In signal processing, cross-correlation is a measure of similarity of two waveforms as a function of a time-lag applied to one of them. This is also known as a sliding dot product or sliding inner-product. It is commonly used for searching a long signal for a shorter, known feature. It has applications in pattern recognition, single particle analysis, electron tomographic averaging, cryptanalysis, and neurophysiology.
For continuous functions f and g, the cross-correlation is defined as:
where f* denotes the complex conjugate of f.
Similarly, for discrete functions, the cross-correlation is defined as:
The cross-correlation is similar in nature to the convolution of two functions.
In an autocorrelation, which is the cross-correlation of a signal with itself, there will always be a peak at a lag of zero unless the signal is a trivial zero signal.
In probability theory and statistics, correlation is always used to include a standardising factor in such a way that correlations have values between −1 and +1, and the term cross-correlation is used for referring to the correlation corr(X, Y) between two random variables X and Y, while the "correlation" of a random vector X is considered to be the correlation matrix (matrix of correlations) between the scalar elements of X.
If and are two independent random variables with probability density functions f and g, respectively, then the probability density of the difference is formally given by the cross-correlation (in the signal-processing sense) ; however this terminology is not used in probability and statistics. In contrast, the convolution (equivalent to the cross-correlation of f(t) and g(−t) ) gives the probability density function of the sum .
As an example, consider two real valued functions and differing only by an unknown shift along the x-axis. One can use the cross-correlation to find how much must be shifted along the x-axis to make it identical to . The formula essentially slides the function along the x-axis, calculating the integral of their product at each position. When the functions match, the value of is maximized. This is because when peaks (positive areas) are aligned, they make a large contribution to the integral. Similarly, when troughs (negative areas) align, they also make a positive contribution to the integral because the product of two negative numbers is positive.
- The cross-correlation of functions f(t) and g(t) is equivalent to the convolution of f*(−t) and g(t). I.e.:
- If f is Hermitian, then
- Analogous to the convolution theorem, the cross-correlation satisfies:
where denotes the Fourier transform, and an asterisk again indicates the complex conjugate. Coupled with fast Fourier transform algorithms, this property is often exploited for the efficient numerical computation of cross-correlations. (see circular cross-correlation)
- The cross correlation of a convolution of f and h with a function g is the convolution of the cross-correlation of f and g with the kernel h:
Time series analysis
where and are the means of and respectively.
The cross correlation of a pair of jointly wide sense stationary stochastic process can be estimated by averaging the product of samples measured from one process and samples measured from the other (and its time shifts). The samples included in the average can be an arbitrary subset of all the samples in the signal (e.g., samples within a finite time window or a sub-sampling of one of the signals). For a large number of samples, the average converges to the true cross-correlation.
Time delay analysis
Cross-correlations are useful for determining the time delay between two signals, e.g. for determining time delays for the propagation of acoustic signals across a microphone array. After calculating the cross-correlation between the two signals, the maximum (or minimum if the signals are negatively correlated) of the cross-correlation function indicates the point in time where the signals are best aligned, i.e. the time delay between the two signals is determined by the argument of the maximum, or arg max of the cross-correlation, as in
For image-processing applications in which the brightness of the image and template can vary due to lighting and exposure conditions, the images can be first normalized. This is typically done at every step by subtracting the mean and dividing by the standard deviation. That is, the cross-correlation of a template, with a subimage is
where is the number of pixels in and , is the average of f and is standard deviation of f. In functional analysis terms, this can be thought of as the dot product of two normalized vectors. That is, if
then the above sum is equal to
where is the inner product and is the L² norm. Thus, if f and t are real matrices, their normalized cross-correlation equals the cosine of the angle between the unit vectors F and T, being thus 1 if and only if F equals T multiplied by a positive scalar.
Normalized correlation is one of the methods used for template matching, a process used for finding incidences of a pattern or object within an image. It is also the 2-dimensional version of Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient.
Caution must be applied when using cross correlation for nonlinear systems. In certain circumstances, which depend on the properties of the input, cross correlation between the input and output of a system with nonlinear dynamics can be completely blind to certain nonlinear effects. This problem arises because some moments can go to zero and this can incorrectly suggest that there is little correlation between two signals when in fact the two signals are strongly related by nonlinear dynamics.
- Coherence (signal processing)
- Digital image correlation
- Phase correlation
- Scaled correlation
- Spectral density
- Wiener–Khinchin theorem
- Campbell; Lo; MacKinlay (1996). The Econometrics of Financial Markets. NJ: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0691043019.
- Rhudy, Matthew; Brian Bucci, Jeffrey Vipperman, Jeffrey Allanach, and Bruce Abraham (November 2009). "Microphone Array Analysis Methods Using Cross-Correlations". Proceedings of 2009 ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress, Lake Buena Vista, FL.
- Rhudy, Matthew (November 2009). "Real Time Implementation of a Military Impulse Classifier". University of Pittsburgh, Master's Thesis.
- Billings S.A. "Nonlinear System Identification: NARMAX Methods in the Time, Frequency, and Spatio-Temporal Domains". Wiley, 2013
- Tahmasebi, Pejman; Hezarkhani, Ardeshir; Sahimi, Muhammad (2012). "Multiple-point geostatistical modeling based on the cross-correlation functions". Computational Geosciences 16 (3): 779–797. doi:10.1007/s10596-012-9287-1.
- Cross Correlation from Mathworld