Crownwork

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A crownwork outside a bastion.
Feature 'l' is a Crownwork. From the Cyclopaedia.

A crownwork is an element of the trace italienne system of fortification and is effectively an expanded Hornwork. It consists of a full bastion with the walls on either side ending in half bastions from which longer flank walls run back towards the main fortress.[1]

The crownwork was used to extend the fortified area in a particular direction often in order to defend a bridge, prevent the enemy occupying an area of high ground, or simply strengthen the overall fortifications in the expected direction of attack.[2]

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