Crystal Dynamics

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For "Crystal Dynamics" as physical-chemical process, see Crystallization.
Crystal Dynamics
Type Subsidiary of Square Enix
Industry Computer and video games
Founded 1992
Founders Judy Lang
Madeline Canepa
David Morris
Headquarters Redwood City, California, United States
Area served Worldwide
Key people Judy Lang
Madeline Canepa
David Morris
Products List of Crystal Dynamics video games
Owners Square Enix
Parent Independent (1992–1998)
Eidos Interactive (1998–2009)
Square Enix (2009–present)
Website www.crystald.com

Crystal Dynamics is an American video game developer that was founded in 1992 by Judy Lang, Madeline Canepa and Dave Morris. Based in the San Francisco Bay Area, it was acquired by Eidos Interactive in 1998. After Square Enix's acquisition of Eidos in 2009, it became a subsidiary of Square Enix.[1] Crystal was the first licensed developer for 3DO. The company's mascot was the video game character, Gex The Gecko.

History[edit]

Crystal Dynamics headquarters in Redwood City

Crystal Dynamics was formed in mid-1992 by Sega veterans Judy Lang, Madeline Canepa, and Dave Morse. Crystal was the first licensed developer for 3DO, a gaming hardware platform simultaneously funded by Kleiner Perkins. In 1993, Strauss Zelnick, president of 20th Century Fox's film studio, was hired to run Crystal Dynamics. This made national news and helped to touch off the frenzy of multimedia investments of the mid-1990s.[2]

Crystal Dynamics had been most known for developing Legacy of Kain and Gex, but in 2003, the studio was entrusted the development of the best-selling Tomb Raider franchise after original developer Core Design failed to gain critical or commercial success with their later Tomb Raider games, and released its first game in the series in 2006, Tomb Raider: Legend, which was the fastest selling game in the entire series, selling 4.5 million units worldwide.[3][4] Crystal Dynamics recently co-developed Tomb Raider: Anniversary with developer Buzz Monkey Software. Tomb Raider: Anniversary, a remake of the first Tomb Raider game, was released in June 2007. The next installment, Tomb Raider Underworld, was released on November 2008 on consoles. Crystal Dynamics' next release was the spin-off title Lara Croft and the Guardian of Light, which did not feature the Tomb Raider branding despite utilizing the lead character. The game was released for digital distribution only. This was followed by Tomb Raider in 2013, a reboot which introduced a new back story for Lara.

Games developed[edit]

As of December 2012, 36 video games have been developed by Crystal Dynamics. The following table showcases the corresponding title, release date, publisher and the platforms on which each game was released along with any other relevant information. A detailed overview of each game can be found in their corresponding articles.

Key
Blank cell indicates title was not released on any platform(s) by the specified manufacturers
Cell with games console(s) indicates title was released on platform(s) by the specified manufacturers
List of games developed by Crystal Dynamics
Title Release details Platform(s)
Microsoft Nintendo Sega Sony Other
Crash N Burn[5]
  • Genre: Racing
  • Publisher: Crystal Dynamics
  • Release date: 1993
3DO
Total Eclipse[6]
  • Genre: Simulation
  • Publisher: Crystal Dynamics
  • Release date: 1993
3DO
Off-World Interceptor[7]
  • Genre: Shooter
  • Publisher: Crystal Dynamics
  • Release date: 1994
3DO
The Horde[8]
  • Genre: Strategy
  • Publisher: Crystal Dynamics
  • Release date: 1994
Windows Saturn 3DO
Gex[9][a]
  • Genre: Platform
  • Publishers: **BMG Interactive (3DO)
  • Release date: **3DO: November 16, 1994
    • PlayStation: December 13, 1995
    • Saturn: 1996
    • Windows: November 7, 1996
Windows Saturn PlayStation 3DO
Samurai Shodown[10]
  • Genre: Fighting
  • Publisher: Crystal Dynamics
  • Release date: 1995
3DO
Total Eclipse Turbo[11]
  • Genre: Shooter
  • Publisher: Crystal Dynamics
  • Release date: August 29, 1995
PlayStation
Off-World Interceptor Extreme[12]
  • Genre: Shooter
  • Publisher: Crystal Dynamics
  • Release date: 1995
Saturn PlayStation
Solar Eclipse[13] (titled Titan Wars in Japan and Europe)
  • Genre: Shooter
  • Publisher: Crystal Dynamics
  • Release date: 1995
Saturn PlayStation
Slam 'N Jam[14][b]
  • Genre: Sports
  • Publisher: Crystal Dynamics
  • Release date: 1995
3DO
Slam 'N Jam '96 featuring Magic and Kareem[15]
  • Genre: Sports
  • Publisher: Crystal Dynamics
  • Release date: **PlayStation: 1996
    • Saturn: August 9, 1996
Saturn PlayStation
Blazing Dragons[16]
  • Genre: Adventure
  • Publisher: Crystal Dynamics
  • Release date: October 31, 1996
Saturn PlayStation
3D Baseball[17]
  • Genre: Sports
  • Publisher: Crystal Dynamics
  • Release date: **PlayStation: October 31, 1996
    • Saturn: November 30, 1996
Saturn PlayStation
Pandemonium[18][c]
  • Genre: Action
  • Publishers: **Crystal Dynamics (PlayStation, Saturn & Windows)
  • Release date: **PlayStation: October 31, 1996
    • Saturn: 1997
    • Windows: June 30, 1997
    • N-Gage: October 6, 2003
Windows Saturn PlayStation N-Gage
Pandemonium 2[19]
  • Genre: Action
  • Publishers: **Midway Home Entertainment (PlayStation)
    • Crystal Dynamics (Windows)
  • Release date: **PlayStation: September 30, 1997
    • Windows: 1997
Windows PlayStation
Gex: Enter the Gecko[20]
  • Genre: Platform
  • Publisher: **Midway Home Entertainment (PlayStation)
    • Eidos Interactive (Windows)
  • Release date: **PlayStation: January 31, 1998
    • Windows: September 30, 1998
Windows N64 PlayStation
Akuji the Heartless[21]
  • Genre: Action
  • Publisher: Eidos Interactive
  • Release date: December 31, 1998
PlayStation
Gex 3: Deep Cover Gecko[22][d]
  • Genre: Platform
  • Publishers: Eidos Interactive
  • Release date: March 1, 1999
PlayStation
Legacy of Kain: Soul Reaver[23][e]
  • Genre: Action
  • Publisher: Eidos Interactive
  • Release date: **PlayStation: August 16, 1999
    • Windows: September 8, 1999
    • Dreamcast: January 27, 2000
Windows Dreamcast PlayStation
Walt Disney World Quest: Magical Racing Tour[24][f]
  • Genre: Racing
  • Publisher: Eidos Interactive
  • Release date: **Dreamcast: July 20, 2000
    • Game Boy Color: June 2, 2000
    • PlayStation: March 23, 2000
    • Windows: 2000
GBA Dreamcast PlayStation
102 Dalmatians: Puppies to the Rescue[25][g]
  • Genre: Action
  • Publishers: **Eidos Interactive
  • Release date: **Dreamcast: November 14, 2000
    • Game Boy Color: November 23, 2000
    • PlayStation: November 8, 2000
    • Windows: 2000
Windows GBA Dreamcast PlayStation
Soul Reaver 2[26][e]
  • Genre: Action
  • Publisher: Eidos Interactive
  • Release date: **PlayStation 2: October 31, 2001
    • Windows: November 21, 2001
Windows PlayStation 2
Mad Dash Racing[27]
  • Genre: Racing
  • Publisher: Eidos Interactive
  • Release date: November 14, 2001
Xbox
Blood Omen 2[28][h]
  • Genre: Action
  • Publisher: Eidos Interactive
  • Release date:
    • GameCube: December 4, 2002
    • PlayStation 2: March 21, 2002
    • Windows: March 29, 2002
    • Xbox: March 21, 2002
Windows
Xbox
GameCube PlayStation 2
Legacy of Kain: Defiance[29][i]
  • Genre: Action
  • Publisher: Eidos Interactive
  • Release date: November 11, 2003
Windows
Xbox
PlayStation 2
Whiplash[30]
  • Genre: Action
  • Publisher: Eidos Interactive
  • Release date: November 18, 2003
Xbox PlayStation 2
Project Snowblind[31][j]
  • Genre: Shooter
  • Publisher: Eidos Interactive
  • Release date: **PlayStation 2: February 23, 2005
    • Windows: March 15, 2005
    • Xbox: February 23, 2005
Windows
Xbox
PlayStation 2
Tomb Raider: Legend[32][k]
  • Genre: Action
  • Publisher: Eidos Interactive
  • Release date: **Game Boy Advance: November 10, 2006
    • Nintendo DS: November 10, 2006
    • PlayStation 2: April 11, 2006
    • PlayStation Portable: June 9, 2006
    • Windows: April 7, 2006
    • Xbox: April 7, 2006
    • Xbox 360: April 11, 2006
Windows
Xbox
Xbox 360
DS
GBA
Playstation 2
PSP
Tomb Raider: Anniversary[33][l]
  • Genre: Action
  • Publisher: Eidos Interactive
  • Release date: **Mac OS: February 2008
    • Mobile: December 2007
    • PlayStation 2: June 5, 2007
    • PlayStation Portable: August 10, 2007
    • Xbox 360: October 23, 2007
    • Wii: November 13, 2007
    • Windows: June 5, 2007
Windows
Xbox 360
Wii PlayStation 2
PSP
Mac OS
Mobile
Tomb Raider: Underworld[34][m]
  • Genre: Action
  • Publishers: **Eidos Interactive
  • Release date: **Mac OS: June 2012
    • Nintendo DS: November 18, 2008
    • PlayStation 2: March 3, 2009
    • PlayStation 3: November 18, 2008
    • Wii: November 18, 2008
    • Xbox 360: November 18, 2008
Windows
Xbox 360
DS
Wii
PlayStation 2
PlayStation 3
Mac OS
Lara Croft and the Guardian of Light[35][n]
  • Genre: Action
  • Publisher: Crystal Dynamics
  • Release date: **iOS: December 16, 2010
    • PlayStation 3: September 28, 2010
    • Windows: September 28, 2010
    • Xbox 360: August 18, 2010
Windows
Xbox 360
PlayStation 3 iOS
Tomb Raider[36][o]
  • Genre: Action
  • Publisher: Square Enix
  • Release date: March 5, 2013
Windows
Xbox 360
PlayStation 3

Future[edit]

From January 2009 to June 2009, Crystal Dynamics laid off over 30 employees to refocus their efforts on the Tomb Raider series only.[38][39] On January 3, 2012, studio community manager Meagan Marie said that the studio would be revealing a new IP in 2012.[40] In a podcast, released on 23 June 2012, executive producer Scot Amos said Crystal Dynamics new IP will be "fresh and familiar" and offer a similar experience to the new Tomb Raider game.[41]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ The PlayStation version of Gex was developed by Beam Software.[9]
  2. ^ A 3DO version of Slam 'N Jam, developed by Crystal Dynamics, was originally released in 1993.[14]
  3. ^ The N-Gage version of Pandemonium! was developed by Ideaworks3D.[18]
  4. ^ The Nintendo 64 version of Gex 3: Deep Cover Gecko was developed by Gratuitous Games.[22]
  5. ^ a b The Dreamcast version of Legacy of Kain: Soul Reaver and the Windows version of Soul Reaver 2 were developed by Nixxes Software.[23]
  6. ^ The Game Boy Color version of Walt Disney World Quest: Magical Racing Tour was developed by Prolific Publishing.[24]
  7. ^ The Microsoft Windows version of 102 Dalmatians: Puppies to the Rescue was co-developed with Prolific Publishing; the Game Boy Color version was developed by Digital Eclipse Software and the PlayStation version by Toys for Bob.[25]
  8. ^ The Windows, Xbox and GameCube versions of Blood Omen 2 were developed by Nixxes Software.[28]
  9. ^ The Windows and Xbox versions of Legacy of Kain: Defiance were developed by Nixxes Software.[29]
  10. ^ The PC and Xbox versions of Project Snowblind were developed by Nixxes Software.[31]
  11. ^ The Nintendo DS version of Tomb Raider: Legend was developed by Human Soft, and the PlayStation Portable version by Crystal Dynamics along with Buzz Monkey Software.[32]
  12. ^ The Mac OS version of Tomb Raider: Anniversary was developed by Robosoft Technologies and published by Feral Interactive. The Windows version was developed by Nixxes Software. The mobile version was developed by FinBlade.[33]
  13. ^ The PlayStation 3 and Windows versions of Tomb Raider: Underworld were developed by Nixxes Software; the Nintendo DS version by Santa Cruz Games. The Mac OS version of the game was published by Feral Interactive.[34]
  14. ^ The iOS version of Lara Croft and the Guardian of Light was developed by Ideaworks Game Studio. The PlayStation 3 and Windows versions of the game were co-developed with Nixxes Software.[35]
  15. ^ Tomb Raider, released in 2013, is a reboot of the Tomb Raider series.[37]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Ransom, James (July 7, 2009). "Eidos dissolved into 'Square Enix Europe,' layoffs likely". Joystiq. Retrieved March 20, 2012. 
  2. ^ Fisher, Lawrence M. (February 13, 1994). "Sound Bytes; The Not-So-Silent Screen". New York Times. Retrieved June 14, 2012. 
  3. ^ "Internet Archive Wayback Machine". Web.archive.org. 2009-03-08. Archived from the original on 2009-03-08. Retrieved 2012-03-20. 
  4. ^ "SCi Entertainment Group PLC - Investor Relations - RNS Announcement". Miranda.hemscott.com. Retrieved 2012-03-20. 
  5. ^ Crash N Burn:
  6. ^ Total Eclipse:
    • "Total Eclipse". Allgame. Rovi Corporation. Retrieved December 4, 2012. 
  7. ^ Off-World Interceptor:
  8. ^ The Horde:
    • House, Matthew. "The Horde". Allgame. Rovi Corporation. Retrieved December 4, 2012. 
  9. ^ a b Gex:
    • "Gex (3DO)". IGN. News Corporation. Retrieved January 9, 2013. 
    • "Gex (Sega Saturn)". Allgame. Rovi Corporation. Retrieved January 9, 2013. 
    • "Gex (Windows)". Allgame. Rovi Corporation. Retrieved January 9, 2013. 
    • "Gex (PS)". Allgame. Rovi Corporation. Retrieved January 9, 2013. 
  10. ^ Samurai Shodown:
    • Douglas Smith, Geoffrey. "Samurai Shodown". Allgame. Rovi Corporation. Retrieved December 4, 2012. 
  11. ^ Total Eclipse Turbo:
  12. ^ Off-World Interceptor Extreme:
  13. ^ Solar Eclipse:
    • "Solar Eclipse". Allgame. Rovi Corporation. Retrieved December 4, 2012. 
  14. ^ a b Slam 'N Jam:
  15. ^ Slam 'N Jam '96:
  16. ^ Blazing Dragons:
  17. ^ 3D Baseball:
  18. ^ a b Pandemonium:
  19. ^ Pandemonium 2:
  20. ^ Gex: Enter the Gecko:
  21. ^ Akuji the Heartless:
  22. ^ a b Gex 3: Deep Cover Gecko:
  23. ^ a b Legacy of Kain: Soul Reaver:
  24. ^ a b Walt Disney World Quest:
  25. ^ a b 102 Dalmatians: Puppies to the Rescue:
  26. ^ Soul Reaver 2:
  27. ^ Mad Dash Racing':
    • Frankle, Gavin. "Mad Dash Racing". Allgame. Rovi Corporation. Retrieved December 4, 2012. 
  28. ^ a b Blood Omen 2
  29. ^ a b Legacy of Kain: Defiance
  30. ^ Whiplash:
    • Marriott, Scott Alan. "Whiplash (PS2)". Allgame. Rovi Corporation. Retrieved December 4, 2012. 
    • Marriott, Scott Alan. "Whiplash (Xbox)". Allgame. Rovi Corporation. Retrieved December 4, 2012. 
  31. ^ a b Project Snowblind:
  32. ^ a b Tomb Raider: Legend:
  33. ^ a b Tomb Raider: Anniversary:
  34. ^ a b Tomb Raider: Underworld:
  35. ^ a b Lara Croft and the Guardian of Light:
  36. ^ Tomb Raider:
  37. ^ Brown, Nathan (May 3, 2011). "Crystal Dynamics: Tomb Raider Reboot". Edge. Future Publishing Limited. Archived from the original on December 10, 2012. Retrieved December 10, 2012. 
  38. ^ "Lay-offs hit Tomb Raider developer Crystal Dynamics | Game Development | News by Develop". Develop-online.net. Retrieved 2012-03-20. 
  39. ^ "Further layoffs at Tomb Raider developer Crystal Dynamics | Game Development | News by Develop". Developmag.com. 2009-06-10. Retrieved 2012-03-20. 
  40. ^ Hussain, Tamoor (2012-01-03). "News: Tomb Raider dev to reveal new IP this year". ComputerAndVideoGames.com. Retrieved 2012-03-20. 
  41. ^ Yin, Wesley (2012-06-25). "Tomb Raider developer Crystal Dynamics discusses its new IP • News •". Eurogamer.net. Retrieved 2012-07-09. 

External links[edit]