Cry, the Beloved Country
|Cry, the Beloved Country|
First US edition
|Publisher||Scribners (USA) & Jonathan Cape (UK)|
|Publication date||December 1948|
|Media type||Print (Hardback & Paperback)|
|Pages||256 pp (hardback edition) (UK)|
|ISBN||ISBN 0-224-60578-X (hardback edition) (UK)|
Cry, the Beloved Country is a novel by South African author Alan Paton. It was first published in New York City in 1948 by Charles Scribner's Sons and in London by Jonathan Cape. The protagonist is Stephen Kumalo, a black Anglican priest from a rural Natal town, who is searching for his son Absalom in the city of Johannesburg.
The American publisher Bennett Cerf remarked at that year's meeting of the American Booksellers Association that there had been "only three novels published since the first of the year that were worth reading ... Cry, The Beloved Country, The Ides of March, and The Naked and the Dead."
Two cinema adaptations of the book have been made, the first in 1951 and the second in 1995. The novel was also adapted as a musical called Lost in the Stars (1949), with a book by the American writer Maxwell Anderson and music composed by the German emigre, Kurt Weill. It was recently produced by the Glimmerglass Opera of New York in 2012, directed by Tazewell Thompson.
The novel begins in a small village in Ixopo Ndotsheni, where the black priest Stephen Kumalo receives a letter from the priest Theophilus Msimangu in Johannesburg. Msimangu urges Kumalo to come to the city to help his sister Gertrude, because she is ill. It is a long journey to Johannesburg and Kumalo sees the wonders of the modern world for the first time. Kumalo goes to Johannesburg to help Gertrude and to find his son Absalom, who had gone to the city to look for Gertrude but never came home.
When he gets to the city, Kumalo learns that Gertrude has taken up a life of prostitution and beer brewing, and is now drinking heavily. She agrees to return to the village with her young son. Assured by these developments, Kumalo embarks on the search for Absalom, first seeing his brother John, a carpenter who has become involved in the politics of South Africa. Kumalo and Msimangu follow Absalom's trail, only to learn that Absalom has been in a reformatory and will have a child with a young woman. Shortly thereafter, Kumalo learns that his son has been arrested for murder. The victim is Arthur Jarvis, who was killed during a burglary. Jarvis was an engineer and a white activist for racial justice, and he happens to be the son of Kumalo's neighbour James Jarvis.
Jarvis learns of his son's death and comes with his family to Johannesburg. Jarvis and his son had been distant, and now the father begins to know his son through his writings. Through reading his son's essays, Jarvis decides to take up his son's work on behalf of South Africa's black population.
Absalom is sentenced to death for the murder of Arthur Jarvis. Before his father returns to Ndotsheni, Absalom marries the girl who is carrying his child. She joins Kumalo's family. Kumalo returns to his village with his daughter-in-law and nephew, having found that Gertrude ran away on the night before their departure.
Back in Ixopo, Kumalo makes a futile visit to the tribe's chief in order to discuss changes that must be made to help the barren village. Help arrives, however, when James Jarvis becomes involved in the work. He arranges to have a dam built and hires a native agricultural demonstrator to implement new farming methods.
The novel ends at dawn on the morning of Absalom's execution. The fathers of the two children are devastated that both of their sons have died.
- Stephen Kumalo: A native priest who attempts to find his family in Johannesburg, and later reconstruct the disintegrating tribe in his village.
- Theophilus Msimangu: A priest from Johannesburg who helps Kumalo find his son Absalom.
- John Kumalo: Stephen's brother, who denies the tribal validity and becomes a spokesman for the new racial movement in the city; a former carpenter.
- Absalom Kumalo: Stephen's son who left home to look for Stephen's sister Gertrude, and who murders Arthur Jarvis.
- Gertrude Kumalo: The young sister of Stephen who becomes a prostitute in Johannesburg and leads a dissolute life.
- James Jarvis: A wealthy landowner whose son, Arthur, is murdered. He comes to the realization of the guilt of white residents in such crimes and forgives the Kumalos.
- Arthur Jarvis: Murdered by Absalom Kumalo, he is the son of James Jarvis. He does not appear in the novel, but his liberal racial views are highly significant and influential.
- Dubula: A big man who was the "heart" of anything and everything Arthur Jarvis did, including wanting peace between the races.
- Mr. Carmichael: Absalom's lawyer; he takes his case pro deo (for God) in this case meaning for free.
- Father Vincent: A priest from England who helps Stephen in his troubles.
- Mrs. Lithebe: A native landlady with whom Stephen stays while in Johannesburg.
- The Harrisons: A father and son who represent two opposing views concerning the racial problem. The father, who is Arthur's father-in-law, represents the traditional view, while the son represents the more liberal view.
- The Girl [Absalom's wife]: A teenage girl, approximately 16 years old, impregnated by Absalom, whom she later marries.
Cry, the Beloved Country is a social protest against the structures of the society that would later give rise to apartheid. Paton attempts to create an unbiased and objective view of the dichotomies this entails: he depicts the Whites as affected by 'native crime', while the Blacks suffer from social instability and moral issues due to the breakdown of the tribal system. It shows many of the problems with South Africa such as the degrading of the land reserved for the natives, which is sometimes considered to be the main theme, the disintegration of the tribal community, native crime, and the flight to the urban areas.
Another prevalent theme in Cry, the Beloved Country is the detrimental effects of fear on the characters and society of South Africa as indicated in the following quotation from the narrator in Chapter 12:
|“||Cry, the beloved country, for the unborn child that is the inheritor of our fear. Let him not love the earth too deeply. Let him not laugh too gladly when the water runs through his fingers, nor stand too silent when the setting sun makes red the veld with fire. Let him not be too moved when the birds of his land are singing, nor give too much of his heart to a mountain or a valley. For fear will rob him of all if he gives too much.||”|
Paton makes frequent use of literary and linguistic devices such as microcosms, intercalary chapters and dashes instead of quotation marks for dialogue to indicate the start of speech acts in order to portray the devastating conditions in South Africa.
Cry, the Beloved Country was written before passage of a new law institutionalizing the apartheid political system in South Africa. The novel was published in 1948; apartheid became law later that same year.
The book enjoyed critical success around the world. It sold over 15 million copies before Paton's death.
The book is studied currently by many schools internationally. The style of writing echoes the rhythms and tone of the King James Bible. Paton was a devout Christian.
Paton combined actual locales, such as Ixopo and Johannesburg, with fictional towns. The suburb in which Jarvis lived in Johannesburg, Parkwold, is fictional but its ambiance is typical of the Johannesburg suburbs of Parktown and of Saxonwold. In the author's preface, Paton took pains to note that, apart from passing references to Jan Smuts and Sir Ernest Oppenheimer, all his characters were fictional.
Allusions/references to other works
The novel is filled with Biblical references and allusions. The most evident are the names Paton gives to the characters. Absalom, the son of Stephen Kumalo, is named for the son of King David, who rose up against his father in rebellion. Also, in the New Testament Book of Acts, Saint Stephen was a martyr who died rather than give up his beliefs. The Gospel of Luke and the Book of Acts are written to Theophilus, which is Greek for "friend of God".
In the novel, Absalom requests that his son be named Peter—the name of one of Jesus's disciples. Among Peter's better-known traits is a certain impulsiveness; also, after Christ's arrest, he denied knowing Jesus three times, and later wept in grief over this. After the resurrection, Peter renewed his commitment to Christ and to spreading the Gospel. All of this suggests Absalom's final repentance, and his commitment to the faith of his father.
In another allusion, Arthur Jarvis is described as having a large collection of books on Abraham Lincoln, and the writings of Lincoln are featured several times in the novel.
Paton describes Arthur's son as having characteristics similar to his when he was a child. This may allude to the resurrection of Christ.
Film, television and theatrical adaptations
In 1951, the novel was adapted into a motion picture of the same name, directed by Zoltan Korda. Paton wrote the screenplay. Kumalo was played by Canada Lee, Jarvis by Charles Carson, and Msimangu by Sidney Poitier.
A stage version by the South African playwright Roy Sargeant was developed in early 2003; it was first staged at the National Arts Festival in Grahamstown, Eastern Cape on 27 June 2003 and at the Artscape Theatre in Cape Town on 8 July 2003. The director was Heinrich Reisenhofer. The script, together with notes and activities for school use, was published in 2006 by Oxford University Press Southern Africa
In 1949 the composer Kurt Weill, in collaboration with the American writer Maxwell Anderson (book and lyrics), composed a musical based on the book called Lost in the Stars. The original Broadway production opened on 30 October 1949 at the Music Box Theatre and starred Todd Duncan and Inez Matthews. It ran for 273 performances before closing on 1 July 1950. It was made into a movie, starring Brock Peters and Melba Moore, released in 1974. Lost in the Stars is the last work Weill completed before his death in 1950. Although he was influenced by spirituals, jazz and blues, Weill's distinctive and original style shines throughout the score.
Israeli contratenor David D'Or performed in a stage version at the Israeli National Theater ("Habima Theater") in 2004. Maariv in its review wrote: "D'or's outstanding voice is meant for great parts. His voice and presence embraces the audience, who showed their appreciation by a lengthy standing ovation."
- 1948, USA, Charles Scribner's Sons ?, Pub date ? December 1948, hardback
- 1949, UK, Jonathan Cape ISBN 0-224-60578-X, Pub date September 1948, hardback
- 1970, UK Penguin Modern Classics ISBN 0-14-001274-5, Pub date 28 May 1970, paperback
- 2000, UK Penguin Modern Classics ISBN 0-14-118312-8, Pub date 27 April 2000, paperback
- 2003, USA, Charles Scribner's Sons ISBN 0-7432-6217-4, Charles Scribner's Sons, Pub date ? November 2003, paperback
- (No author.) "Reader's digest: Gossip, news: J. F. Albright reports on A.B.A. meeting," The Dallas Morning News, 30 May 1948, page 6.
- "Eurovision Song Contest 2004 on Star Radio". Star Radio. Retrieved 12 May 2009.[dead link]
- "Israel in 2004". esctoday.com. Retrieved 2 May 2009.
- "About David D’Or & The Philharmonic". Yediot Achronot. April 2003. Retrieved 12 May 2009.
- Susan Galbraith, "Lost in the Stars at Glimmerglass", DC Theatre Scene.com, 3 August 2012, accessed 14 February 2013