Crocker Land Expedition
The Crocker Land Expedition was a 1913 expedition to investigate Crocker Land, a huge island supposedly sighted by the explorer Robert Peary from the top of Cape Colgate in 1906. The island was later shown to have been a hoax.
Following his 1906 expedition that failed to reach the North Pole, Robert E. Peary reported in his book that he had sighted distant land from the heights of the northwestern coast of Ellesmere Island. He named it Crocker Land after San Francisco banker George Crocker, one of his financial backers. It is now known that Peary's report was a hoax, as he wrote in his diary at the time that no land was visible. And indeed, there is no such land north of Ellesmere Island. The invention of Crocker Land was apparently an attempt to secure further support from Crocker for Peary's 1909 expedition. If so, the attempt failed, as Crocker had diverted all of his available resources to the rebuilding of San Francisco following the 1906 earthquake.
However, the existence or non-existence of Crocker Land became important following the controversial events of the autumn of 1909, when both Peary and Dr. Frederick Cook returned to civilization, both claiming to have reached the North Pole. Since Cook claimed to have traversed the alleged region of Crocker Land and reported no such land, the actual existence of Crocker Land would be further proof of the falsity of Cook's claim. Backers of Peary's claim therefore set out to find it.
The expedition was organized by Donald Baxter MacMillan and sponsored by the American Museum of Natural History, the American Geographical Society, and the University of Illinois' Museum of Natural History.
MacMillan's geologist, ornithologist and botanist was Walter Elmer Ekblaw of the University of Illinois. Navy Ensign Fitzhugh Green served as engineer and physicist. Maurice Cole Tanquary of the University of Illinois was the zoologist and Dr. Harrison J. Hunt the surgeon.
As well as confirming and mapping the position of Crocker Land, the declared purpose of the expedition was to investigate "geology, geography, glaciology, meteorology, terrestrial magnetism, electrical phenomena, seismology, zoology (both vertebrate and invertebrate), botany, oceanography, ethnology, and archaeology".
In newspapers of the time, MacMillan described Crocker Land as "the world’s last geographical problem".
- "In June 1906, Commander Peary, from the summit of Cape Thomas Hubbard, at about latitude 83 degrees N, longitude 100 degrees W, reported seeing land glimmering in the northwest, approximately 130 miles (210 km) away across the Polar Sea. He did not go there, but he gave it a name in honor of the late George Crocker of the Peary Arctic Club. That is Crocker Land. Its boundaries and extent can only be guessed at, but I am certain that strange animals will be found there, and I hope to discover a new race of men."
The expedition left Brooklyn Navy Yard aboard the steamer Diana on 2 July 1913. Two weeks later, at midnight on 16 July, the Diana struck rocks, trying to avoid an iceberg. MacMillan blamed this on the captain, who was drunk at the time. The expedition transferred to another ship, the Erik, and eventually arrived at Etah in northwest Greenland on the second week of August.
The next three weeks were spent constructing a large eight-room shed, with electricity generation capabilities, that was to serve as the local headquarters of the expedition. An attempt was also made to set up a radio room, but it was not successful and the expedition was never able to establish reliable radio-communications with the outside world.
Having made a number of preliminary trips to place supply caches along parts of the route, MacMillan, Green, Ekblaw and seven Inuit eventually set off on the 1,200-mile (1,900 km) journey to "Crocker Land" on 11 March 1914. The temperature was 32 degrees below freezing and weather-conditions were very poor.
Eventually the party reached the 4,700 ft (1,400 m) high Beitstadt Glacier, which they took three days to climb. The temperature dropped dramatically and Ekblaw suffered severe frostbite. He was evacuated back to Etah by some of the Inuit.
One-by-one, the other members of the party gave up and turned back. By 11 April, at the edge of the Arctic Ocean only MacMillan, Green and two Inuit, Piugaattoq and Ittukusuk, remained. The four dog-sleds set off across the treacherous sea-ice, avoiding thin patches and expanses of open water, and eventually on 21 April saw what appeared to be a huge island on the north-western horizon. As MacMillan later said, "Hills, valleys, snow-capped peaks extending through at least one hundred and twenty degrees of the horizon.”
Piugaattoq, an Inuit hunter with 20 years of experience of the area, explained that it was just an illusion. He called it "poo-jok", which means mist. However MacMillan insisted they press on, despite the fact that it was late in the season and the sea-ice was breaking up. For five days they went on, following the mirage, until on 27 April, having covered some 125 miles (201 km) of dangerous sea-ice, MacMillan was forced to admit that Piugaattoq was right. Their sighting was in fact a mirage, probably a rare form called a Fata Morgana.
Later MacMillan wrote:
The day was exceptionally clear, not a cloud or trace of mist; if land could be seen, now was our time. Yes, there it was! It could even be seen without a glass, extending from southwest true to northeast. Our powerful glasses, however.. brought out more clearly the dark background in contrast with the white) the whole resembling hills, valleys and snow-capped peaks to such a degree that, had we not been out on the frozen sea for 150 miles, we would have staked our lives upon its reality. Our judgment then as now, is that this was a mirage or loom of the sea ice.
MacMillan therefore had reason to believe that Peary's sighting of Crocker Land must have been a similar mirage.
The party turned around and was able to reach solid land with no time to spare, for the sea-ice broke up the next day.
The killing of Piugaattoq
After regaining land, MacMillan sent Piugaattoq and Green to explore a route to the west. The weather turned against them and they were forced to take shelter in a snow cave. One of the dog teams died in the snow, and during a squabble over the remaining team, Green took a rifle from the sled and shot Piugaattoq, killing him.
On 4 May Green rejoined MacMillan and told him what had happened. Upon their return to Etah, MacMillan informed the other European members of the expedition, but asked them to keep quiet, telling the Inuit that Piugaattoq had died in a blizzard. Ekblaw said later that this was “one of the darkest and most deplorable tragedies in the annals of Arctic exploration.”
Green was never prosecuted for the murder, although the Inuit suspected there was more to the story than had been told and that Green had had a relationship with Piugaattoq's wife Aleqasina, a striking beauty. She had previously been Peary's mistress and bore two children to him.
The return home
The expedition attempted to return, but the weather turned against them and they were stranded in the region for the next four years.
In December 1914, MacMillan and Tanquary set off for Etah with the intention of sending a message to the outside world that a rescue was needed the following summer. They quickly ran into trouble with the weather and MacMillan turned back. Tanquary pressed on and eventually reached Etah in mid-March 1915.
Word reached the American Museum of Natural History and the George H. Cluett, a three-masted schooner completely unsuitable for Arctic waters, was sent that summer, captained by George Comer. The vessel never reached them. It ended up trapped in ice and did not return for two years.
In 1916, a second relief ship was sent and ran into similar problems. By this time Tanquary, Green and Allen had already made their own way back to the US by dog-sled.
Although the expedition failed to map the non-existent Crocker Land, much important research was done. A considerable number of photographs and artifacts were returned, documenting the indigenous peoples and natural habitat of the region.
- Rawlins, Dennis. "Contributions". Retrieved 2012-12-18.
- "Doom, death and drama infuse a University of Illinois expedition to the Arctic". University of Illinois Alumni Association. Retrieved 2009-07-23.
- "Dr. Ekblaw, Once Arctic Explorer For U. of I., Dies". Chicago Tribune. June 7, 1949. Retrieved 2009-07-23.
- "Maurice C. Tanquary". Texas A&M University. Retrieved 2009-07-24. "Maurice Tanquary taught entomology for several years at Kansas State Agricultural College before joining the Texas Agricultural Experiment Station in 1919 as chief of the division of entomology. Tanquary was interested in apiculture and resigned in 1923 to enter professional beekeeping in North Dakota. He later joined the University of Minnesota in apiculture and remained there until 1944."
- "Dr. M.C. Tanquary, Entomologist, 62. Minnesota Professor, Pioneer in Modern Beekeeping, Dies. Served With MacMillan.". New York Times. October 26, 1944. Retrieved 2009-07-24. "He had been Professor of Entomology and Economic Zoology at the University of Minnesota for the last sixteen years. Dr. Maurice Cole Tanquary was born ..."
- Spurlock Museum
- University of Illinois
- Donald B. MacMillan
- The Province Town Banner (7 Feb 2008)
- Ross, W. Gillies. "George Comer" (PDF). Arctic Profiles. ucalgary.ca. pp. 294–295. Retrieved 2008-03-30
- Four Years in the White North. Bartlett
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Crocker Land Expedition.|
- A Crocker Land Expedition Who’s Who
- Crocker Land Expedition from the Library of Congress at Flickr
- Rare film clip of the expedition