In the ancient Greek theatre men played females, as they did in English Renaissance theatre and continue to do in Japanese kabuki theatre (see Onnagata) A Breeches role referres to a male character (usually a youth or young man) traditionally played by a woman in theatre or in opera. The term travesti refers to both actresses playing men and actors playing women in the theatre.
In animations it is not unusual for female actors to voice young male characters. One example is Nancy Cartwright voicing Bart Simpson in The Simpsons. An example of a man voicing a female character is Bob Peterson as Roz in Monsters, Inc..
When the casting director of a production decides to employ cross-gender acting, selecting the actors in this way is sometimes also called "cross-gender casting" or simply "cross-casting".
Cross-gender acting in film and television
|1914||A Busy Day||Charlie Chaplin||"Wife"||male to female||comedic||English||Short comedy.|
|1914||Sweedie the Swatter||Wallace Beery||Sweedie||male to female||comedic||English||The first of a series of Sweedie films, made between 1914 and 1916|
|1921||Little Lord Fauntleroy||Mary Pickford||Cedric Errol||female to male||English|
|1936||Stars on Parade||Arthur Lucan||Old Mother Riley||male to female||English||The first of 17 films with Old Mother Riley|
|1949||Kind Hearts and Coronets||Alec Guinness||Lady Agatha D'Ascoyne||male to female||comedic||English||Alec Guinness plays eight members of the aristocratic D'Ascoyne family.|
|1954||The Belles of St Trinian's||Alastair Sim||Headmistress Millicent Fritton||male to female||comedic||English||Alastair Sim plays both Millicent Fritton and her brother, Clarence Fritton.|
|1957||Blue Murder at St Trinian's||Alastair Sim||Headmistress Miss Fritton||male to female||comedic||English|
|1978||Monkey (Saiyūki)||Masako Natsume||Tripitaka (Xuanzang)||female to male||dramatic||Japanese||Maria Warburg provided Tripitaka's voice in the dubbed, English version.|
|1981||Göta kanal||Christer Lindarw||Queen Silvia||male to female||Swedish||Cameo|
|1982||The Year of Living Dangerously||Linda Hunt||Billy Kwan||female to male||dramatic||English||Hunt won Academy Award for best actress in a supporting role|
|1986||The Golden Child||J.L. Reate||The Golden Child||female to male||dramatic||English||Reate was nominated to a Young Artist Awards
for Best Young Actress
|1988||Hairspray||Divine||Edna Turnblad||male to female||English|
|1988||Coming to America||Arsenio Hall||"Extremely Ugly Girl"||male to female||comedic||English||Hall has a minor role, as girl trying to pick up Akeem and Semmi at a bar.|
|1989||Back to the Future Part II||Michael J. Fox||Marlene McFly||male to female||English||Michael J. Fox plays three characters - Marty McFly,
Marty McFly Jr. and Marlene McFly.
|1991||Nothing but Trouble||John Candy||Eldona||male to female||comedic||English|
|1992||Swordsman II||Brigitte Lin||Invincible Asia||female to male||English||Asia is a man who has castrated himself.|
|1992||Orlando||Tilda Swinton||Orlando||female to male||dramatic||English||Orlando is a man the first 2/3 of the film|
|1992-1997||Martin||Martin Lawrence||Sheneneh & Mama Payne||male to female||comedic||English|
|1992||Orlando||Quentin Crisp||Elizabeth I||male to female||dramatic||English|
|1993||Mrs. Doubtfire||Robin Williams||Mrs. Doubtfire||male to female||comedic||English||main character as a housekeeper|
|1996||A Very Brady Sequel||RuPaul||Mrs Cummings||male to female||English||Minor role as the High school teacher|
|1996||The Nutty Professor||Eddie Murphy||Mama Klump, Grandma Klump||male to female||comedic||English|
|2000||Nutty Professor II: The Klumps||Eddie Murphy||Mama Klump, Granny Klump||male to female||comedic||English|
|2002||EvenHand||iO Tillett Wright||Toby||female to male||dramatic||English|
|2003||Girls Will Be Girls||Jack Plotnick, Clinton Leupp, Jeffery Roberson||Evie Harris, Coco Peru, Varla Jean Merman||male to female||comedic||English||All the female characters in this film were played by males.|
|2004||De Duistere Diamant||Peter Van Den Begin||Tante Sidonia||male to female||comedic||Dutch|
|2005||Diary of a Mad Black Woman||Tyler Perry||Mable "Madea" Simmons||male to female||comedic||English|
|2005||Alatriste||Blanca Portillo||Emilio Bocanegra||female to male||Spanish|
|2006||Madea's Family Reunion||Tyler Perry||Mable "Madea" Simmons||male to female||comedic||English|
|2007||I'm Not There||Cate Blanchett||Jude Quinn||female to male||English||Jude Quinn is stylized after Bob Dylan|
|2007||Hairspray||John Travolta||Edna Turnblad||male to female||English|
|2007||Norbit||Eddie Murphy||Rasputia||male to female||English|
|2007||St. Trinian's||Rupert Everett||Miss Camilla Dagey Fritton||male to female||comedic||English||As in the earlier St. Trinian's films, a man plays the character of the Headmistress, Miss Fritton.|
|2007||Negima!!||Yukina Kashiwa||Negi Springfield||female to male||Japanese||Live action adaptation of the manga Negima! Magister Negi Magi. The main character, Negi Springfield, is a 10 year old mage.|
|2008||Meet the Browns||Tyler Perry||Mable "Madea" Simmons||male to female||comedic||English|
|2009||Madea Goes to Jail||Tyler Perry||Mable "Madea" Simmons||male to female||comedic||English|
|2009||St. Trinian's 2: The Legend of Fritton's Gold||Rupert Everett||Miss Camilla Dagey Fritton||male to female||comedic||English|
|2011||Jack and Jill||Adam Sandler||Jill Sadelstein||male to female||comedic||English|
- Tootsie (1982) - The character Michael Dorsey (portrayed by Dustin Hoffman) star as Dorothy Michaels in the show-within-show soap opera Southwest General
- Victor Victoria (1982) - Victoria Grant (portrayed by Julie Andrews) pretends to be Count Victor Grezinski and finds work as a female impersonator.
- Flickan vid stenbänken (1989) - Carolin (Anna Edlund) briefly portrays a man in a (show-within-show) play.
- Shakespeare in Love (1998) - The character Viola de Lesseps (portrayed by Gwyneth Paltrow) disguises as Thomas Kent and then plays the part of Romeo in the show-within-show Romeo and Juliet.
Theatre, operas, plays, ballets and pantomime
A travesti is a theatrical term referring to the portrayal of a character in an opera, play, or ballet by a performer of the opposite sex. In 1904, Nina Boucicault originated the theatrical tradition of cross-gender casting for Peter Pan, continued thereafter by Maude Adams, Marilyn Miller, Eva Le Gallienne, Sandy Duncan, and Cathy Rigby, among others. In 1954 Mary Martin portrayed the title character in the musical Peter Pan.
More specifically, an operatic role in which an actress appears in male clothing is called a "breeches role", "pants role" or "trouser role" and roles once performed by a male soprano castrato are more recently sometimes performed by a female mezzo-soprano or contralto.
In pantomime, a principal boy role is the young male protagonist of the play, traditionally played by a young actress in boy's clothes. A pantomime dame is a portrayal of female characters by male actors in drag.
- Cross-dressing in film and television
- Cross-dressing in literature
- List of transgender-related topics
- Transgender in film and television
- "Maria Warburg". www.monkeyheaven.com. Retrieved 13 January 2012.
- "Awards for J.L. Reate", IMDb. Retrieved 10 September 2011.
- Hammond, Stefan; Wilkins, Mike (1996), Sex and Zen & a bullet in the head, Simon and Schuster, p. 80, ISBN 978-0-684-80341-8
- Orlando is a drama film and the film's press kit reads "[The director's] research has shown that Crisp's portrayal of Queen Elizabeth may be more than simply an interesting political or comic move", Press kit, sonyclassics.com. Retrieved 12 September 2011.
- Pilkington, Angel M. "Peter Pan: Myth and Fantasy", Midsummer Magazine, 2000, reprinted at the Utah Shakespearean Festival website, 2007