Croatian Health Insurance Fund

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Croatian Health Insurance Fund
Hrvatski zavod za zdravstveno osiguranje
Hzzo logo.png
Agency overview
Formed 21 August 1993 (1993-08-21)
Headquarters 3 Margaretska Street,
Zagreb, Croatia
Employees 2,407 (31 Dec 2013)[1]
Annual budget HRK 23.5 billion (c. €3.1 billion) (2013)[1]
Minister responsible Siniša Varga, Minister of Health
Agency executive Tatjana Prenđa Trupec, Director
Website www.hzzo.hr

The Croatian Health Insurance Fund (Croatian: Hrvatski zavod za zdravstveno osiguranje or HZZO) is a quasi-public body that administers the universal health care system in the Republic of Croatia. Established in 1993, the HZZO is the country's national social health insurance fund and its primary source of health financing. As of December 2013, 4.29 million people received health insurance coverage through HZZO.[1]

Organization[edit]

The HZZO is overseen by a director and a board of directors, appointed by the Croatian government on the recommendation of the Minister of Health.[2] These directors represent the insured population, the Ministry of Health, the Ministry of Finance and independent general practitioners.[3] A central office located in the Croatian capital of Zagreb, sets policies that are implemented by branch offices in each of the country's 21 counties.[3]

All health care providers that receive public funds are required to negotiate annual contracts with the HZZO that set prices and payment plans.[4]

History[edit]

The Constitution of Croatia, adopted in December 1990, declared that health care is a human right.[5]

In 1993, the HZZO was created by the Croatian Parliament in order to consolidate the fragmented and decentralized health care system which had been inherited from the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia.[6][7] The 1993 law recognized patient choice as a principle through a mandatory payroll tax of 15%[4] and allowing the use of private supplementary plans.[8] The Health Care Law of 1993 also guaranteed patients rights which includes access to information about their health, and the ability to refuse examination and treatment.[9]

In July 2001, the Ministry of Health under Ana Stavljenić-Rukavina issued a policy statement entitled "The Strategy and Plan for the Reform of the Health Care System and Health Insurance of the Republic of Croatia." Noting that such factors as the country's aging and the generous benefits established since 1993 threatened the fund's sustainability,[10] the paper proposed reducing the amount of basic services that are free at the point of use, which would result in the HZZO becoming less dependent on payroll contributions.[11] In order to increase revenue, the 2002 Health Insurance Law introduced higher copayments for hospital and specialist services. These services include diagnostic tests and prescription drugs. It also created a voluntary insurance policy that would complement the mandatory coverage each citizen received.[12] After 2002, citizens were no longer allowed to opt out of the public insurance system.[13]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Godišnje izvješće 2013 [Annual Report 2013] (PDF) (in Croatian). Croatian Health Insurance Fund. May 2014. p. 39. Retrieved 1 October 2014. 
  2. ^ Vončina, Luca; Džakula, Aleksandar; Mastilica, Miroslav (2007). "Health care funding reforms in Croatia: a case of mistaken priorities". Health Policy 80 (1): 144–157. doi:10.1016/j.healthpol.2006.02.016. Retrieved 12 June 2013.  p. 4.
  3. ^ a b Vončina, Jemiai, Merkur et al. (2006). p. 19.
  4. ^ a b Vončina, L.; Strizrep, T.; Bagat, M.; Pezelj-Duliba, D.; Pavić, N.; Polašek, O. (2012). "Croatian 2008–2010 health insurance reform: Hard choices toward financial sustainability and efficiency". Croatian Medical Journal 53 (1): 66–76. doi:10.3325/cmj.2012.53.66. PMC 3284176. PMID 22351581.  edit p. 3.
  5. ^ Vulic, Spaso; Healy, Judith (1999). "Health Care Systems in Transition: Croatia". European Observatory on Health Systems. Retrieved 12 June 2013.  p. 6.
  6. ^ Vončina, Jemiai, Merkur et al. (2006). p. 13.
  7. ^ Vončina, Džakula, Mastilica (2007). p. 2.
  8. ^ Letica, Gordana; Račić, Tatjana (2002). "Model for private health insurance in Croatia". 27th International Congress of Actuaries. Retrieved 16 June 2013. 
  9. ^ Bosanac, Sanja Babić; Borovečki, Ana; Fišter, Kristina (2008). "Patients' rights in the Republic of Croatia – between the law and reality". Medicinski Glasnik (Medical Association of Zenica-Doboj Canton) 5 (1): 37–43. Retrieved 12 June 2013.  p. 38.
  10. ^ Vončina, Jemiai, Merkur et al. (2006). p. 14.
  11. ^ Vončina, Džakula, Mastilica (2007). pp. 7–8.
  12. ^ Vončina, Jemiai, Merkur et al. (2006). p. 89.
  13. ^ Vončina, Luca; Jemiai, Nadia; Merkur, Sherry; Golna, Christina; Maeda, Akiko; Chao, Shiyan; Džakula, Aleksandar (2006). "Croatia: Health System Review". Health Systems in Transition (European Observatory on Health Systems and Policies) 8 (7): 1–108. Retrieved 12 June 2013.  p. 33.

External links[edit]