Pleistocene - Holocene, 1.8–0Ma
|Guira cuckoo, Guira guira|
Among the anis, there is considerable variation in nesting habits. One species, The greater ani C. major lays 2 or 3 eggs, while the groove-billed ani C. sulcirostris lays seven. However the smooth-billed ani C. ani will share one nest between several females, with up to 29 eggs in one nest. Incubation takes 15 days for this species.
Four species make up the subfamily, namely the guira cuckoo (Guira guira) and the three members of the genus Crotophaga known as anis. Study of the cranial osteology and mitochondrial DNA yield the same phylogeny, namely that the Smooth-billed and groove-billed ani are each other's closest relatives, with the greater ani related and the guira cuckoo an earlier offshoot of the group.
- Genus Guira:
- Guira cuckoo, Guira guira
- Genus Crotophaga:
- Cabo San Lucas groove-billed ani, Crotophaga sulcirostris pallidula - probably invalid; extinct (c.1940)
Distribution and habitat
The members of the family range from Florida in the north, through Central America and the West Indies and through South America south to Rio Negro in Argentina, in open habitats.
- Brodkorb, (1971). "Catalogue of fossil birds: part 4 (Columbiformes through Piciformes)." Bulletin of the Florida State Museum, 15: 163-266.
- Davis, David E. (1942). "The Phylogeny of Social Nesting Habits in the Crotophaginae". The Quarterly Review of Biology 17 (2): 115–34. doi:10.1086/394650. JSTOR 2808549.
- Posso, Sergio R.; Donatelli, Reginaldo J. (2001). "Cranial osteology and systematic implications in Crotophaginae (Aves, Cuculidae)". Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research 39 (4): 247–56. doi:10.1046/j.1439-0469.2001.00178.x.
- Hughes, Janice M. (2003). "Phylogeny of cooperatively breeding cuckoos (Cuculidae, Crotophaginae) based on mitochondrial gene sequences". Naturwissenschaften 90 (5): 231–33. doi:10.1007/s00114-003-0413-8.
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