|hrvatska kuna (Croatian)|
|ISO 4217 code||HRK|
|Central bank||Croatian National Bank|
|Date of introduction||30 May 1994|
|Source||Croatian Bureau of Statistics, September 2012|
|Method||CPI excluding rents, gross fixed capital formation, lotteries and gambling, and life insurance|
|Plural||The language(s) of this currency belong(s) to the Slavic languages. There is more than one way to construct plural forms.|
|Freq. used||5, 10, 20, 50 lipa, 1, 2, 5 kn|
|Rarely used||1, 2 lipa, 25 kn|
|Freq. used||10, 20, 50, 100, 200 kn|
|Rarely used||5, 500, 1000 kn|
|Printer||Giesecke & Devrient|
|Mint||Croatian Monetary Institute|
The kuna is the currency of Croatia since 1994 (ISO 4217 code: HRK). It is subdivided into 100 lipa. The kuna is issued by the Croatian National Bank and the coins are minted by the Croatian Monetary Institute.
History and etymology 
During Roman times, in the provinces of upper and lower Pannonia (today Hungary and Slavonia), taxes were collected in the then highly valued marten skins. Hence, the Croatian word "marturina" or tax, derived from the Latin word "martus" (Croatian: "kuna"). The kuna was a currency unit in several Slavic states, most notably Kievan Rus and its successors until the early 15th century. It was equal to 1⁄25 (later 1⁄50) gryvna of silver.
It has no relation to the various Slavic currencies named "koruna" (translated as kruna in Croatian) which means "crown".
In the Middle Ages, many foreign monies were used in Croatia, but since at least 1018 a local currency was in use. Between 1260 and 1380, Croatian Viceroys issued a marten-adorned silver coin called the banovac. However, the diminishing autonomy of Croatia within the Croatian-Hungarian Kingdom led to the gradual disappearance of that currency in the 14th century.
The idea of a kuna currency reappeared in 1939 when Banovina of Croatia, an autonomous province established within Kingdom of Yugoslavia, planned to issue its own money. In 1941, when the Ustaše regime formed the Independent State of Croatia, they introduced the Independent State of Croatia kuna. This currency remained in circulation until 1945, when it - along with competing issues by the communist Partisans - disappeared with the establishment of FPR Yugoslavia and was replaced by the Yugoslav dinar.
Modern currency 
The choice of the name kuna was controversial because the same currency name had been used by the Independent State of Croatia kuna, but this was dismissed as a red herring, since the same name was in also in use during the Banovina of Croatia and by the ZAVNOH. An alternative proposition for the name of the new currency was kruna (crown), divided into 100 banica (viceroy's wife), but this was deemed too similar to the Austro-Hungarian krone and found inappropriate for the country which is a republic. The transition to the new currency went smoothly and the controversy quickly blew over.
The self-proclaimed Serbian entity Republic of Serbian Krajina did not use the kuna or the Croatian dinar. Instead, they issued their own Krajina dinar until the region was integrated back into Croatia in 1995.
The main reference currency for kuna was the German Mark, and later the Euro. A long-time policy of the Croatian National Bank has been to keep the fluctuations of the kuna exchange rate with the euro in a relatively stable range. The country has been on the path of accession to the European Union and it plans to join the European Monetary System. Kuna is expected to be replaced by the euro within two or three years after joining the European Union.
In 1994, coins were introduced in denominations of 1, 2, 5, 10, 20 and 50 lipa (Croatian word for linden or tilia tree), 1, 2, 5 and 25 kuna. The coins are issued in two versions: one with the name of the plant or animal in Croatian (issued in odd years), the other with the name in Latin (issued in even years). However, there is much more coins with Croatian names in circulation.
|1 lipa||kukuruz||zea mays||Maize|
|2 lipa||vinova loza||vitis vinifera||Grapevine|
|5 lipa||hrast lužnjak||quercus robur||English Oak|
|10 lipa||duhan||nicotiana tabacum||Tobacco|
|20 lipa||maslina||olea europaea||Olive|
|50 lipa||velebitska degenija||degenia velebitica||Degenia|
|1 kuna||slavuj||luscinia megarhynchos||Nightingale|
|2 kune||tunj||thunnus thynnus||Tuna|
|5 kuna||mrki medvjed||ursus arctos||Brown Bear|
A number of commemorative designs have also been issued for circulation, see Commemorative coins of the Croatian kuna.
|First series - Regular issues (www.hnb.hr)|
|Image||Value||Technical parameters||Description||Date of|
|1 lp||17.0 mm||0.70 g||Aluminium-Magnesium alloy||Smooth||Coat of arms, state title, indication of value||Maize, "KUKURUZ" or "ZEA MAYS", year of minting||1993||31 May 1994|
|2 lp||19.0 mm||0.92 g||Aluminium-Magnesium alloy||Smooth||Coat of arms, state title, indication of value||Grapevine, "VINOVA LOZA" or "VITIS VINIFERA", year of minting||1993||31 May 1994|
|5 lp||18.0 mm||2.50 g||Bronze plated steel||Smooth||Coat of arms, state title, indication of value||Oak branch, "HRAST LUŽNJAK" or "QUERCUS ROBUR", year of minting||1993||31 May 1994|
|10 lp||20.0 mm||3.25 g||Bronze plated steel||Smooth||Coat of arms, state title, indication of value||Tobacco plant, "DUHAN" or "NICOTIANA TABACUM", year of minting||1993||31 May 1994|
|20 lp||18.5 mm||2.90 g||Nickel plated steel||Smooth||Coat of arms, state title, indication of value||Olive branch, "MASLINA" or "OLEA EUROPAEA", year of minting||1993||31 May 1994|
|50 lp||20.5 mm||3.65 g||Nickel plated steel||Smooth||Coat of arms, state title, indication of value||Degenia, "VELEBITSKA DEGENIJA" or "DEGENIA VELEBITICA", year of minting||1993||31 May 1994|
|1 kn||22.5 mm||5.00 g||Nickel silver||Milled||Coat of arms, state title, indication of value||Nightingale, "SLAVUJ" or "LUSCINIA MEGARHYNCHOS", year of minting||1993||31 May 1994|
|2 kn||24.5 mm||6.20 g||Nickel silver||Milled||Coat of arms, state title, indication of value||Tuna, "TUNJ" or "THUNNUS THYNNUS", year of minting||1993||31 May 1994|
|5 kn||26.5 mm||7.45 g||Nickel silver||Milled||Coat of arms, state title, indication of value||Brown bear, "MRKI MEDVJED" or "URSUS ARCTOS", year of minting||1993||31 May 1994|
|These images are to scale at 2.5 pixels per millimetre. For table standards, see the coin specification table.|
These notes were designed by Miroslav Šutej and Vilko Žiljak, and all feature prominent Croatians on front and architectural motifs on back. The geometric figures at lower left on front (except the 5-kuna note) are intaglio printed for recognition by the sight-impaired. To the right of the coat of arms on front is a microprinted version of the Croatian national anthem, Lijepa Naša Domovino (Our Beautiful Homeland).
|Croatian kuna banknotes currently in circulation, as of 28 December 2009 (www.hnb.hr)|
|Image||Value||Dimensions||Main Colour||Description||Date of|
|5 kuna||122 × 61 mm||Green||Fran Krsto Frankopan
and Petar Zrinski
|Old Town fort in Varaždin||As portrait||7 March 2001||9 July 2001|
|10 kuna||126 × 63 mm||Grey||Bishop Juraj Dobrila||The Pula Arena and the town plan of Motovun||As portrait||7 March 2001||18 June 2001|
|20 kuna||130 × 65 mm||Red||Ban Josip Jelačić||The Eltz Manor in Vukovar and
the Vučedol Dove
|As portrait||7 March 2001||16 August 2001|
|50 kuna||134 × 67 mm||Blue||Ivan Gundulić||The Old City of Dubrovnik||As portrait||7 March 2002||25 November 2002|
|100 kuna||138 × 69 mm||Reddish-brown||Ban Ivan Mažuranić and the Baška tablet||St. Vitus Cathedral in Rijeka||As portrait||7 March 2002||3 June 2002|
|200 kuna||142 × 71 mm||Brown||Stjepan Radić||The old army command building in Tvrđa, Osijek||As portrait||7 March 2002||12 August 2002|
|500 kuna||146 × 73 mm||Olive green||Marko Marulić||Diocletian's Palace in Split||As portrait||31 October 1993||31 May 1994|
|1000 kuna||150 × 75 mm||Bluish-grey||Ante Starčević||Statue of King Tomislav and the Zagreb Cathedral||As portrait||31 October 1993||31 May 1994|
|Commemorative issues in circulation|
|10 kuna (10th anniversary issue)||126 × 63 mm||Grey||Bishop Juraj Dobrila||The Pula Arena and the town plan of Motovun||As portrait||30 May 2004||24 May 2004|
|These images are to scale at 0.7 pixels per millimetre.|
See also 
- "Consumer price indices, May 2012" (Press release). Croatian Bureau of Statistics. June 14, 2012. Retrieved 2012-06-20.
- Brozović, Dalibor. "History of Croatian money". Retrieved 2011-01-01. - Excerpts from the book Kune and lipe - Currency of the Republic of Croatia, Zagreb, Croatian National Bank
- Povijest hrvatskog novca, Section 3, Croatian National Bank compilation from multiple sources
- "Prvi novac - Povijest hrvatskog novca - Kraljevina SHS i Nezavisna Država Hrvatska" (in Croatian). Croatian National Bank. Retrieved 2011-01-01.
- Milinović, Ante (2001). "Bogatstvo likovne simbolike hrvatskoga novca" [The rich visual symbolism of Croatian currency]. Croatian Emigrant Almanac (in Croatian). Croatian Heritage Foundation. Retrieved 2011-01-01.
- Croatian Government and Croatian National Bank decisions published in Narodne novine 37/94 
- "Monetary policy and ERM II participation on the path to the euro". Speech by Lucas Papademos, Vice President of the ECB at the tenth Dubrovnik economic conference, in Dubrovnik. European Central Bank. 2004-06-25.
- "Vujčić: uvođenje eura dvije, tri godine nakon ulaska u EU". Poslovni dnevnik (in Croatian). HINA. 1 July 2006. Retrieved 2011-01-01. More than one of
- "Kuna lipa - Croatian portal for numismatics" (in Croatian). Retrieved 2013-02-24.
- "HNB predstavio nove novčanice od 5,10 i 20 kuna". hrt.hr (in Croatian). Croatian Radiotelevision. 12 June 2001. Retrieved 2011-01-06.
- Linzmayer, Owen (2012). "Croatia". The Banknote Book. San Francisco, CA: www.BanknoteNews.com.
- Krause, Chester L., and Clifford Mishler (1991). Standard Catalog of World Coins: 1801–1991 (18th ed.). Krause Publications. ISBN 0873411501.
- Pick, Albert (1994). Standard Catalog of World Paper Money: General Issues. Colin R. Bruce II and Neil Shafer (editors) (7th ed.). Krause Publications. ISBN 0-87341-207-9.
- Pick, Albert (1990). Standard Catalog of World Paper Money: Specialized Issues. Colin R. Bruce II and Neil Shafer (editors) (6th ed.). Krause Publications. ISBN 0-87341-149-8.
Further reading 
- Viščević, Zlatko (2004). Kovani novac Republike Hrvatske od osamostaljenja do danas [Coins of the Republic of Croatia from Independence to the Present Day] (in Croatian and English). ISBN 953-99817-0-0. Retrieved January 11, 2012.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Money of Croatia|
- Kuna banknotes, Croatian National Bank
- Kuna exchange rates, Croatian National Bank
- Croatian Ministry of Foreign Affairs & European Integration - History of the Croatian kuna
- Croatian government site: The Republic of Croatia and its currency
- Catalog of contemporary Croatian money (Croatian)
- Forenzičari novca (Croatian)
|Current HRK exchange rates|
|From Google Finance:||AUD CAD CHF EUR GBP HKD JPY USD|
|From Yahoo! Finance:||AUD CAD CHF EUR GBP HKD JPY USD|
|From XE.com:||AUD CAD CHF EUR GBP HKD JPY USD|
|From OANDA.com:||AUD CAD CHF EUR GBP HKD JPY USD|
|From fxtop.com:||AUD CAD CHF EUR GBP HKD JPY USD|
Ratio: 1 kuna = 1000 dinara
|Currency of Croatia
June 1, 1994 –
|Note: competing Krajina dinar was issued on parts of Croatian territory between 1992 and 1995|