Emblem of the Croatian Army
|Size||12,500 personnel (includes 2000 volunteers) |
|Part of||Armed Forces of the Republic of Croatia|
|Motto||"Domovini vjerni" (Faithful to Homeland)|
|March||Mi smo garda hrvatska (We are the guards of Croatia)|
|Equipment||76 MBT, 617 IFV & APC, 298 artillery pieces, mortars|
|Major General Dragutin Repinc|
|General Martin Špegelj, General Janko Bobetko, General Petar Stipetić, General Zvonimir Červenko, Lieutenant General Ante Gotovina, Lieutenant General Marijan Mareković, Lieutenant General Mladen Kruljac|
The fundamental role and purpose of the Croatian Army is to protect vital national interests of the Republic of Croatia and defend the sovereignty and territorial integrity of the state.
The basic tasks of the Croatian Army are:
- to maintain an optimal level of combat readiness of the Armed Forces
- to fight a possible aggressor's main forces on strategic-operational levels and to defend against any land, air and amphibious assaults
- to prevent, in cooperation with the other branches of the Armed Forces, an aggressor from in-depth operations on Croatian territory
- to build and develop the capability to respond to requests of non-traditional tasks that are required of the Croatian Army (floods, fires, natural disasters...)
- to assist its allies and friendly countries in time of need.
Numerous Croatian army units arose from the Croatian National Guard, including:
- 1st Guards Brigade (Croatia)
- 2nd Guards Brigade (Croatia)
- 3rd Guards Brigade (Croatia)
- 7th Guards Brigade (Croatia)
- Croatian 104th Brigade
- 204th Vukovar Brigade
The locally-based regiments were named the Home Guard Regiments (Domobranska pukovnija). They were created on 24 December 1991, during the war, and ceased to exist in a 2003 reorganization.
Organizational structure and status
The Croatian Army is an all-volunteer force numbering 12,500 active personnel. The Army can also call on 6,000 reserve personnel who serve up to 30 days every year.
The Croatian Army is being reorganized to fit in the NATO doctrine of a small, highly capable force with an emphasis on mobility and versatility.
Major combatant commands of the Croatian Army are one mechanized and one motorized brigade, each brigade having a specific role and different responsibilities. In 2012, one motorized infantry company is to be detached and put under the command of the EU Battle Group led by Germany. Croatia continues to deploy 350 personnel in support of NATO International Security Assistance Force in Afghanistan.
Croatia achieved NATO membership in April 2009. The defence reforms that Croatia initiated in 2000 have a long term goal of replacing and modernizing the armed forces to meet the challenges of NATO membership. The plan calls for the modernization of the Army and the introduction of training and doctrine in line with Western (NATO) standards. Replacing ex-Yugoslav/Soviet hardware is also one of the main priorities.
There are various ongoing initiatives, such as the upgrade of the tank fleet, modernization of obsolete anti aircraft systems, introduction of new Armored Personnel Carriers and NATO standard assault rifles, etc. Procurement of new, NATO-compatible equipment takes a significant part of the defense budget.
Until recently, Croatia operated just under 280 main battle tanks, but this number decreased significantly due to the withdrawal of roughly 200 obsolete T-55 tanks in 2006. Most of these units have been scrapped, but a limited number have been stored as operational reserve in case of need. The mainstay now is the M-84A4 Snajper main battle tank. However, modernization of the tank fleet to the M-84D standard is one of the priorities set in the new defense budget.
In July, 2007 Patria AMV won the contract to supply the next generation of APCs to the Croatian Army. Only 84 vehicles were ordered at first, but an additional 42 were purchased in an extended contract signed in December 2008. Croatia thus has 126 units on order with the first six vehicles manufactured in Finland delivered by late 2008. All remaining vehicles will be locally produced. According to some reports, at least 50-60 additional APCs are needed. In 2010, an order was placed for an undisclosed number (most probably 56) of Protector (RWS) remote controlled weapons stations (RCWS).
In early 2007, Croatia bought 10 Iveco LMV light armoured vehicles at a cost of 330,000 Euros per unit. According to official documents, 94 of these vehicles were needed by 2017. However, Croatia will rely on US-donated HMMWV and MRAP type vehicles.
Steps have been made to standardize the difficult-to-maintain vehicle inventory of the Croatian military, which is full of various models of different origin, type and age. In 2005, the Army bought 152 light trucks and vehicles, 156 in 2006 with an additional 170 obtained by the end of 2007. All vehicles are from prominent European or Japanese manufacturers including Mercedes-Benz, Land Rover, Iveco, MAN, Toyota and Nissan. These purchases are an ongoing process seen as roughly 150-180 new terrain vehicles are procured annually.
The Croatian Army plans to introduce a new assault rifle in 5.56mm NATO caliber to replace the AK-47 and its derivatives. The preferred model seems to be the locally manufactured VHS developed by HS Produkt. It was reported in the media that the MoD has purchased the initial batch of 1,000 rifles in 2009-2010. Previous Defense Ministers Rončević and Vukelić both went on record stating the requirement for up to 20,000 rifles. The MoD press and photo releases from regular training activities in 2011 indicate that the VHS has been issued to elements of the Military Intelligence Battalion, Combat Swimmer Detachment of the Special Forces Battalion, as well as to one of the infantry companies of the Guards Motorized Brigade that will be made available to the German-led EU Battle Group in 2012. There have been unconfirmed reports that the rifle is being tested in Afghanistan.
Current structure of Croatian Army
- Armored Guard Brigade (based in Vinkovci)
- Headquarters & Headquarters Company
- 1st Tank Battalion "Kune"
- 2nd Tank Battalion
- 3rd Mechanised Battalion "Sokolovi"
- 4th Mechanised Battalion "Pume"
- Artillery Battalion
- Air Defence Battalion
- Engineer Battalion
- Reconnaissance Company
- Signals Company
- Logistics Company
- Armored Guard Brigade (based in Vinkovci)
- Motorized Guard Brigade (based in Knin)
- Headquarters & Headquarters Company
- 1st Motorised Battalion "Vukovi"
- 2nd Motorised Battalion "Pauci"
- 3rd Mechanised Battalion "Tigrovi"
- 4th Mechanised Battalion "Gromovi"
- Artillery Battalion
- Air Defence Battalion
- Engineer Battalio
- Reconnaissance Company
- Signals Company
- Logistics Company
- Motorized Guard Brigade (based in Knin)
- Training and Doctrine Command Fran Krsto Frankopan
- Infantry Regiment
- Artillery Regiment
- Air Defence Regiment
- Engineer Regiment
- Logistics Regiment
- Basic Training Centre
- Tactical Artillery Training Centre
- Training and Operations Simulation Centre
- Training Centre for International Military Operations
- Military Police Regiment
- Signals Regiment
- Military Intelligence Battalion
- NBC Defence Battalion
- Training and Doctrine Command Fran Krsto Frankopan
Economic recession in much of the EU and in Croatia from 2009 caused the revision of Croatia's plans to modernize its armed forces. Initially it was planned to spend around 15 billion kuna on armed forces modernization not included in this was a special purchase for advanced jet fighters which would cost another 8-12 billion kuna. Croatia's responsibility towards NATO some schedules had to be fulfilled, such as procurement of modern armored personal carrier as well as modernization of infantry solder, from training to equipping infantry units with best gear army can afford. Program is almost an end, should be fully implemented by the end of 2015.
Although there were quite a few setbacks in Army modernization plans, such as delays in purchase of new infantry fighting vehicles, light armored personal carriers, no real strategy as to what to do with M84A4 main battle tanks and army logistics got little or no new equipment since 2008. However, large donations by US military as well as other NATO allies should ensure that the Croatian Army of 2020 can fully integrate and interoperate with NATO in terms of equipment, logistics and weapon systems.
- Procurement of 126 Patria AMV Modular APC/IFV - 2.8 billion Kuna (additional vehicles might be ordered after 2017).
- Procurement of 167 M-ATV Oshkosh and 47 MRAP by late 2014. These are going to be donated by the USA Army and the Croatian MoD is only to pay the transportation of the equipment. Cost of program - 80 million Kuna.
- Procurement of a medium-range (ceiling of >9,000 metres) air-defense system around 2015 as a part of the new plan to form a surface-to air battery.
- Procurement of 18 surplus German PzH 2000 advanced artillery systems which are to be delivered before 2015 to replace the obsolete 2S1 self-propelled howitzers. Swedish ARCHER Artillery System and French CAESAR self-propelled howitzer were likely candidates for this program but the German PzH 2000 was selected due to lower acquisition costs. Cost of program - 200 million Kuna.
- Procurement of 550 x 5-ton army trucks, 200 x 7.5-ton military trucks and 300 4WD vehicles - program is in a full swing and first batch of MAN (150), Mercedes (30) and Iveco (50) military trucks was delivered by 2008. Croatian Army also ordered large numbers of new 4WD vehicles, Mercedes-Benz G-Class - 160(320), Land Rover Wolf - 30, Toyota Land Cruiser - 50, Nissan Navara - 50, delivered in 2005-2007. Up to 300 additional second-hand trucks from the German stock are to be delivered by the end of 2014. Cost of program - 600 million Kuna.
- Modernization of M-84A4 Snajper MBTs and their upgrade to M-84D standard. Program calls for an upgrade and modernization of 72 existing tanks. There are some indication that program might receive funding, but its still unclear how many tanks might be modernized or any as of now only overhaul of tanks is being mentioned, modernization of entire fleet to the M84D standard would be too expensive for Croatian MOD, estimated at $2.8 million per tank .
- Introduction of new 5.56 mm NATO standard assault rifle. Cost of program - unknown. (20,000 rifles with day/night sights and grenade launchers are planned). Most likely choice is domestic VHS assault rifle, contract for acquisition of first 1,000 rifles was signed with HS Produkt.
- Scores of smaller programs, communication equipment, night-vision capability, electronic sensors, NBC equipment, battlefield management systems and modernization of artillery systems with new sights and electronic fire-control systems.
- Equipping motorized infantry battalion (800-1,000 men) with night vision equipment, including advanced optoelectronics and sensors, ground radars, thermal imaging cameras – 120 million Croatian Kuna
- NBC equipment for biological/chemical-decontamination unit – 150 million Croatian Kuna
- Procurement of new army engineering vehicles, armored recovery vehicles, mine clearance vehicles and armored personal vehicles designed to withstand mine blasts – 320 million Croatian Kuna
- Procurement of modern communication and battlefield management systems – 50 million Croatian Kuna
- Procurement of new logistic and amphibious vehicles – 250 million Croatian Kuna
- Procurement of 3-4 Artillery Radars – 30-40 million Croatian Kuna
- Procurement of 8-12 Mobile air defense radars – 200-300 million Croatian Kuna
- Procurement of Army Field Hospital - 80-100 million Croatian Kuna
- Procurement of 16 Army Tank transporters, Heavy Equipment Transporters – 80-100 million Croatian Kuna
- Procurement of Bridge laying equipment – 100 million Croatian Kuna
The Croatian Army's requirement for personal protection side arms is being fulfilled by the locally produced and very popular HS2000 hand gun design, which has also become increasingly popular in the USA and elsewhere.
|HS Produkt HS 2000||9x19mm||Croatia||40,000||standard sidearm|
|H&K MP5||9x19mm||Germany||80-100||special forces and the anti terrorist police|
|H&K UMP||9x19mm||Germany||80-100~||special forces and the anti terrorist police|
|H&K MP7||4.6x30mm||Germany||70-80~||special forces and the anti terrorist police|
The Croatian Army's current standard assault rifle is the M70, with around 10,000 still in active service. This is being replaced by the Croatian made HS Produkt VHS, of which 5,000+ are currently in use. The VHS will entirely replace the M70 by 2015. Croatian peackeepers and serviceman who serve on NATO/EU missions tend to be supplied with the German-made H&K G36C rifle and, to a lesser extent, the US Colt M4 carbine.
The Croatian Army inherited large quantities of Yugoslav Army light infantry weaponry, much of it captured during the Battle of the Barracks. These were supplemented by indigenous designs, some of which were very successful and found export markets. During the 1990s, these were perfectly acceptable light infantry weapons; however, with Croatia's entry into NATO, many older Yugoslav-era designs were seen as redundant and surplus to the requirement. Much of stock of small arms is being replaced by western designs and will lead to the eventual withdrawal of some older models such as Zastava M76, RT-20, MSCS M1 &2, and older Remington rifles. Croatia has acquired a substantial quantity of Sako TRG 42 sniper rifles with the aim of equipping the current army (around 7 infantry battalions) with 32 Sako TRG 42 sniper rifles per battalion. Additional equipment, such as optics and grenade launchers, were also obtained from domestic and German suppliers. Machine guns inherited from the Yugoslav era are also being supplemented by a large number of western models, namely FN MAG, Ultimax 100, M249 light machine gun and, contentiously, an ever growing quantity of M2 Browning machine guns (of which Croatia had some 570 examples at the end of 2010, but numbers are likely to grow to well over 800 by mid-2015 due to number of new armored vehicles being armed with remote overhead weapon stations, as well as stand alone firing ports on a number of new armored vehicles Croatia has acquired or is to acquire from US and other NATO partners).
|Zastava M70||7.62x39mm||Yugoslavia||10 000||80,000 stored and offered for sale, 44,000 sold to Afghanistan in 2010, 4000 donated to Mali in 2013, some 6000 rifles sold to Syrian Rebels via Jordan and Saudi Arabia, something Croatian Government at the time wasn't fully aware off. Rifle will be phased out by 2015.|
|HS Produkt VHS/VHS2||5.56X45mm||Croatia||3000~||around 3000 rifles in service, with additional 2000~ to be acquired under 2008 contract, additional orders transferred to VHS2 assault rifles for initial order for 17000 assault rifles, although Croatian Army long term requirement calls for 50 000 Assault rifles. 500 Rifles intended for Croatian Army sold to US DOD. |
|H&K G36C||5.56X45mm||Germany||550||standard assault rifle in service with the Special Forces and Ministry of the Interior, additional 200 acquired for MUP for total of 750.|
|FN F2000||5.56x45mm||Belgium||100||used by BSD & weapon familiarization|
|Colt M4||5.56x45mm||United States||200||- used by ISF contingent and BSD |
|Sako TRG-42||8.6x70mm||Finland||240||standard sniper rifle of Croatian Army replacing older models.|
|Zastava M76||7.92x57mm||Yugoslavia||40~||sniper rifle still in some use for training and familiarization with the weapon. 1600 stored, being phased out.|
|MACS M3||12.7x99mm||Croatia||64||standard sniper rifle, 180 stored, supplements Sako TRG.|
|RT-20||20x110mm||Croatia||48||anti-materiel rifle 32 stored|
|Remington M40||7.62x51||United States||48~|| 100~ being phased out, with few remaining for familiarization and training.|
|Barrett M82||12.7x99mm||United States||24~||anti-materiel rifle, a dozen or so kept in reserve status.|
|RBG-6||40x46mm||Croatia||124||112 with Croatian Army and 12 with special forces and anti terrorist units. |
|H&K AG36||40x46mm||Germany||300||Comes as standard with all H&K G36C deployed in ISAF and other NATO/EU missions.|
|Zastava M84||7.62x54mm||Yugoslavia||360||1040 stored, being replaced by NATO models, to be phased out by 2015.|
|Browning M2||12.7x99mm||United States||570+||many more to be acquired.|
|FN M249||5.56x45mm||Belgium||100|| more to be acquired, replacing M84 in Army use.|
|FN MAG||7.62x51mm||Belgium||400~||number purchased for new light armored vehicles and infantry mobility vehicles armored|
|Ultimax 100||5.56x45mm||Singapore||100||purchased in mid 90s, just after the Homeland War.|
Of some 72 M84A4 tanks in army inventory roughly only a third are fully operable at any given time primarily due to poor maintenance and financial constraints. Even though M-84D prototype was first presented to the public in 2008, thus far only 2 M-84A4 tanks have been modernized. Unexpectedly though, on April 24, 2013 the Defence Minister signed a memorandum with Đuro Đaković - Specijalna vozila for the upkeep and maintenance of current tank fleet. raising hopes for potential future modernization of M84 tanks to D standard. However, according to current plans only 4 tanks are to be fully overhauled at cost of $1.8 million or roughly $440 000 per tank. Full tank battalion consisting of 52 tanks should be overhauled sometimes by 2018. Long term plans regarding the future role of M84 tanks in Croatian Army is yet be defined by MOD, a replacement by by a more modern NATO tank is a likelihood if modernization to M-84D standard is abandoned by the MOD with most likely candidate being Leopard 2A4 or A6.
|M-84A4 Snajper||MBT||Croatia||72||All M-84A tanks brought to this standard by 2008 and are awaiting further upgrade. The fleet is undergoing limited overhaul with 4 tanks to be refurbished by the year's end at the cost of 440,000 USD per vehicle. Currently only a third of M84 tanks are in serviceable condition with many awaiting overhaul. However, the new long-term 2014-2023 defence plan should unveil whether there is going to be a fleet upgraded to "M84D" standard or if the fleet is going to be replaced with an all-new tank type.|
|M-84D||MBT||Croatia||2||An upgrade for the entire M-84A4 fleet is being considered but no firm decisions have been made as of yet due to the high costs involved.|
|M-95 Degman||MBT||Croatia||2||Two units produced but never entered full service with the Army, development transferred to M-84D. The first unit delivered in 2003 and the second one in 2007. Project canceled after only 2 units, deemed too expensive at the time.|
The Croatian Army is forced currently to rely on old yet tested M-80A infantry fighting vehicles, of which there are 128 in service. These vehicles are deployed in two mechanized infantry battalions but replacement by a western equivalent at lest for now remains a distant prospect. Croatian MOD stated that M80 will be replaced at some point and there are no plans to modernize these vehicles as they're inadequate to meet modern army requirements, most likely replacement for M80A is CV-90 Infantry Fighting Vehicle manufactured by Swedish Bofors, but due to high costs involved in such procurement no indication as to when such purchase might happen, certainly not before 2015.
|BVP M-80A||IFV||Yugoslavia||128||A total of 104 vehicles operational in two battalions, additional 24 converted or surplus units. Possible modernization of the fleet won't happen under new defence white paper, additional 120 Patria AMV IFVs were considered as alternative for IFV program but this has now been discounted due to the fact that requirement calls for tracked IFV which can keep up with tanks. Most likely candidate for the program is CV-90/30. |
|BTR-50PK||APC||Soviet Union||26||Due to be replaced by additional amphibious capable Patria AMV by 2015.|
Croatian Defence White paper from 2005 envisaged replacement of entire stock of Yugoslav era armored vehicles with modern NATO compatible vehicles, for this purpose Croatian MOD planned to spend part of 15 billion kuna, but due to unforeseen economic crisis that has hit much of the world plans were put on hold. Purchase of 126 Patria AMV was in advanced stage to postpone that deal but many other programs vital for Croatian Army have been put on hold for time being. However Army is trying to cover holes with 2nd hand procurements primarily from allied NATO sources. USA being prime supplier of such vehicles, in 20010 US Army donated some 63 up armored HMMWV M1151 and additional 8 MaxPro MRPV. Although this was initial requirement for Croatian 320 personal strong ISF contingent, Croatian Army requirement are much greater and purchase of brand new equipment at least for now is not a viable option. Croatian Army has requirement for additional 64 Patria AMV but due to budgetary constrains these vehicles are unlikely to be ordered before 2015 and order for additional 84 Iveco LMV has been put on hold until country can afford army modernization.
As things stand, the army has been left with few options but to rely on US Military surplus to cover immediate needs in the Army's defence procurement programs. The Croatian Army is currently lacking 170-200 armored personal carriers, 50 of which need to be a mine resistant variety and is negotiating with US Army for supply of 50 MRAP vehicles, MXT-MV, Maxpro, Cougar and at least 100 addition M1151 Up-Armored Capable HMMWV, cost of the program is 10$ million, with Croatian MOD only paying for transport and transfer of said vehicles. 
US Army surplus MARP and armored vehicles will only provide an interim solution until the Croatian MOD can afford brand new vehicles, including additional Patria AMV and Iveco LMV.
|Patria AMV||APC||Finland||126||Croatian NATO commitment is for 3 mechanized battalions armed with Patria AMVs, or around 156 vehicles + various other AMV derivatives, it is quite likely Croatia will order additional battalion of AMV's after 2015, most likely in 2017 to fulfill its NATO obligations. (additional 60-70 vehicles). |
|BOV VP||APC||Yugoslavia||54||Some are used by the Military Police and in ISAF missions. To be phased out by 2015 and replaced by additional International MaxxPro, Cougar and large quantity of HMMWV.|
|LOV-1||APC||Croatia||72||A light APC of indigenous design; 72 were produced by 1997. Few to be kept, rest to be retired, replaced by US supplied Oshkosh M-ATV, Croatian requirement call for around 100 vehicles. |
|M-83 Polo||APC||Yugoslavia||37||An anti-tank variant armed with the improved 9M14P1 Malyutka missiles. To be phased out by 2015 with US supplied armored vehicles, most likely HMMWV and Oshkosh M-ATV of which Croatia has requested a significant quantity. Croatia has stated requirement for 160 vehicles US Army agreed to deliver 120, but US Senate has to approve additional vehicles, although this more of a formality. Croatia has requested more than 500 armored vehicles of all sorts from US in value exceeding 120 million US$.|
|M1151 Up-Armored Capable HMMWV||IMV||United States||90+ 170 on order||Twelve vehicles donated by the US Army in 2007, an additional 30 in 2008 and another 8 in 2009. They are mostly used by ISAF forces in Afghanistan, but some are home-based. Around 40 new M1151 Up-Armored Capable HMMWV  will partially replace the earlier M1114 versions, with 13 delivered in February and a further 13 to follow by February 2012. These newer vehicles, however, are to remain in the country. Number to rise significantly as Croatia just made a request for additional 170 vehicles.|
|Iveco LMV||IMV||Italy||14||An additional 80 vehicles are to enter service by 2017 - there have been some delays due to delivery of large quantity of M1151 Up-Armored Capable HMMWVs.|
|International MaxxPro||MRAP||United States||10+||Additional donations are quite likely due to Croatian Army own requirements as well as for future operations such as ISAF. Unspecified quantity of additional vehicles to be delivered in 2014 & 2015. from US Army reserves. Croatian requirements call for additional 50 vehicles of which at least 16 would be Army Medical Ambulance configuration, rest in urban patrol and peacekeeping configuration. These are to be supplemented by additional 30-50 Cougar vehicles.|
|Cougar||MRAP||United States||47||On order from US Army, all to be delivered by the end of 2014. 12 Vehicles to be configured as unarmed armored ambulances,remaining vehicles armed with 12.7mm remote weapon station.  |
|Oshkosh M-ATV||MRAP||United States||167||On order from US Army, initially order was made for 127 vehicles but requirement called for additional 40 vehicles which had to be approved by US Senate. All vehicles to be delivered by the end of 2014  |
|M-84AI||Armoured Recovery Vehicle||Croatia||4||The last vehicle entered service in 2002.|
|T-55TZI||Armoured Recovery Vehicle||Soviet Union||4||Are awaiting replacement. |
|MT-55A||Armoured Bridge Vehicle||Czechoslovakia||2+||Additional bridge units are mounted on KrAZ 6x6 heavy trucks, but are awaiting replacement. |
|GSP-55 self-propelled amphibious ferry||Amphibious Vehicle||Soviet Union||2||Only 2 operational and used with engineering unit. awaiting replacement by modern NATO system. |
|PTS-M||Amphibious Vehicle||Soviet Union||2||After some years of inactivity, they have been overhauled and are still operational.|
|PMS||Pontoon Bridge||Soviet Union||4-5||All are mounted on Tatra T813 8x8 trucks. 4 System seen at the parade, but number could be higher, serving with engineering regiment, awaiting replacement by modern NATO system.|
|MV-4||Combat engineer||Croatia||4||used for demining operations |
Under new proposed plan for Croatian Army modernization, Croatian Army is to revive a Surface to Air battery capable of hitting targets beyond the 10 km range. Current systems in service are all short-range with Strijela - 10CROA1 (Croatian army's only SAM systems) having a maximum range of 7 km. The likely candidates for the Croatian army requirements are Crotale NG or similar system of which purchase will highly be dependant on price and support packages. Much of the present arsenal will be disposed off eventually as much of it is too obsolete to be of any use to a modern military.
|Strijela - 10CROA1||short range surface-to-air missile system||Croatia||9||The systems are currently undergoing modernization and test trials and offer 15-20% better performance than their Russian original, especially in their range (7 km versus 5 km) and flight altitude (5 km versus 3,5 km). They might be mounted on Patria AMV vehicles to increase maneuverability. The option to install Mistral M2 or RBS 70 missiles is also a possibility. Further modernizations to be halted and the system to be replaced by a more modern medium-range weapon.|
|9K38 Igla||MANPADS||Soviet Union||67||The system was to undergo a modernization in 2010 but whether this has been done is uncertain.|
|9K32 Strela-2M||MANPADS|| Soviet Union
|141 (+372)||Existing variants were produced and/or modernized in Croatia and offer slightly better performance than the original variants. An additional 372 systems are to be gradually withdrawn by 2015.|
|BOV 20/3||SPAAG||Yugoslavia||44||The triple M55 20mm anti-aircraft guns mounted on a BOV APC. There are plans to replace the system with modern NATO equivalent, perhaps with Gepard Anti aircraft guns from German reserve stock. Systems will remain in service toll 2015 at least, when resources are expected to run out for these systems.|
|Bofors 40 mm L/70||anti-aircraft autocannon||Sweden||12||Paired to Giraffe radars, but possibly withdrawn from service due to costly maintenance.|
- Although Croatia acquired the S-300 long-range surface-to-air missile system in 1994, and demonstrated some of its parts on the 1995 military parade, it is believed that the system was never fully completed and operational although the training of crews was sought as late as 1998. Some sources claim that the weapon was subsequently handed-over to the USA or Israel in 2002-2004. However, officials still claim that the system is stored somewhere in Croatia.
Croatian Army has relied heavily on Russian and domestically made anti tank systems and rocket propelled grandees many of whom by modern standards are obsolete or inadequate as is the case with AT-3 Sagger and AT-4 Spigot, systems that are over 40 years old. Although Croatian Army priorities laid elsewhere when it came to modernization of the armed forces, it was inevitable with procurement of a large quantity of western made armored vehicles that eventually question of procurement of modern anti tank system would need to be addressed. With defence budget in decline and other programs taking priorities anti tank weapons and missiles simply didn't receive much attention.
A procurement of modern western made anti tank system is finally being addressed and current government has set plans in motion to initially purchase several dozen launchers for Patria Armored Vehicles which are to be fully integrated with 30mm license built Koenigsberg remote turret weapon station. Most likely candidates for this program are Spike LR and FGM-148 Javelin as they meet Croatian Army requirement for anti tank missiles system with range exceeding 4000m, currently Croatia does not posses an anti tank guided missile system that fits these parameters, Metis M having range of 2000m or less isn't deemed sufficient for modern ground army warfare.
Croatian Army requirements are significant, equipping 5 mechanized and 2 scout/reconnaissance battalions at this point might be too expensive as requirement calls for over 168 launchers (up to 240 launchers if tandem launchers are fitted on to Patria AMVs) and significant number of missiles exceeding 1000 missiles, no doubt procurement of said systems might be stretched over a decade due to high costs involved.
M80 launchers also need replacing and M4 which is now standard training tool for Croatian Army is most likely successor to M80 launcher, number of which have been already purchased. As M80 is being relegated in to reserve or discounted its only a matter of time before M80 is fully withdrawn from army use. However, other domestically manufactured [rpg], RL90 M95 is set to remain in active service for some time, at least for now there are no indications if system will be replaced any time soon, and as system has proven on the battlefield and Croatia has managed to produce its own improved version of RL90 M95, system is likely to remain in service for quite some time.
|9К115-2 Metis-M/9K115 Metis||wire-guided anti-tank missile||Soviet Union||54||System purchased from Russia and Ukraine in early 90s, during the war of Croatian Independence, 54 launchers and over 300 missiles in service.|
|9M113 Konkurs||wire-guided anti-tank missile||Soviet Union||42||System purchased from Russia and Ukraine in early 90s, during the war of Croatian Independence, 42 launchers and over 300 missiles in service. To be replaced by Javelin or Eurospike at some point in near future.|
|9K111 Fagot||wire-guided anti-tank missile||Soviet Union||119||Awaiting replacement by a modern tandem warhead anti tank system Eurospike being most likely candidate to equip several mechanized infantry battalions and large number of anti tank vehicles including Patria AMVs armed with ATGM/30mm turrets.|
|9K114 Shturm||anti-tank missile||Soviet Union||24~||24 Launchers and at least 50~ missiles. Originally 60 launchers and 180 missiles purchased as part of purchase of 15 Mil 24 Hind in 1993/4 from Ukraine. Currently not in active use as all but 6 Mil 24 hinds were retired, but there's a chance of installing the launcher on Mil 171Sh should need arise. |
|9K11 Malyutka||wire-guided anti-tank missile||Soviet Union||360||Only several 9M14P1 in service used mainly for training, complete withdrawal from service by 2015, to be replaced bty moder NATO tandem warhead system after 2015.|
|M80 "Zolja"||RPG||Yugoslavia||a few||Only few remain due to running out of available stock. To be phased out completely by 2015 replaced by AT4|
|RL90 M95||RPG||Croatia||1500+||Are available in large quantities, M80/M95 will also be replaced by modern NATO system, AT4 most likely.|
|AT4||RPG||Sweden||300+||The exact number of these weapons is unknown.|
With the end of the conflict in Croatia at the end of 1995 Croatia inherited large stockpile of Yugoslav era weapons systems that no longer can be utilized due the fact that Croatia is in NATO and systems in question are obsolete and in many cases unsafe for use. Artillery is one segment that Croatian MOD relented over for a long time as to what to do with a significant stockpile of weapons. Decision was made to modernize two battalions of D-30 HR M94 Soviet-made artillery systems to the latest NATO standard as an interim and cheap solution, with rest of the artillery stockpile kept in prepared state of reediness.
Situation become very dire lately with Croatian Army having no artillery system capable of hitting targets beyond 20 km, to avert what is a serious shortcoming Croatian MOD has placed an order for modern NATO artillery system with capability that can exceeds 20 km range requirement, Croatian MOD has chosen to purchase 18 Panzerhaubitze 2000 (or one battalion) howitzers from the German Army stock for 200 million Kuna/ or $36 million, System will be delivered in 2014 and 2015 with all the support infrastructure required for these system including training and logistic and supply trucks. Although at one point Croatian Army was considering Bofors Archer system, it seems that system was deemed too expensive to purchase, although in long term Archer Artillery System it would have been a lot cheaper, due to the fact that uses less fuel, less logistic support and fewer crew, 3+2 versus 3+5 for the German Pzh2000.
|M57||60mm Mortar||Yugoslavia||69||1253 kept in reserve  mortar has effective range of 3500m with standard projectile. Mortar underwent modernization and upgrade to meet NATO requirements but also to increase weapon's capability and effectiveness.|
|M96||82mm Mortar||Yugoslavia||69||360 kept in reserve, improved copy of the Yugoslav M69 mortar Mortar has 5600m effective range with a standard projectile, 4200m illuminating projectile and 4800m with light anti armour projectile. Mortar underwent modernization and upgrade to meet NATO requirements but also to increase weapon's capability and effectiveness.|
|M75||120mm Mortar||Yugoslavia||43||201 kept in reserve Mortar has 9500m effective range with a standard round projectile, and 5500m with illuminating projectile. Mortar underwent modernization and upgrade to meet NATO requirements but also to increase weapon's capability and effectiveness.|
|M56||Howitzer105mm||Yugoslavia||4||156 Captured during Battle of the Barracks in 1991, 44 kept in reserve with 4 used for training, |
|D-30 RH M94||Howitzer 122mm||Croatia||36||improved Russian D-30 howitzer brought up to NATO standards, 40 artillery pieces, 1 in museum and 3 loaned to NATO's Joint Multinational Training Centre in Hohenfels in Germany for extend time. To be retired by 2017 and replaced by western made system, M777 howitzer is most likely candidate as a replacement although at this point this is only a guess. |
|CITER 155mm L33 Gun||Howitzer 155mm||Argentina||8||all systems operational, system to be replaced by 2020 with a modern lighter towed 155mm system.|
|76 mm mountain gun M48||Howitzer 76mm||Yugoslavia||12||of 57 artillery pieces only 12 are kept in active service primarily as ceremonial and training cannons, to be phased out by 2015/6.|
|2S1 Gvozdika||Self-propelled howitzer 122mm||Soviet Union||9||to be replaced by 18 Panzerhaubitze 2000|
|Panzerhaubitze 2000||Self-propelled howitzer 155mm||Germany||18||on order from German Army reserve stock, $35 million contract for 18 Howitzers with support equipment, spare parts and training included in the package. all to be delivered by 2015, with first 9 to join Croatian Army in second half of 2014 with remaining vehicles delivered after general over hull by the German Army in mid-2015. With arrival of PzH2000s Gvozdiaks are to be retired and scraped from Army Service. |
|APR-40||MRL 122mm||Romania||24||36 Ordered from Romania in 1992/3, some 24 vehicles still in active service, awaiting replacement or complete modernization.|
|M-87 Orkan||MRL 260mm||Yugoslavia||2||Captured during Battle of the Barracks in 1991, systems are in perfect working order, inoperable and kept in reserve status due to lack of proper ammunition, will be replaced at some point by a modern NATO system.|
|RAK-12||MRL 128mm Towed||Croatia||24||some 60 are kept in reserve status, to be completely withdrawn from active service by 2015.|
The logistic component of the Croatian Army is being renewed continuously and over the past decade a number of new vehicle have been procured. Stated requirement calls for 1,250 5-10 ton military trucks, 550 4WD Jeeps of all sorts and a number of other support and utility vehicles. In recent times, the Croatian MOD has signed procurement agreements with MAN, Iveco, Mercedes and Astra Iveco. Most notably in recent history was a corruption affair that resulted in the dismissal and subsequent custodial sentence for former defence minister Berislav Rončević who 'approved procurement of 33 Iveco Astra Military Trucks at inflated price without holding a public procurement tender that is a standard procedure in any major defence procurement program.'
The Croatian MOD has since purchased a number of new military trucks and 4WD vehicles through public procurement program; the latest being a 2011 procurement of some 80 Mercedes, MAN Trucks and 120 Toyota and Nissan 4WD vehicles. Although, as of late 2012, nearly half of the Croatian Army's logistics inventory is obsolete or near obsolete and in need of a replacement.
As of late 2012, the Croatian Army lacks some 400 Military trucks of all sorts. Also, many vehicles in the current stock are quite obsolete and in need of replacing. The problem is furthermore escalated by the fact that the Defence Budget for 2013 has been slashed by 250 million kuna, further reducing the probability of the Croatian Army receiving new logistic vehicles.
The Croatian Army is now looking at getting some German Army surplus stock that is in good condition and available for use; 300-400 Army trucks are needed and it is likely they'll all come from German Army surplus - most likely MAN KAT1 army trucks.
|Iveco||5T Transport Truck||Italy||109||initial order of 39 vehicles made in 2005 and subsequent order for additional 80 vehicles in 2008 and 2009.|
|Iveco||Medium and Heavy Trucks||Italy||40+||initial order of a half a dozen or so vehicles made in 2007. Most are used along with the MAN Trucks for heavy Transporter role.  |
|TAM||Utility Truck||Slovenia||600~||large number of these trucks in various configurations still serve in many roles within Croatian Army, they're being replaced by modern models but, due to defence cutbacks, these vehicles are likely to remain in service for the foreseeable future. These vehicles are, in many cases, now over 40 years old; replacement is sought when and where possible.|
|Mercedes-Benz Actros 6x6, 8x8||Heavy Utility Vehicle||Germany||40||Standard heavy utility vehicle of the Croatian Army, 40 units ordered in 2010, all delivered and in service by mid-2012. Additional vehicles might be ordered to replace older vehicles currently in service.|
|MAN Tank Transporter Truck||40T Truck, Tank Transporter||Germany||16||16 older MAN units in service, being replaced by modern equivalent soon.|
|Astra Truck||Medium Utility Vehicle||Italy||33||Standard utility vehicle of the Croatian Army, 33 units ordered in 2004, all delivered and in service. Additional vehicles will be ordered eventually to replace older military trucks currently in service. Croatia needs to replace some 900 military trucks. |
|Daf Truck||Medium Utility Vehicle||Netherlands||60~||Standard utility vehicle of the Croatian Army; 60 units received from the Dutch Army reserve stock in 2001.|
|Toyota Landcruiser||Utility||Japan||80~||150 Ordered in 2008 and delivered in 2010, half went to other government departments, including the Ministry of the Interior. All are in good serviceable condition; it is a standard utility vehicle in service with the Croatian Army and other governmental agencies of Croatia.|
|Mercedes G 4WD||Light Utility Vehicle||Germany||324||Standard utility vehicle of the Croatian Army, 250 units ordered in 2002/3, all delivered and in service. An additional 74 vehicles ordered in 2008 and delivered in 2010.|
|Nissan Navara 4WD||Light Utility Vehicle||Japan||80||Standard utility vehicle of the Croatian Army, 80 units ordered in 2010, all delivered and in service by mid-2012. Additional vehicles might be ordered to replace older vehicles currently in service.  |
|Land Rover Wolf 4WD||Light Utility Vehicle||United Kingdom||32~||Primarily used by the Croatian Army's special forces and military police; many transferred to the Croatian Police. Of the 200 ordered in 1998, only 32 remain in service with the armed forces; some 120 transferred to civilian use, many ending up with the MUP, ministry of interior in various roles, some with Croatian Mountain Rescue Service and some with Border Patrol Units. |
- Withdrawn from service or in store
- FN FAL 7.62x51mm Belgium 5,000 stored to be sold off
- T-55A withdrawal of over 280 units started in 2006 with a dozen or so tanks used for training until late 2009, but even that is no longer the case due to shortage of funds and all units have now been withdrawn and awaiting disposal.
- M-47 Patton (16) (2 in the local army museum and rest are target practice)
- M60P/M60SAN (45) (Yugoslav-made APCs - scrap heap and 2 in the local army museum)
- BTR-60 (16) (2 in the local army museum, scrap heap)
- ZSU-57-2 (2) (target practice)
- M53/59 Praga (24) (2 in the local army museum, scrap heap)
- MT-LB (10) 2 in local museum rest scraped and replaced by Patria AMV
- M-96 Tajfun 122mm MRL 4-6 systems all stored
- M-91 Vulkan 122mm MRL 4-6 systems all stored.
- M-63 Plamen 128mm Towed MRL - retired due to lack of ammunition and costly upkeep, no spare parts for the system
- M-94 'Plamen S 128mm MRL - no longer fit for purpose, retired and awaiting disposal
- M-46H1 130mm Howitzer 36 systems, all retired and awaiting disposal, some stored in a local museums.
- M84 "NORA" 152mm Howitzer - 18 retired systems as they no longer comply with NATO requirements and costly upkeeps
- M114 155mm Howitzer - 24 systems, some in museums with rest retired to do obsolescence.
- RAK-12 128mm Towed MRL - some 60 launchers stored
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References and notes
- Richard D (January 27, 2009), Infantry Weapons 2009/2010 (35 ed.), Jane's Information, ISBN 978-0-7106-2869-5.