Cross-Harbour Tunnel

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Cross-Harbour Tunnel
Cross-Harbour Tunnel, Hung Hom.jpg
Entrance to the tunnel in Hung Hom, Kowloon
Overview
Location Beneath Victoria Harbour, between Hung Hom and Causeway Bay
Coordinates 22°17′29″N 114°10′56″E / 22.29139°N 114.18222°E / 22.29139; 114.18222 (Cross-Harbour Tunnel)
Status Active
Start Hung Hom, Kowloon
(between Hong Chong Road and Salisbury Road)
End Northern Causeway Bay, Hong Kong Island
(Canal Road Flyover)
Operation
Opened 2 August 1972
Owner Hong Kong Government
Operator Serco Group (HK) Ltd
Technical
Line length 1.86 kilometres
No. of tracks 2 per tube, 4 in total
Cross-Harbour Tunnel
Toll of Cross harbour Tunnel, Hong Kong.jpg
Toll plaza of the Cross Harbour Tunnel in Hung Hom, Kowloon
Traditional Chinese 香港海底隧道
Alternative Chinese name
Traditional Chinese 紅磡海底隧道

The Cross-Harbour Tunnel (abbreviated CHT or XHT) is the first tunnel in Hong Kong built underwater. It consists of two steel road tunnels each with two lanes constructed using the single shell immersed tube method.[1]

It is the earliest of three vehicular harbour crossings in Hong Kong, opened for traffic on 2 August 1972. It was constructed under 30-year private-sector franchise based on a build–operate–transfer model, and title passed to the Hong Kong government in August 1999 upon termination of the franchise. It has become one of the most congested roads (mainly towards the Hong Kong Island direction) in Hong Kong and the world.

History[edit]

Constructed by a private company and operated under a 30-year franchise, the 1.8 km (1.1 mi)-long tunnel crossing opened in 1972, providing the first road link between Kowloon and Hong Kong Island.[citation needed] Prior to the opening of the tunnel, cross-harbour vehicular traffic depended on ferries and for passengers, the Star Ferry.

The tunnel links the main financial and commercial districts on both sides of Victoria Harbour, connecting Kellett Island (a former island now connected to Hong Kong Island by reclamation), with a reclaimed site at Hung Hom Bay, Kowloon. The toll plaza is located at the Hung Hom end of the tunnel, and has 14 toll booths.

It was administered by The Cross-Harbour Tunnel Company Ltd until August 1999, when the operation franchise agreement expired and the government assumed control. Since 1 November 2010, the tunnel is managed, operated and maintained by Serco Group on contract basis.[2]

Evolution of fares[edit]

Initial (1972) from 1984 from 1992 from 1999
Private car $5 $10 $10 $20
Taxi $5 $10 $10 $10
Light goods vehicle (LGV) $10 $15 $15 $15
Heavy goods vehicle (HGV) $20 $25 $30 $30
source: Consultancy report[3]

The tunnel generates approximately HK$700 million in annual toll revenue.[2]

Transport[edit]

Bus routes that pass through the tunnel:

  • Kowloon Motor Bus/New World First Bus: 101, 101R, 102R, 104, 106, 106A, 106P, 109, 110, 111, 111P, 112, 113, 115, 115P, 116, 301, 305, 802, 811
  • Kowloon Motor Bus/Citybus: 102, 102P, 103, 103P, 107, 107P, 117, 118, 118P, 170, 171, 171A, 171P, 182
  • Kowloon Motor Bus: 108, 336
  • Overnights: N11, N118, N121, N122, N170, N171, N182, N368

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ The Hong Kong Cross-Harbour tunnel (Figure 11-3 and Figure 11-12). Technical Manual for Design and Construction of Road Tunnels – Civil Elements Chapter 11 – Immersed Tunnels. United States Department of Transportation – Federal Highway Administration. Updated: 4 May 2011. Accessed 2013-01-18.
  2. ^ a b "Transport–Cross-Harbour Tunnel"
  3. ^ "Consultancy Study on Rationalising the Utilisation of Road Harbour Crossings". Wilbur Smith Associates Limited, November 2010

External links[edit]


Cross-Harbour Tunnel
Hong Kong Route 1 Chronology
HK Route1.svg
Preceded by
Canal Road Flyover
Cross-Harbour Tunnel Succeeded by
Hong Chong Road