Croonian Lecture

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The Croonian Lectures are prestigious lectureships given at the invitation of the Royal Society and the Royal College of Physicians.[citation needed]

Among the papers of William Croone at his death in 1684, was a plan to endow one lectureship at both the Royal Society and the Royal College of Physicians. His wife provided the bequest in 1701 specifying that it was "for the support of a lecture and illustrative experiment for the advancement of natural knowledge on local motion, or (conditionally) of such other subjects as, in the opinion of the President for the time being, should be most useful in promoting the objects for which the Royal Society was instituted". One lecture was to be delivered by a Fellow to the Royal College of Physicians and the other, on the nature and laws of muscular motion to be delivered before the Royal Society. The Royal Society lecture series began in 1738 and that of the Royal College of Physicians in 1749.[1]

Croone became an original Fellow of the Royal Society in May 1663.[2] He also became one of the original Fellows of the College of Physicians on 29 July 1675. He was appointed lecturer on anatomy at Surgeons' hall in 1670 and pursued research in several important subjects of his day, including respiration, muscular motion, and generation.

List of lecturers (Royal Society – for RCP lecturers see below)[edit]

21st century[edit]

  • 2014 Brigid Hogan, for pioneering contributions that have transformed understanding of cell specification, organogenesis and morphogenesis in mammalian development [3]
  • 2013 Frances Ashcroft, From bench to bedside: KATP channels and neonatal diabetes [3]
  • 2012 Tim Bliss, The Mechanics of Memory [4]
  • 2011 John Ellis,Molecular chaperones: how cells stop proteins from misbehaving
  • 2010 Alec Jeffries,Genetic fingerprinting and beyond
  • 2009 Linda Partridge, The New Biology of Ageing
  • 2008 John Pickett, Plant and Animal Communication[5]
  • 2007 Aaron Klug, Engineered zinc finger proteins (ZFPs) for the regulation of gene expression
  • 2006 Iain Campbell, Structure and the living cell[6]
  • 2005 Salvador Moncada, Adventures in vascular biology
  • 2004 John Krebs, Risk, food, fact and fantasy[7]
  • 2003 Tim Hunt, Cell growth, cell division and the problem of cancer
  • 2002 Kim Nasmyth, Disseminating our genomes during mitosis and meiosis.
  • 2001 Ron Laskey, Hunting the antisocial cancer cell.[8]

20th century[edit]

19th century[edit]

  • 1900 Paul Ehrlich, On immunity with special reference to cell life
  • 1899 J.S. Burdon-Sanderson, On the relation of motion in animals and plants to the electrical phenomena which are associated with it
  • 1898 Wilhelm Pfeffer, The nature and significance of functional metabolism in the plant.
  • 1897 Charles S. Sherrington, The mammalian spinal cord as an organ of reflex action.
  • 1896 Augustus D. Waller, Observations on isolated nerve.
  • 1895 T.W. Engelmann, On the nature of muscular contraction
  • 1894 Santiago Ramon y Cajal, La fine structure des centres nerveux
  • 1893 Rudolf Virchow, The position of pathology among biological studies.
  • 1892 Angelo Mosso, Les phenomenes psychiques et la temperature du cerveau.
  • 1891 Francis Gotch & Victor Horsley, On the mammalian nervous system; its functions and their localization determined by an electrical method.
  • 1890 H. Marshall Ward, The relations between host and parasite in certain epidemic diseases of plants
  • 1889 Émile Roux, Les inoculations preventives (1853–1933)[11]
  • 1888 Wilhelm Friedrich Kühne, Ueber die Entstehung der vitalen Bewegung
  • 1887 Harry Govier Seeley, On Pareiasaurus bombidens (Owen) and the significance of its affinities to amphibians, reptiles, and mammals
  • 1886 Leonard Charles Wooldridge, The coagulation of the blood
  • 1885 Not appointed
  • 1884 Not Appointed
  • 1883 H. Newell Martin, On the direct influence of gradual variations of temperature upon the rate of beat of the dogs heart
  • 1882 W.H. Gaskell, On the rhythm of the heart of the frog, and on the nature of the action of the vagus nerve
  • 1881 G.J. Romanes and J.C. Ewart, Observations on the locomotor system of Medusae.
  • 1880 Samuel Haughton, On some elementary principles in animal mechanics.
  • 1879 W.K. Parker, On the structure & development of the skull in the Lacertilia
  • 1878 H.N. Moseley, On the structure of the Stylasteridae: a family of the hydroid stony corals
  • 1877 J.S. Burdon-Sanderson & F.J.M. Page, On the mechanical effects, and on the electrical disturbance consequent on excitation of the leaf of Dionea muscipula.
  • 1876 G.J. Romanes, Preliminary observations on the locomotor system of medusae.
  • 1875 David Ferrier, Experiments on the brain of monkeys.
  • 1874 David Ferrier, The localization of function in the brain
  • 1873 Benjamin Ward Richardson, On muscular irritability after systemic death.
  • 1872 Not appointed
  • 1871 Not appointed
  • 1870 Augustus V. Waller, On the results of the method (introduced by the author) of investigating the nervous system, more especially as applied to the elucidation of the functions of the pneumogastric and sympathetic nerves in man.
  • 1869 Not appointed
  • 1868 Not appointed
  • 1867 J.S. Burdon-Sanderson, On the influence exercised by the movements of respiration on the circulation of the blood
  • 1866 Not appointed
  • 1865 Lionel S. Beale, On the ultimate nerve fibres distributed to muscle and some other tissues, with observations upon the structure & probable mode of action of a nervous mechanism
  • 1864 Hermann Helmholtz, On the normal motions of the human eye in relation to binocular vision.
  • 1863 Joseph Lister, On the coagulation of the blood
  • 1862 Albert Kölliker, On the termination of nerves in muscles, as observed in the frog: and on the disposition of the nerves in the frogs heart.
  • 1861 Charles-Édouard Brown-Séquard, On the relations between muscular irritability, cadaveric rigidity, and putrefaction
  • 1860 James Bell Pettigrew, On the arrangement of the muscular fibres of the ventricular portion of the heart of the mammal
  • 1859 Not appointed
  • 1858 Thomas Henry Huxley, On the theory of the vertebrate skull
  • 1857 James Paget, On the cause of the rhythmic action of the heart
  • 1856 Not appointed
  • 1855 Not appointed
  • 1854 Not appointed
  • 1853 Not appointed
  • 1852 Not appointed
  • 1851 Richard Owen, On the Megatherium
  • 1850-1830 Not appointed
  • 1829 Everard Home, A Report on the Peculiarities met with in the Stomach of the Zariffa.
  • 1828 Not appointed
  • 1827 Everard Home, On the Muscles peculiar to Organs of Sense in particular Quadrupeds and Fishes
  • 1826 Everard Home, An Enquiry into the mode by which the Propagation of the Species is carried on, in the Common Oyster, and in the large Fresh-water Muscle.
  • 1825 Everard Home, On the Structure of a Muscular Fibre from which are derived its Elongation and Contraction
  • 1824 Everard Home, On the existence of Nerves in the Placenta
  • 1823 Everard Home, On the Internal Structure of the Human Brain, when examined in the Microscope, as compared with that of Fishes, Insects and Worms.
  • 1822 Francis Bauer, Microscopical Observations on the suspension of the Muscular Motions of the Vibrio Tritici
  • 1821 Everard Home, On the Anatomical Structure of the Eye; illustrated by Microscopical Drawings, executed by F. Bauer
  • 1820 Everard Home, Microscopical Observations on the following subjects. On the Brain and Nerves; showing that the Materials of which they are composed exist in the Blood
  • 1819 Everard Home, A further Investigation of the component parts of the Blood.
  • 1818 Everard Home, On the conversion of Pus into Granulations, or new flesh.
  • 1817 Everard Home, On the Changes the Blood undergoes in the act of Coagulation.
  • 1816 Not recorded
  • 1815 Not recorded
  • 1814 Not recorded
  • 1813 Benjamin Collins Brodie, On the Influence of the Nervous System on the Action of the Muscles in general and of the Heart in particular
  • 1812 Not recorded
  • 1811 Not recorded
  • 1810 Benjamin Collins Brodie, Physiological Researches, respecting the Influence of the Brain on the Action of the Heart, and on the Generation of Animal Heat.
  • 1809 William Hyde Wollaston, Observations on the Mode of Action of Voluntary Muscles, and on the causes which derange, and assist, the Action of the Heart and Blood Vessels
  • 1808 Thomas Young, On the Functions of the Heart and Arteries
  • 1807 Anthony Carlisle, On the Natural History and Chemical Analysis of the substances which constitute the Muscles of Animals
  • 1806 John Pearson, Remarks on Muscular Power, and on some of the circumstances by which it is increased, diminished or finally abolished
  • 1805 Anthony Carlisle, On the Arrangement and Mechanical Action of the Muscles of Fishes.
  • 1804 Anthony Carlisle, On Muscular Motion
  • 1803 John Pearson, On Muscular Motion
  • 1802 Not recorded
  • 1801 Everard Home, On the power of the Eye to adjust itself to different distances when deprived of the Crystalline Lens

18th century[edit]

  • 1800 Everard Home, On the Irritability of Nerves
  • 1799 Everard Home, On the Structure and Uses of the Membrana Tympani.
  • 1798 Everard Home, Experiments and Observations upon the Structure of Nerves.
  • 1797 John Abernethy, A general Review of the latest opinions relative to Animal Life and Motion.
  • 1796 Everard Home, On the Crystalline Humour of the Eye
  • 1795 Everard Home, On the Mechanism employed in producing Muscular Motion.
  • 1794 Everard Home, On the Crystalline Humour of the Eye
  • 1793 Everard Home, On Mr. Hunters Experiments to ascertain whether the Crystalline Humour of the Eye be muscular
  • 1792 Not recorded
  • 1791 Matthew Baillie, A general view of the Nature of the Muscles, and an enumeration of the most striking facts connected with the Theory of their Motion.
  • 1790 Everard Home, On the Mechanism employed in producing Muscular Motion.
  • 1789 William Blizard, On the Theory of Muscular Motion
  • 1788 Gilbert Blane, On the Nature of the Muscles, and on the Theory of Muscular Motion.
  • 1787 George Fordyce, On Muscular Motion
  • 1786 Edward Whitaker Gray, On the Effects of different kinds of Salts applied as Stimulants on the Muscles
  • 1785 Edward Whitaker Gray, An Examination into Hallers Theory of Muscular Motion.
  • 1784 Foart Simmons, On the Irritability of the Muscular Fibres
  • 1783 Not recorded
  • 1782 John Hunter, On the Density and Firmness of a Muscle as contributing to its Strength and Agility.
  • 1781 John Hunter, On the Construction and Application of Muscles and the Power by which they are actuated
  • 1775–1780 John Hunter
  • 1774–1775 Donald Monro[12]
  • 1762–1773 Not recorded
  • 1761 Charles Morton
  • 1760 Not recorded
  • 1759 Not recorded
  • 1754 – 1758 Charles Morton
  • 1753 Not recorded
  • 1752 Not recorded
  • 1751 James Parsons, Critical Remarks upon the Motion and Uses of the Human Pelvis.
  • 1750 James Parsons, On Muscular Motion
  • 1749 No lecture
  • 1748 No lecture
  • 1747 Browne Langrish, On the Theory of Muscular Motion
  • 1746 James Parsons, Description of the several Muscles of the Face; with their particular Functions and Uses
  • 1745 James Parsons, On Muscular Motion
  • 1744 James Parsons, An Introductory Discourse on Muscular Motion
  • 1743 No lecture
  • 1742 James Douglas, (read by William Douglas) Description and Structure of the Human Bladder, with the Uses of its Muscles and Membranes.
  • 1741 James Douglas, Description of the several Muscles, Membranes and parts belonging to the Uvula of the Palate, and concerned in its action; as also of the several parts subservient to the uses of the Tuba Eustachiana
  • 1740 Alexander Stuart, On the Peristaltic Motion of the Intestines. Microscopial Observations on several parts of live Frogs.
  • 1739 Frank Nicholls, An Enquiry into Muscular Motion
  • 1738 Alexander Stuart, On the Motion of the Heart

List of Lecturers (Royal College of Physicians)[edit]

21st century[edit]

  • 2013 Peter Openshaw, Disease mechanisms revealed by studies of pandemic influenza [13]
  • 2012 Marc Feldmann, Development of anti cytokine therapy and its future potential [14]
  • 2011 Stephen O'Rahilly, Obesity and its metabolic consequences: lessons from the extremes [15]
  • 2010 Sir Gordon Duff, Challenges in the development of innovative medicines [16]
  • 2009 Peter John Barnes, Reversing steroid resistance in inflammatory diseases: a novel therapeutic strategy[16]
  • 2008 Martin Neil Rossor, Dementia – global or modular?[16]
  • 2007 Peter J. Goadsby, Bench to bedside: headache 2007[16]
  • 2006 Peter John Ratcliffe, Understanding hypoxia signalling in cells; a new therapeutic opportunity?[17]
  • 2005 David A.Lomas, Molecular mousetraps, a -antitrypsin deficiency and the serpinopathies[17]
  • 2004 Alastair Compston, The marvellous harmony of the nervous parts':The origins of multiple sclerosis[18]
  • 2003 David Barker, Coronary heart disease and type 2 diabetes: disorders of growth[19]
  • 2002 Humphrey Hodgson, Liver cells - biology to therapeutics [16]
  • 2001 Elwyn Elias, Hepato-canalicular cholestasis – its mechanisms, causes and consequences [16]
  • 2000 John Connell, Regulation of the corticosteroid phenotype in humans - implications in the pathogenesis of asthma[20]

20th century[edit]

19th century[edit]

18th century[edit]

References[edit]

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