A cryptocurrency is a digital medium of exchange. The first cryptocurrency to begin trading was Bitcoin in 2009, since then numerous cryptocurrencys have become available. Cryptocurrencys are at bottom specifications regarding the use of currency which seek to incorporate principles of cryptography to implement a distributed, decentralized and secure information economy. When comparing cryptocurrencys to fiat money, the most notable difference is in how no group or individual may gain any significant control over the production of money, instead only a certain amount of cryptocurrency can possibly be produced by the entire cryptocurrency system collectively, at a rate which is always both prior defined and publicly known.
In cryptocurrency systems the safety, integrity and balance of all ledgers is ensured by a swarm of mutually distrustful parties referred to as miners who are for the most part general members of the public actively protecting the network by maintaining a high hash-rate difficulty for their chance at receiving a randomly distributed small fee. Averting the underlying security of a cryptocurrency is a controversial process called 'derailing', it involves convincing over half the computers of every user for the target cryptocurrency that a fraudulent block is in fact valid, with this majority those computers would then convince other computers using that cryptocurrency effectively causing the network to incorrectly authenticate a fraudulent block, the process is mathematically possible because ensuring correct behavior amongst widely distributed selfish miners is not possible, one or more may be altered in such a way as to attempt to propagate a false transaction throughout the cryptocurrency network, and if successful terribly affect the distributed global ledger called the 'block chain', however the costs to derail a cryptocurrency may be kept unfeasibly high, In a standard proof-of-work based system for example an attacker would need computational power greater than that controlled by the entire swarm of miners plus make approximately 1 / 2^(# authentication rounds for this cryptocurrency - 1) world wide false signing attempts, which for the Bitcoin network is now well beyond the power of companies like Google. As of yet no nation has replaced fiat money with cryptocurrency.
Most cryptocurrencies are designed to gradually introduce new units of currency, placing an ultimate cap on the total amount of currency that will ever be in circulation. This is done both to mimic the scarcity (and value) of precious metals and to avoid hyperinflation. Compared with ordinary currencies held by financial institutions or kept as cash on hand, cryptocurrencies are less susceptible to seizure by law enforcement. Existing cryptocurrencies are all pseudonymous, though additions such as Zerocoin and its distributed laundry feature, or StableCoin and its mixed transaction feature have been suggested, which would allow for anonymity.
History of Cryptocurrencies
Early attempts to integrate cryptography with electronic money were made by David Chaum, via DigiCash and ecash, which used cryptography to anonymise electronic money transactions, albeit with centralized issuing and clearing.
The first cryptocurrency was Bitcoin, which was created in 2009 by pseudonymous developer Satoshi Nakamoto, and used SHA-256 as its proof-of-work scheme. Later on, other major cryptocurrencies, such as Namecoin (an attempt at a decentralized DNS, which would make internet censorship very difficult), Litecoin (which uses scrypt as a proof-of-work, as well as having faster transaction confirmations) and Peercoin (which uses a proof-of-work/proof-of-stake hybrid, and has inflation of about 1%) were also created. Many other cryptocurrencies have been created, though not all have been successful, especially those that brought few innovations.
For the first couple years of existence, cryptocurrencies gradually gained attention from the media and public. Since 2011, interest has rapidly increased, especially during the rapid price rise of Bitcoin in April 2013.
The most widely used proof-of-work schemes are SHA-256, which was introduced by Bitcoin, and scrypt, which is used by currencies such as Litecoin. Some cryptocurrencies, such as Peercoin, use a combined proof-of-work/proof-of-stake scheme.
|Currency||Code||Year Est.||Founder||Active||Website||Value of money supply||Algorithm||Note|
|Bitcoin||BTC||2009||Satoshi Nakamoto (pseudonym)||Yes||bitcoin.org||~8,500 million USD||SHA-256
|The first widely known decentralized ledger currency.|
|Litecoin||LTC||2011||Coblee||Yes||litecoin.org||~220 million USD||Scrypt
|The first Scrypt cryptocurrency.|
|Peercoin||PPC||2012||Sunny King||Yes||peercoin.net||~23.5 million USD||SHA-256
|The proof-of-stake is designed to give Peercoin increased energy efficiency and a small amount of decentralized inflation; however, this is mitigated by its deflationary aspect caused from destroyed transaction fees.|
|Namecoin||NMC||2011||Vinced||Yes||dot-bit.org||~8 million USD||SHA-256
|Namecoin is meant to act as a decentralized DNS, which would make internet censorship very difficult. Namecoin serves the .bit domain.|
- Some people, such as bitcoin developer Gavin Andresen, have expressed concern that some cryptocurrencies might be scams.
- Many smaller cryptocurrencies have very few users and are only traded on cryptocurrency markets.
Cryptocurrencies can be traded for other currencies through various online exchanges.
- Alternative currency
- Bitcoin protocol
- Cryptographic protocol
- Decentralized Autonomous Corporations
- Digital currency exchanger
- Digital currency
- Wary of Bitcoin? A guide to some other cryptocurrencies, ars technica, 26-05-2013
- What does Cryptocurrency mean?, technopedia, 01-07-2013
- BITCOIN A Primer for Policymakers, JERRY BRITO AND ANDREA CASTILLO, Mercatus Center, George Mason University, 31-08-2013
- California dreaming: The CoinDesk Weekly Review, Coindesk, 26-05-2013
- From your wallet to Google Wallet: your digital payment options, The Conversation, 26-05-2013
- About, The Cryptocurrency Legal Advocacy Group, 01-07-2013
- Crypto currency, Forbes, 26-05-2013
- How Cryptocurrencies Could Upend Banks' Monetary Role, American Banker, 26-05-2013
- The FBI's Plan For The Millions Worth Of Bitcoins Seized From Silk Road, Forbes, 04-10-2013
- 'Zerocoin' Add-on For Bitcoin Could Make It Truly Anonymous And Untraceable, Forbes, 26-05-2013
- Zerocoin: Anonymous Distributed E-Cash from Bitcoin, The Johns Hopkins University Department of Computer Science, 26-05-2013
- zerocoin.org, 26-05-2013
- This is Huge: Gold 2.0 - Can code and competition build a better Bitcoin?, New Bitcoin World, 26-05-2013
- Chaum, David (1983). "Blind signatures for untraceable payments". Advances in Cryptology Proceedings of Crypto 82 (3): 199–203.
- What is Bitcoin Mining?, The Genesis Block, 26-05-2013
- Bitcoin developer chats about regulation, open source, and the elusive Satoshi Nakamoto, PCWorld, 26-05-2013
- Cryptocurrency, MIT Technology Review, 26-05-2013
- "PPCoin: Peer-to-Peer Crypto-Currency with Proof-of-Stake". http://www.ppcoin.org/static/ppcoin-paper.pdf, 19-08-2012. Sunny King, Scott Nadal. Retrieved 12-05-2013.
- "Market Capitalization". Blockchain.info. Retrieved 21 March 2013.
- Simonite, Tom. "Bitcoin Isn’t the Only Cryptocurrency in Town". MIT Technology Review. Retrieved 5 May 2013.
- "Crypto-Currency Market Capitalizations". Retrieved 18 November 2013.
- Cryptocoin Mining Information, 18-05-2013
- Andresen, Gavin https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=42465.0 (accessed 6 Apr 2013)
- "Scamcoins". August 2013.