balanced education for their children, good housing and utilities, the ability to be vocal in their political views in democratic America, and the freedom to live out their deeply rooted religious convictions.

Gradually, this new wave of immigrants joined Croatian Catholic parishes and organizations, and soon became the contemporary bearers of Croatian culture and tradition in the United States.

Currently, only a small number of Croatians continue to emigrate, mostly those who have relatives already well established in America.

Settlements[edit]

Group of Croatian men in the club of town Joliet in Illinois around 1900

The first known Croatians arrived in the US since 1850, often through the present-day countries of Austria, Italy, Greece and in some cases, Spain and Portugal, and even southern France when Croats worked for the maritime industry of the Mediterranean would look for a new life in the Americas, namely the US with selected regions like New York City; New Orleans, Louisiana; where some Croatian descendants happen to live to this day; and California.

One known Croat Jola Jurisic was a pioneer in establishing the large-scale cultivation and marketing of oysters. By the late 19th century the Croats controlled the oyster business. In San Pedro there is even a stretch of street called "Croatian Place". There are reportedly more than (today) 35,000 Croats in San Pedro, making it the biggest Croatian community on the Pacific coast. California had Croatian immigration colonies even before the wave of new immigration, but greater Croatian settlement throughout the Los Angeles-Long Beach and Santa Ana/Anaheim regions in Orange County, California; also in Northern California, and the Phoenix area of Arizona. The first Croatian immigrants in the US arrived in those places.

Croatian Place district in San Pedro, Los Angeles, California.

From the middle of the 19th century a lot of Croats were involved inarge populations are found in Chicago, Cleveland, New York City and Los Angeles, with Southern California the coastal cities had Croatian immigration colonies even before the wave of new immigration, but even greater immigration occurred during the period of gold rush in that area. Many of them established stock corporations in case they made more significant discoveries.

One of the most important companies established by the Croats was "The Slavonian Gold and Silver Company". San Francisco became the center of Croatian social life in California, where they established the first Croatian emigration society in 1857. Tadich Grill in San Francisco is a relic from that era and (still Croatian owned) currently is the oldest restaurant in the entire state of California.

Even earlier The Los Angeles basin was a major destination for Croat, and in downtown Los Angeles at the beginning of the 20th century, many Croats were involved in the locksmith industry. The Los Angeles area was a major destination for the post-fishing villages existed back in the beginning of 19th century, where greatly experienced Croatian fishermen contributed to the development of modern fishing trade.

The Los Angeles Metropolitan Area was a major destination for the post-1980s Yugoslavian immigration, including Croats and Bosnian Croats from Bosnia and Herzegovina escaped the Bosnian civil war in the 1990s. They formed several communities in Orange County; San Diego; the Inland Empire (California) region (i.e. Moreno Valley); and the San Fernando Valley of Los Angeles, but extending into the High Desert suburbs of Lancaster and Palmdale; and Ventura County in recent years.

Three other main Croatian centers in Washington state were Seattle, Anacortes and Roslyn. The high percentage of Croats can be illustrated by the fact that inn 1922/23 there were 23% Croatian pupils in Rosalyn schools. Croatian immigrants scattered in the western US such as Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Oregon, Utah and Wyoming in the 1880s-1920s period.

Some of the first groups of immigrants settled in Pennsylvania as well. As the center of the State, Pittsburgh employed a lot of immigrants from Croatia. Many of them were working in the heavy industry. In the beginning of the century there were around 38,000 Croatians in Pittsburgh. It was estimated that there were more than 200,000 Croatians and their descendants living in Pittsburgh in the early 1990s.[citation needed] Also included are Serbs, Bosnians and Slovenes from what was once Yugoslavia in the 20th century will move there as well.

First Croatians in Detroit appeared around 1890, settling usually in the region of Russel. In Illinois the Croatians started concentrating mostly around Chicago. Although it was created a bit later, the Croatian settlement in Chicago became one of the most important ones in the United States. The settlement especially started developing after World War I and Chicago became the center of all Croatian cultural and political activities. It is calculated that there were roughly 50,000 Croats in Chicago in the 1990s, while there were altogether 100,000 Croats living in 54 additional Croatian settlements in Illinois. Croats form a large community in Indianapolis in Indiana since the 1910s, as well in Gary, Fort Wayne and South Bend.

Furthermore, Croatian settlement in Kansas City played an important role as well. This settlement, too, was founded in the last decades of the 19th century, with the first neighborhood west of Armour Packing Co. and along James Street. The Strawberry Hill neighbourhood of Kansas City is an example of a city quarter almost entirely founded by Croats. First Croatian Settlement in St. Louis started forming very early. It generally consisted of immigrants who came from Louisiana along the Mississippi toward the north. According to Ante Tresic-Pavic, who visited the US in 1907, there were around 4-5 thousand Croats in St. Louis. The majority of them lived in boarding houses and had low paid jobs at that time.

New York City served merely as a station on their way further into the United States. Later, during the mass immigration of Croats, this city became the most important center from which they moved into various parts of the US. In 1906 a real Croatian settlement did not yet exist in New York. Eventually many Croats settled thru out parts of New York City, especially in northwestern and northeastern Queens County, in such neighborhoods as Whitestone, Astoria, Bayside and Douglaston.

Alaska appeared to be a destination for Croatian immigrants in the early 20th century starting with the Klondike Gold Rush of 1897-99 as well Croatian immigrants into Canada at the time. A few hundreds of Croatians settled in Anchorage, Fairbanks and Sitka. They established small shops and businesses relating to the local fishing industries. Today, Alaska may be home to 50,000 persons of Croatian descent, about one-eighth of the state population.

And the last but not least, recent arrived Croatian immigration into some states like Florida (esp. the Orlando and Tampa Bay areas), Georgia, North Carolina, Virginia, Texas (i.e. the Dallas/Fort Worth and Houston areas) and Oklahoma should be noted. Croats, alongside Bosnians (includes Bosnian Croats) made Tennessee their home, with Nashville to soon become the country's main Balkan Slav community by the 2010s.[citation needed]

Religion[edit]

Croatian priests, mostly diocesan clergy, came in precious few numbers with the earliest immigrants towards the end of the 19th century. They were true missionaries. They traveled from place to place wherever their people settled, preaching parish missions and organizing religious, cultural, and benevolent societies. Often the priest was the only educated member of the Croatian colony, and thus they had to assume leadership roles; moreover, they were among the first to learn English well and often served as translators and interpreters. Their primary responsibility, however, was the organization of Croatian Catholic parishes in the urban centers with substantial Croatian populations. Thus, at the beginning of this century there were Croatian churches in Pittsburgh and Steelton, Pennsylvania, New York, Chicago, Cleveland, Saint Louis and other cities. The oldest parish is St. Nicholas Church in Pittsburgh, founded in 1894; several others were erected in the early 1900s, such as the Church of the Nativity in San Francisco. Even before being officially established in 1926, the Croatian Franciscan friars traveled throughout the United States, establishing and assisting in Croatian parishes and keeping alive the religious and national sentiments of their people.Croatian Roman Catholics in America form a vital part of the American Catholic Church. This is due in large measure to the pioneering and ongoing efforts of their priests and sisters, whose witness has enabled the Croatian immigrant community and their children and grandchildren born in the United States to remain faithful to their Catholicism and their Croatian roots. Today there are altogether 32 Croatian parishes and 3 missions in the US.

Social association[edit]

Part of a series on
Croats
Croatia, Historic Coat of Arms, first red square.svg

Croatian Americans have been closely connected to one another almost since the day they left their home country. Chain migration contributed to the creation of settlements of Croats coming from the same regions of Croatia. They were connected because of their similar occupations that they had, equal social status, catholic religion and many other bonds that are sometimes much stronger than formal organization. The most popular informal meeting points of Croatians were the saloons. They were usually engaged in various charity organizations, and were among the first Croatian immigrants who learned to speak English. A great number of them had a very harsh daily routine, which largely appeared to be bed-factory-bed. But the positive side of the saloons cannot be denied. Beside these informal gatherings, Croatian Americans established several thousand organizations of different importance. In his work, "Early Croatian Immigration to America After 1945", George Prpic states that there were around 3 000 organizations founded between 1880 and 1940 in the United States. Croatians first started founding charitable, cultural, educational, religious, business, political, sporting or athletic organizations. All these organizations were firmly rooted in the settlement where they were initiated. Croatians were a minority group both in relation to Americans and other nationalities. Furthermore, the Croats came with the latest groups of immigrants, which lead to a further feeling of insecurity. Moreover, most of them did not speak English and had low paid jobs, which created an inferiority complex as well. Therefore, they found security within an organization of their own ethnic group. Another special type of gathering was happening around tamburica, which was often among the necessary items that a person from Croatia took to America. Tamburica and Singing clubs were not joined until March 1949 in Cleveland, where the "American-Croatian Singing Association" was founded. Croatian Americans had strong feelings about their homeland and they frequently demonstrated them publicly.

Organizations[edit]

The Croatian American organization Croatian Fraternal Union is a society with long roots in the U.S. It was started in 1897.[11] During World War II, it sent money to aid Croatia.[11] The CFU contributes to Croatian Americans by scholarships and cultural learning.[11]

The National Federation of Croatian Americans Cultural Foundation was founded in 1993 as a non-profit organization dedicated to promoting the interest of the Croatian people - embodying heritage of culture and language, integrity in human rights and equality in self-determination, advancing economic development, and freedom from persecution. [12]

The Croatian American Association is a group which lobbies the United States Congress on issues related to Croatia.[13]

The Croatian American Network is a popular Facebook Group for communication and networking.

Culture[edit]

In 2007, the annual Croatian Film Festival in New York was founded by The Doors Art Foundation.[14]

White Croatians[edit]

In Poland there existed an ethnic group called White Croats (Bijeli Hrvati) which emigrated to United States. The group was concentrated around Krakow and mostly emigrated due to Nazi and later Stalinist oppression in Poland. It is interesting to add that according to American documents, from the beginning of this century, there were about 100,000 immigrants to the U.S. born around Krakow (Poland) who declared themselves to be Bielo-Chorvats, i.e. White Croats by nationality.[15]

Well-known Croatian-Americans[edit]

Well-known Croatian-Americans past and present include:

Art[edit]

Film[edit]

Music[edit]

Science[edit]

Politics[edit]

Entrepreneurs[edit]

Sports[edit]

Other[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://factfinder2.census.gov/faces/tableservices/jsf/pages/productview.xhtml?pid=ACS_10_1YR_B04003&prodType=table
  2. ^ S0201. Selected Population Profile in the United States[dead link], Population Group: Croatian (109-110), Data Set: 2007 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates, Survey: American Community Survey.
  3. ^ EuroAmericans.net. Croatians in America. May 28, 2007.
  4. ^ Croatian diaspora in the USA It has been estimated that around 1.200.000 Croats and their descendants live in the USA.
  5. ^ "2006-2010 American Community Survey Selected Population Tables". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved January 19, 2013. 
  6. ^ Croatian Americans
  7. ^ Persons Who Reported at Least One Specific Ancestry Group for United States: 1980
  8. ^ a b Ancestry:2000
  9. ^ 2004 American Community Survey
  10. ^ Rudy Perpich
  11. ^ a b c Croatian Fraternal Union of America. May 28, 2007.
  12. ^ NFCACF
  13. ^ Croatian American Association
  14. ^ Croatian Film Festival Opens in New York
  15. ^ US Senate-Reports on the Immigration commission, Dictionary of races or peoples, Washington DC, 1911, p. 40, 43, 105. [1]
  16. ^ Shelly Gledhill:Colby Vranes, awaiting his mission in life

Further reading[edit]

  • Adamic, Luj (1945). A Nation of Nations. New York. 
  • Antic, Ljubomir (1992). Hrvati i Amerika. Zagreb: Hrvatska sveucilisna naklada.  (Croatian)
  • Bonutti, Karl (1974). Selected Ethnic Communities of Cleveland: A Socio-Economic Study. Cleveland: Cleveland State University. 
  • Cordasco (1971). Dictionary of American Immigrants in America. New York: Philosophical Library. 
  • Habenstein, R. W.; Wright, R. Jr. (1998). Ethnic families in America: Patterns and variations (3rd ed.). Englewood Cliffs NJ: Prentice Hall. ISBN 0-444-01319-9. 
  • Momeni, Jamshid A. (1986). Race, Ethnicity, and Minority Housing in the United States. New York: Greenwood Press. ISBN 0-313-24848-6. 
  • Thernstrom, Stephen (1980). Harvard Encyclopedia of American Ethnic Groups. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-37512-2. 

External links[edit]