Jacob's staff

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Jacob's staff with four transoms
For the plant known as the ocotillo, sometimes called the Jacob's staff, see ocotillo.

The term Jacob's staff, also cross-staff, a ballastella, a fore-staff, or a balestilha, is used to refer to several things. This can lead to considerable confusion unless one clarifies the purpose for the object so named. The two most frequent uses are:

  • in astronomy and navigation for a simple device to measure angles, later replaced by the more precise sextants;
  • in surveying for a vertical rod that penetrates the ground and supports a compass or other instrument.

Astronomy and navigation[edit]

In navigation the instrument is also called a cross-staff and was used to determine angles, for instance the angle between the horizon and Polaris or the sun to determine a vessel's latitude, or the angle between the top and bottom of an object to determine the distance to said object if its height is known, or the height of the object if its distance is known, or the horizontal angle between two visible locations to determine one's point on a map.

The Jacob's staff, when used for astronomical observations, was also referred to as a radius astronomicus. With the demise of the cross-staff, in the modern era the name "Jacob's staff" is applied primarily to the device used to provide support for surveyor's instruments.

History[edit]

The origin of the name of the instrument is not certain. Some refer to the Biblical patriarch Jacob,[1] specifically Gen 32:11.[1] It may also take its name after its resemblance to Orion, referred to by the name of Jacob on some medieval star charts.[2][3] Another possible source is the Pilgrim's staff, the symbol of St James (Jacobus in Latin). The name cross staff simply comes from its cruciform shape.

The original Jacob's staff was developed as a single pole device in the 14th century that was used in making astronomical measurements. It was first described by the Jewish mathematician Levi ben Gerson[4][5] of Provence. However, its invention was likely due to Jacob ben Makir who also lived in Provence in the same period.[6] Attributions to 15th century astronomer Georg Purbach[7] are less likely correct, since Purbach was not born until 1423. Such attributions may refer to a different instrument with the same name. May[8] states that its origins can be traced to the Chaldeans around 400 BC.

Although it has become quite accepted that Levi ben Gerson first described Jacob's staff, the Sinologist Joseph Needham theorizes that the Song Dynasty Chinese scientist Shen Kuo (1031–1095), in his Dream Pool Essays of 1088, described a Jacob's staff.[9] Shen was an antiquarian interested in ancient objects; after he unearthed an ancient crossbow-like device from a home's garden in Jiangsu, he realized it had a sight with a graduated scale that could be used to measure the heights of distant mountains, likening it to how mathematicians measure heights by using right-angle triangles.[9] He wrote that when one viewed the whole breadth of a mountain with it, the distance on the instrument was long; when viewing a small part of the mountainside, the distance was short; this, he wrote, was due to the cross piece that had to be pushed further away from the eye, while the graduation started from the further end. Needham does not mention any practical application of this observation.[9]

During the Renaissance, the Dutch mathematician and surveyor Metius is known to have developed his own Jacob's staff. Gemma Frisius is also known to have made improvements to this instrument. Johannes Müller, called Regiomontanus, made the Jacob's staff in the 15th century to a popular instrument in geodesic and astronomical measurements.[10]

Construction[edit]

A Jacob's staff, from John Sellers' Practical Navigation (1672)

In the original form of the cross-staff, the pole or main staff was marked with graduations for length. The cross-piece (BC in the drawing to the right), also called the transom or transversal, slides up and down on the main staff. On older instruments, the ends of the transom were cut straight across. Newer instruments had brass fittings on the ends with holes in the brass for observation. In marine archaeology, these fittings are often the only components of a cross-staff that survive.[11]

It was common to provide several transoms, each with a different range of angles it would measure. Three transoms were common. In later instruments, separate transoms were switched in favour of a single transom with pegs to indicate the ends. These pegs mounted in one of several pairs of holes symmetrically located on either side of the transom. This provided the same capability with fewer parts.[8] The transom on Frisius' version had a sliding vane on the transom as an end point.[8]

Usage[edit]

The navigator places one end of the main staff against his cheek just below his eye. He sights the horizon at the end of the lower part of the transom (or through the hole in the brass fitting) (B), adjusting the cross arm on the main arm until the sun is at the other end of the transom (C). The altitude can then be determined by reading the position of the transom on the scale on the main staff. This value was converted to an angular measurement by looking up the value in a table.

Cross-staff for navigation[edit]

The original version was not used at sea. Johannes Werner suggested the cross-staff be used at sea in 1514[8] and improved instruments were introduced for use in navigation. John Dee introduced it to England in the 1550s.[1] In the improved versions, the rod was graduated directly in degrees. This variant of the instrument is not correctly termed a Jacob's staff but is a cross-staff.[6]

The cross-staff was difficult to use. In order to get consistent results, the observer had to position the end of the pole precisely against his cheek. He had to observe the horizon and a star in two different directions while not moving the instrument when he shifted his gaze from one to the other. In addition, observations of the sun required the navigator to look directly at the sun. This could be a painful exercise and made it difficult to obtain an accurate altitude for the sun. Mariners took to mounting smoked-glass to the ends of the transoms to reduce the glare of the sun.[8][12]

As a navigational tool, this instrument was eventually replaced, first by the backstaff or quadrant, neither of which required the user to stare directly into the sun, and later by the octant and the sextant. Perhaps influenced by the backstaff, some navigators modified the cross-staff to operate more like the former. Vanes were added to the ends of the longest cross-piece and another to the end of the main staff. The instrument was reversed so that the shadow of the upper vane on the cross piece fell on the vane at the end of the staff. The navigator held the instrument so that he would view the horizon lined up with the lower vane and the vane at the end of the staff. By aligning the horizon with the shadow of the sun on the vane at the end of the staff, the elevation of the sun could be determined.[13] This actually increased the accuracy of the instrument, as the navigator no longer had to position the end of the staff precisely on his cheek.

Another variant of the cross-staff was a spiegelboog, invented in 1660 by the Dutchman, Joost van Breen.

Ultimately, the cross-staff could not compete with the backstaff in many countries. In terms of handling, the backstaff was found to be more easy to use.[14] However, it has been proven by several authors that in terms of accuracy, the cross-staff was superior to the backstaff.[15] Backstaves were no longer allowed on board Dutch East India Company vessels as per 1731, with octants not permitted until 1748.[15]

Surveying[edit]

In surveying the Jacob's staff, contemporaneously referred to as a jacob staff, is a single straight rod or staff made of nonferrous material, pointed and metal-clad at the bottom for penetrating the ground.[16] It also has a screw base and occasionally a ball joint on the mount, and is used for supporting a compass, transit, or other instrument.[17]

The term cross-staff may also have a different meaning in the history of surveying. While the astronomical cross-staff was used in surveying for measuring angles, two other devices referred to as a cross-staff were also employed.[18]

  1. Cross-head, cross-sight, surveyor's cross or cross - a drum or box shaped device mounted on a pole. It had two sets of mutually perpendicular sights. This device was used by surveyors to measure offsets. Sophisticated versions had a compass and spirit levels on the top. The French versions were frequently eight-sided rather than round.[18]
  2. Optical square - an improved version of the cross-head, the optical square used two mirrors at 45° to each other. This permitted the surveyor to see along both axes of the instrument at once.

Use of the Jacob's Staff as a support[edit]

In the past, many surveyor's instruments were used on a Jacob's staff. These include:

Some devices, such as the modern optical targets for laser-based surveying, are still in common use on a Jacob's staff.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Turner, Gerard L'E. Antique Scientific Instruments, Blandford Press Ltd. 1980 ISBN 0-7137-1068-3
  2. ^ Harriet Wynter and Anthony Turner, Scientific Instruments, Studio Vista, 1975, ISBN 0-289-70403-0
  3. ^ Orion This article indicates the three belt stars are sometimes called Jacob's Ladder or Jacob's Stick
  4. ^ "The Mathematics of Levi ben Gershon, the Ralbag"
  5. ^ David G. Krehbiel "Jacob's Staff", Backsights, Surveyor's Historical Society
  6. ^ a b The Oxford Companion to Ships and the Sea, Peter Kemp ed., 1976 ISBN 0-586-08308-1
  7. ^ "Important Astronomers, their Instruments and Discoveries"
  8. ^ a b c d e May, William Edward, A History of Marine Navigation, G. T. Foulis & Co. Ltd., Henley-on-Thames, Oxfordshire, 1973, ISBN 0-85429-143-1
  9. ^ a b c Needham, Joseph. (1986). Science and Civilization in China: Volume 3, Mathematics and the Sciences of the Heavens and the Earth. Taipei: Caves Books Ltd. Pages 573–575.
  10. ^ Ralf Kern: Wissenschaftliche Instrumente in ihrer Zeit. Band 1: Vom Astrolab zum mathematischen Besteck. Cologne, 2010. p. 214.
  11. ^ Swanick, Lois Ann. An Analysis Of Navigational Instruments In The Age Of Exploration: 15th Century To Mid-17th Century, MA Thesis, Texas A&M University, December, 2005
  12. ^ Bourne, William, A Regiment for the Sea, 1574
  13. ^ Daumas, Maurice, Scientific Instruments of the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries and Their Makers, Portman Books, London 1989 ISBN 978-0-7134-0727-3
  14. ^ Nicolàs de Hilster's web site Tests performed on various instruments are described. In addition, de Hilster describes the handling characteristics found by the testers on the Nav List mailing list.
  15. ^ a b Bruyns, Willem Mörzer, The Cross-staff, History and development of a navigational instrument, Nederlandsch Historisch Sheepvaart Museum, Amsterdam, and Walburg Instituut, Zutphen, Netherlands, 1994 ISBN 90-6011-907-X
  16. ^ Rutstrum, The Wilderness Route Finder, University of Minnesota Press (2000), ISBN 0-8166-3661-3, pp. 47-55, 64-72
  17. ^ Rutstrum, pp. 47-55, 64-72
  18. ^ a b Turner, Gerard L'E., Nineteenth Century Scientific Instruments, Sotheby Publications, 1983, ISBN 0-85667-170-3