Ctenosaura

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Ctenosaura
Iguana in Mexico.jpg
a spinytail iguana in Mexico
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Class: Reptilia
Order: Squamata
Suborder: Lacertilia
Family: Iguanidae
Genus: Ctenosaura
Wiegmann, 1828
Ctenosaura quinquecarinata, Costa Rica

Ctenosaura is a lizard genus commonly known as spinytail iguanas or Ctenosaurs. The genus is part of the large lizard family, Iguanidae and is native to Mexico and Central America.

Description[edit]

The species range in size (total length, including the tail) from about 12.5 centimetres (4.9 in) to well over 1 metre (39 in). The distinctive feature of this genus is the presence of enlarged, spiny scales on the tail.

Diet[edit]

Ctenosaurs are generally omnivorous, feeding on fruits, flowers, foliage, and small animals.

Captivity[edit]

Some members of this genus are popular as pets.

Invasive species[edit]

At least two species, Ctenosaura pectinata and Ctenosaura similis, have been introduced into the United States in southern Texas and Miami, Florida.

Speed[edit]

The world record sprint speed for lizards (21.5 miles/h or 34.6 km/h) was attained by the Costa Rican spiny-tailed iguana (Ctenosaura similis).[1][2]

Species[edit]

The genus Ctenosaura represents the most diverse group of iguanas with 15 currently recognized species and at least two unrecognized species.[3][4] These species inhabit lowland dry forests, below 1,200 metres (3,900 ft) elevation, on both coasts of Mexico and Central America.[3] All species of Ctenosaura fall within one of seven clades.[3] Distributions of these clades fall geographically within well established areas.[3] Closely related species show allopatry whereas species from divergent clades show sympatry.[3]

Species Common name Authority Geographic range
Ctenosaura acanthura northeastern spinytail iguana (Shaw, 1802)[5] Eastern Mexico
Ctenosaura alfredschmidti Campeche spinytail iguana Köhler, 1995 Mexico and Guatemala
Ctenosaura bakeri Baker's spinytail iguana Stejneger, 1901 Utila island off Honduras
Ctenosaura clarki Balsas armed lizard Bailey, 1928[6] Western Mexico
Ctenosaura conspicuosa San Esteban iguana Grismer, 1999 San Estiban Island, Gulf of California
Ctenosaura defensor Yucatán spinytail iguana (Cope, 1866)[7] Southern Mexico
Ctenosaura flavidorsalis yellowback spinytail iguana Köhler & Klemmer, 1994 Honduras, El Salvador, and Guatemala
Ctenosaura hemilopha cape spinytail iguana (Cope, 1863)[8] Southern half of Baja California, Mexico
Ctenosaura macrolopha Sonora black iguana Grismer, 1999 Sonora, Mexico
Ctenosaura melanosterna black-chested spinytail iguana Buckley & Axtell, 1997 Honduras
Ctenosaura nolascensis San Pedro Nolasco iguana Grismer, 1999 San Pedro Nolasco Island, Gulf of California
Ctenosaura oaxacana Oaxacan spinytail iguana Köhler & Hasbun, 2001 Oaxaca, Mexico
Ctenosaura oedirhina Roatán spinytail iguana de Queiroz, 1987 Roatán, Honduras
Ctenosaura palearis Guatemalan spinytail iguana Stejneger, 1899 Guatemala
Ctenosaura pectinata Mexican spinytail iguana (Wiegmann, 1834)[9] Western Mexico. Introduced to the US in Texas and Florida.
Ctenosaura praeocularis Honduran club tail iguana Hasbún & Köhler, 2009 SE Honduras
Ctenosaura quinquecarinata club tail iguana Gray, 1842[10] Nicaragua and Costa Rica.
Ctenosaura similis black spinytail iguana Gray, 1831[11] Mexico, Central America, and Colombia. Introduced to the US in Florida.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Garland, T., Jr. (1984), Physiological correlates of locomotory performance in a lizard: an allometric approach, American Journal of Physiology 247 (5 Pt 2): R806–R815, PMID 6238543 
  2. ^ Malfatti, Mark (2007), A Look at the Genus Ctenosaura: Meet the World's fastest lizard and its kin, Reptiles Magazine 15 (11): 64–73 
  3. ^ a b c d e Buckley, Larry; Pagel, Katelyn; Villela, Oscar (2007), Evolution of Spiny-tailed Iguanas (Genus Ctenosaura): How Identification of Species Groups and their Relationships Can Help with Conservation Priorities, Iguana: Journal of the International Iguana Society 14 (4): 248–251 
  4. ^ "Ctenosaura". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 2 January 2008. 
  5. ^ "Ctenosaura acanthura". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 2 January 2008. 
  6. ^ "Ctenosaura clarki". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 2 January 2008. 
  7. ^ "Ctenosaura defensor". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 2 January 2008. 
  8. ^ "Ctenosaura hemilopha". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 2 January 2008. 
  9. ^ "Ctenosaura pectinata". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 2 January 2008. 
  10. ^ "Ctenosaura quinquecarinata". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 2 January 2008. 
  11. ^ "Ctenosaura similis". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 2 January 2008. 
  • Genus Ctenosaura at The Reptile Database
  • Frost, D.E. and R.E. Etheridge (1989) A Phylogenetic Analysis and Taxonomy of Iguanian Lizards (Reptilia: Squamata). Univ. Kansas Mus. Nat. Hist. Misc. Publ. 81
  • Frost, D.R., R. Etheridge, D. Janies and T.A. Titus (2001) Total evidence, sequence alignment, evolution of Polychrotid lizards, and a reclassification of the Iguania (Squamata: Iguania). American Museum Novitates 3343: 38 pp.
  • Garland, T., Jr. 1984. Physiological correlates of locomotory performance in a lizard: an allometric approach. Am. J. Physiol. 247 (Regulatory Integrative Comp. Physiol. 16):R806-R815. PDF

External links[edit]