|Stylistic origins||Thrash metal, hardcore punk, speed metal, punk rock|
|Cultural origins||Early 1980s, United States, particularly greater Los Angeles, New York City, the San Francisco, California Bay Area, and Houston|
|Typical instruments||Vocals, electric guitar, bass guitar, drums|
|Grindcore • groove metal • digital hardcore|
|Nardcore • Richmond|
|Crossover rock • skate punk • thrashcore|
Crossover thrash (often abbreviated to crossover and also known as Punk Metal) is a form of thrash metal and hardcore punk which had mixed both genres together or had influences from each other. The genre lies on a continuum between heavy metal and punk rock. Other genres on the same continuum have significant overlap with crossover thrash, and besides traditional hardcore punk and thrash metal, include related styles such as thrashcore, grindcore and skate punk.
The genre is often confused with thrashcore, which is essentially a faster hardcore punk rather than a more punk-oriented form of metal. Throughout the early and mid 1980s, the term "thrash" was often used as a synonym for hardcore punk (as in the New York Thrash compilation of 1982). The term "thrashcore" to distinguish acts of the genre from others was not coined until at least 1993. Many crossover bands, such as D.R.I., began as influential thrashcore bands. The "-core" suffix of "thrashcore" is sometimes used to distinguish it from crossover thrash and thrash metal, the latter of which is often referred to simply as "thrash", which in turn is rarely used to refer to crossover thrash or thrashcore. Thrashcore is occasionally used by the music press to refer to thrash metal-inflected metalcore.
Crossover thrash evolved when performers in metal began borrowing elements of hardcore punk's music. Void and their 1982 Split LP with fellow D.C. band The Faith are hailed as one of the earliest examples of hardcore/heavy metal crossover and their chaotic musical approach is often cited as particularly influential. Punk-based metal bands generally evolved into the genre by developing a more technically advanced approach than the average hardcore outfit (which focused on very fast tempos and very brief songs), these bands were more metal-sounding and aggressive than traditional hardcore punk and thrashcore.
Especially early on, crossover thrash had a strong affinity with skate punk, but gradually became more and more the province of metal audiences. The scene gestated at a Berkeley club called Ruthie's, in 1984. The term "metalcore" was originally used to refer to these crossover groups.
As Steven Blush says,
|“||It was natural. The most intense music, after Black Flag and Dead Kennedys, was Slayer and Metallica. Therefore, that's where everybody was going. That turned into a culture war, basically. And the people who were on the alt-rock, indie-rock side won, and the people who were crossover kind of got destroyed.||”|
Hardcore punk groups Corrosion of Conformity, Dirty Rotten Imbeciles and Suicidal Tendencies played alongside thrash metal groups like Megadeth, Anthrax, Metallica and Slayer. This scene influenced the skinhead wing of New York hardcore, which began in 1984, and included crossover groups such as Cro-Mags, Murphy's Law, Agnostic Front, and Warzone.
Other prominent crossover thrash groups include Crumbsuckers, Nuclear Assault, Stormtroopers of Death, Hogan's Heroes, SSD, Cryptic Slaughter, The Boneless Ones, The Exploited, and Discharge.
Crossover incorporates fast paced thrash riffs mixed with breakdown riffs commonly used in hardcore and helped forge a derivative known as groove metal (sometimes referred to as post-thrash). Drumming is typically done at high speed, with D-beats sometimes being used.[verification needed]
List of crossover thrash bands
- The Accüsed
- Agnostic Front
- Attitude Adjustment
- Blunt Force Trauma
- The Brood
- Cerebral Fix
- Concrete Sox
- Corrosion of Conformity
- The Crucified
- Cryptic Slaughter
- Dayglo Abortions
- Dr. Know
- The Exploited
- The Faith
- Fearless Iranians from Hell
- Final Conflict
- Gang Green
- Hogan's Heroes
- The Icemen
- Life of Agony (early)
- Mucky Pup
- Municipal Waste
- Nuclear Assault
- Power Trip
- Ratos de Porão
- Send More Paramedics
- Short Sharp Shock (SSS)
- Sick Mother Fakers
- Soziedad Alkoholika
- Stormtroopers of Death
- Suicidal Tendencies
- Sworn Enemy
- This is Hell
- Toxic Holocaust
- Uncle Slam
- Vegan Reich
- Verbal Abuse
- What Happens Next?
- Yellow Machinegun
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