Crystal, New Mexico
|Crystal, New Mexico|
|Counties||San Juan, McKinley|
|• Total||4.4 sq mi (11.4 km2)|
|• Land||4.4 sq mi (11.4 km2)|
|• Water||0.0 sq mi (0.1 km2)|
|Elevation||7,523 ft (2,293 m)|
|• Density||78.9/sq mi (30.5/km2)|
|Time zone||Mountain (MST) (UTC-7)|
|• Summer (DST)||MDT (UTC-6)|
|GNIS feature ID||0902227|
Crystal (Navajo: Tóniłtsʼílí) is a census-designated place (CDP) in McKinley and San Juan counties in the U.S. state of New Mexico. The population was 347 at the 2000 census. It is located at the western end of the Narbona Pass.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 4.4 square miles (11.4 km²), of which 4.4 square miles (11.4 km²) is land and 0.04 square mile (0.1 km²) (0.45%) is water.
The first known trader in the Washington Pass was Romulo Martinez, a Spanish-American from Fort Defiance, in 1873. The names of other traders are recorded for the following years, but they seem all to have been temporary, trading from tents in the summer season. In 1896 John Bradford Moore arrived, an Irishman from Sheridan, Wyoming. He bought the trading site, then cut timber in the mountains and hauled it down to build a log trading post, which he stocked with supplies carted from the rail head in Gallup. He named his post at the western mouth of the Narbona Pass the Crystal Trading Post. During the winter months, he employed Navajo weavers to make rugs. Moore ensured that the wool and the weaving was good quality, and created designs of his own, quickly gaining a reputation as a source of good quality rugs.
Moore understood what the market in the eastern United States would value, and in his catalog stressed the use of natural materials and primitive technology. Despite this, he introduced production-line techniques, and had no problem with using machine-produced yarns with synthetic dyes. Traders in Navajo rugs had to keep costs down to be able to offer competitive prices, so wages were low. Talking of the weaver's life, Moore said, "there is no more dismal wage proposition than her remuneration for her part in the industry. Given any other paying outlet for her labor, there would very soon be no such thing as a blanket industry ... it is her one and only way of earning money." Moore was succeeded in 1911 by his manager, A. J. Molohon. The Crystal Trading Post was owned by the C.C. Manning company from 1919 to 1922. Later Charlie Newcomb and then Jim Collyer owned the post. In 1944 Don Jensen bought the post, holding it until 1981. Apparently Jenson developed the current Crystal rug.
As of the census of 2000, there were 347 people, 100 households, and 77 families residing in the CDP. The population density was 78.9 people per square mile (30.4/km²). There were 113 housing units at an average density of 25.7 per square mile (9.9/km²). The racial makeup of the CDP was 97.98% Native American, 1.73% White, and 0.29% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.59% of the population.
There were 100 households out of which 41.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 44.0% were married couples living together, 27.0% had a female householder with no husband present, and 23.0% were non-families. 21.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.0% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.47 and the average family size was 4.10.
In the CDP the population was spread out with 38.0% under the age of 18, 10.4% from 18 to 24, 26.8% from 25 to 44, 17.6% from 45 to 64, and 7.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 27 years. For every 100 females there were 74.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 83.8 males.
The median income for a household in the CDP was $24,722, and the median income for a family was $13,906. Males had a median income of $31,023 versus $16,250 for females. The per capita income for the CDP was $7,002. About 54.7% of families and 54.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 63.8% of those under age 18 and 20.0% of those age 65 or over.
- Graburn, Nelson H. H. (1976). Ethnic and Tourist Arts: Cultural Expressions from the Fourth World. University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-03842-4.
- James, Harold L. (1988). H.L. James's rugs and posts: the story of Navajo weaving and Indian trading. Schiffer Pub.
- Linford, Laurance D. (2005-09-01). Tony Hillerman's Navajoland: Hideouts, Haunts, and Havens in the Joe Leaphorn and Jim Chee Mysteries. University of Utah Press. ISBN 978-0-87480-848-3.
- M'Closkey, Kathy (2008-05-30). Swept Under the Rug: A Hidden History of Navajo Weaving. UNM Press. ISBN 978-0-8263-2832-8.
- Wilkins, Teresa J. (2008-05-15). Patterns of Exchange: Navajo Weavers and Traders. University of Oklahoma Press. ISBN 978-0-8061-3757-5.