Cromoglicic acid

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Cromoglicic acid
Cromoglicic acid.svg
Cromolyn ball-and-stick animation.gif
Systematic (IUPAC) name
5,5′-(2-hydroxypropane-1,3-diyl)bis(oxy)bis(4-oxo-4H-chromene-2-carboxylic acid)
Clinical data
AHFS/Drugs.com International Drug Names
Pregnancy cat. B
Legal status inhaler POM, eye OTC(UK) nasal OTC, eye, inhaler Rx(US)
Routes topical: oral, nasal spray, inhaled, eye drops
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability 1%
Half-life 1.3 hours
Identifiers
CAS number 16110-51-3 YesY
ATC code A07EB01 D11AH03 R01AC01 R03BC01 S01GX01
PubChem CID 2882
DrugBank DB01003
ChemSpider 2779 YesY
UNII Y0TK0FS77W YesY
KEGG D07753 YesY
ChEBI CHEBI:59773 YesY
ChEMBL CHEMBL74 N
Chemical data
Formula C23H16O11 
Mol. mass 468.367 g/mol
 N (what is this?)  (verify)

Cromoglicic acid (INN) (also referred to as cromolyn (USAN), cromoglycate (former BAN), or cromoglicate) is traditionally described as a mast cell stabilizer, and is commonly marketed as the sodium salt sodium cromoglicate or cromolyn sodium. This drug prevents the release of inflammatory chemicals such as histamine from mast cells.

Because of their convenience (and perceived safety), leukotriene receptor antagonists have largely replaced it as the non-corticosteroid treatment of choice in the treatment of asthma. Cromoglicic acid requires administration four times daily, and does not provide additive benefit in combination with inhaled corticosteroids.[1]

History[edit]

Cromolyn sodium was discovered by Roger Altounyan who was himself a lifelong asthma sufferer. It is considered a breakthrough drug in management of asthma as the patients can be freed from steroids in many cases, however, it is mainly effective as a prophylaxis for allergic and exercise induced asthma, not as a treatment for acute attacks. Altounyan was investigating certain plants and herbs which have bronchodilating properties. One such plant was Khella (Ammi visnaga) which had been used as a muscle relaxant since ancient times in Egypt. Altounyan deliberately inhaled derivatives of the active ingredient khellin to determine if they could block his asthma attacks. After several years of trial he isolated an effective and safe asthma-preventing compound called cromolyn sodium.

Preparations[edit]

Cromoglicic acid is available in multiple forms:

  • in a nebulizer solution for aerosol administration to treat asthma.
  • as an inhaler (Intal) for preventive management of asthma.[2] The maker of Intal, King Pharmaceuticals, has discontinued manufacturing the inhaled form, cromolyn sodium inhalation aerosol, due to issues involving CFC-free propellant.[3] As stocks are depleted, this inhaler preparation will no longer be available to patients.[4] In the EU it is manufactured without CFCs by Sanofi, although it must be imported from Canada for USA residents.

Mechanism of action[edit]

"Cromolyn works because it prevents the release of mediators that would normally attract inflammatory cells and because it stabilizes the inflammatory cells. MCT mast cells found in the mucosa are stabilised."[6] Nedocromil is another mast cell stabilizer that also works in controlling asthma. The underlying mechanism of action is not fully understood; for while cromoglicate stabilizes mast cells, this mechanism is probably not why it works in asthma.[7] Pharmaceutical companies have produced 20 related compounds that are equally or more potent at stabilising mast cells and none of them have shown any anti-asthmatic effect.[7] It is more likely that these work by inhibiting the response of sensory C fibers to the irritant capsaicin, inhibiting local axon reflexes involved in asthma, and may inhibit the release of preformed T cell cytokines and mediators involved in asthma. (see review by Garland, 1991)

It is known to somewhat inhibit chloride channels (37% ± 7%)[8] and thus may inhibit the:

  • exaggerated neuronal reflexes triggered by stimulation of irritant receptors on sensory nerve endings (e.g. exercise-induced asthma)
  • release of preformed cytokines from several type of inflammatory cells (T cells, eosinophils) in allergen-induced asthma

Note: Another chemical (NPPB: 5-nitro-2(3-phenyl) propylamino-benzoic acid) was shown, in the same study, to be a more effective chloride channel blocker.

Finally it may act by inhibiting calcium influx.

Cromoglicate is classified as a chromone.

Cromolyn is also being tested as a drug to treat insulin-induced lipoatrophy.[9][10]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Fanta CH (March 2009). "Asthma". New England Journal of Medicine 360 (10): 1002–14. doi:10.1056/NEJMra0804579. PMID 19264689.  Review.
  2. ^ Schwartz HJ, Blumenthal M, Brady R, et al. (April 1996). "A comparative study of the clinical efficacy of nedocromil sodium and placebo. How does cromolyn sodium compare as an active control treatment?". Chest 109 (4): 945–52. doi:10.1378/chest.109.4.945. PMID 8635375. 
  3. ^ Eric Carter (July 31, 2009). "King Pharmaceuticals: Dear Healthcare Professionals". Food and Drug Administration. King Pharmaceuticals. Retrieved May 28, 2012. 
  4. ^ "Intal Inhaler discontinued - MPR". Empr.com. Retrieved 2012-05-28. 
  5. ^ Horan RF, Sheffer AL, Austen KF (May 1990). "Cromolyn sodium in the management of systemic mastocytosis". J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 85 (5): 852–5. doi:10.1016/0091-6749(90)90067-E. PMID 2110198. 
  6. ^ Werner's Pathophysiology page 224
  7. ^ a b H. P. Rang et al., Pharmacology, Fifth Edition. (2003) ISBN 0-443-07145-4
  8. ^ Heinke, S; Szucs G; Norris A; Droogmans G; Nilius B (August 1995). "Inhibition of volume-activated chloride currents in endothelial cells by chromones". Br J Pharmacol. 115 (8): 1393–8. doi:10.1111/j.1476-5381.1995.tb16629.x. PMC 1908889. PMID 8564197. 
  9. ^ Phua, EJ; Lopez, X; Ramus, J; Goldfine, AB (December 2013). "Cromolyn sodium for insulin-induced lipoatrophy: old drug, new use.". Diabetes care 36 (12): e204–5. doi:10.2337/dc13-1123. PMID 24265375. 
  10. ^ http://www.empr.com/a-surprising-option-for-managing-insulin-induced-lipoatrophy/article/325863/