|Elevation||1 m (3 ft)|
|Time zone||IST (UTC+5:30)|
Cuddalore i//, is a city located in Tamil Nadu, southern India. It lies 25 kilometres (16 mi) south of Pondicherry on the coast of the Bay of Bengal. Cuddalore has two parts: the "Old Town" [OT] and the "New Town" (Thirupathiripuliyur), separated by the Gedilam River. From 1748 to 1752, Cuddalore was the capital of the English Possessions on the Coromandal Coast. It is one of the oldest cities of Tamil Nadu and a largest city of north tamilnadu.
Prior to English control, Cuddalore was called "Koodalur" meaning "confluence" in Tamil. It is the place where the Pennaiyar, Kedilam and Paravanar rivers join. The Cuddalore district historically consisted of "Chola Naadu" and "Nadu Naadu". The name Nadu Naadu meaning "middle country", may originate from its location between Chola Nadu and "Thondai Mandalam"; or between the "Pallava Kingdom" and the "Chola Kingdom"; or between central territories and the ocean.
From ancient times the old town has been a seaport. (The Cuddalore Government Museum in Manjakuppam keeps archeological evidence of Roman trade at Cuddalore). Through the centuries, Cuddalore has been subject to a number of foreign powers including the Netherlands, Portugal, France and more recently, the British. In the 1600s, the French and English came to Cuddalore for trade and business. The French established a settlement at Pondicherry and the British at Cuddalore. The French and English, while engaged in the Seven Years' War, fought the naval "Battle of Cuddalore" on 29 April 1758. It was an indecisive battle between a British squadron, under Vice-Admiral George Pocock and a French squadron, under Comte d'Aché. British casualties were 29 killed and 89 wounded, while France lost about 600 men. From 1789 to 1794, there was further unrest in Cuddalore due to the War of American Independence and the Second Anglo-Mysore War culminating in the siege of Cuddalore after which the town was returned to Britain as part of a peace treaty. Some streets in Cuddalore retain British names such as Clive street, Wellington street, Lawrence road and Imperial road. The Cuddalore Central Prison, opened in 1865, is an historically important landmark. Subramanya Bharathi and other political leaders served prison terms there.
Tsunami waves that followed the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake near Sumatra hit the eastern coast of India on 26 December 2004 at 0832h resulted in 572 casualties. Several fishing hamlets disappeared, while Silver Beach and the historically important Cuddalore Port were devastated. Fort St. David survived without damage. In 2012, Cyclone Thane caused widespread damage to crops and buildings.
As of the census of India 2001, Cuddalore had a population of 158,634 comprising 80,012 males and 78,622 females, making the sex ratio (number of females per thousand males) of the town to 983. A total of 17,677 people were under six years of age and the child sex ratio (number of females per thousand males under six years of age) stood at 959. The town had an average literacy of 83.9%, higher than the national average of 59.5%. A total of 19,175 comprising 13.6% of the population belonged to Scheduled Castes (SC) and 582 comprising 0.41% of the population belonged to Scheduled tribes (ST). There were are total of 33,989 households in the town. As of 2001, Cuddalore had a total of 46,001 main workers: 461 cultivators, 1,529 agricultural labourers, 1,594 in house hold industries and 42,417 other workers. There was a total of 3,106 marginal workers: 36 marginal cultivators, 583 marginal agricultural labourers, 302 marginal workers in household industries and 2,185 other marginal workers.
Fort St David is situated on the river Gadilam near Devanampattinam. It was built in 1653 A.D. by Elihu Yale, a Hindu merchant. In 1677, when Shivaji captured Gingee, the fort fell into the hands of the Marathas. In 1690, the British East India Company purchased the fort and the adjacent villages (within "ye randome shott of a piece of ordnance".) A great gun was fired to different points of the compass and all the country within its range, including the town of Cuddalore, passed into the possession of the English. The villages thus obtained are called "cannon ball villages". The fortifications were strengthened in 1693, 1698, 1702, 1725, 1740 and 1745. In 1746 Fort St. David became the British headquarters for British India. The British ruled a greater part of south India (Tamil Nadu, parts of present day Andhra Pradesh, Kerala and Karnataka) from Fort St. David. An attack by Dupleix was successfully repulsed. In 1756, Clive was appointed governor. The French captured the fort in 1758 but in 1760 relinquished it to Sir Eyre Coote of the British East India Company. The French recaptured the fort in 1782 and held it in 1783 during the "Battle of Cuddalore". In 1785 the fort passed into British possession. By this time, however, the centre of British rule was Fort St George. The stamp of the post office at Silver Beach depicts Fort St David.
The "Garden House" was the official residence of the Cuddalore District Collector, Robert Clive. It is typical of later medieval architecture. The roof of the Garden House was built using only bricks and slaked lime with no steel and wood. There was an esplanade ("Chevalier Shivaji Arangam" or "Manjai Nagar", now known as Manjakuppam) beyond the residence.
Cuddalore has two railway stations, Cuddalore Port Junction and Tiruppadirippuliyur, both falling on the famous Villupuram-Mayiladuthurai-Tiruchirappalli Mainline Section and connected with Villupuram Jn. on 1 side and Mayiladuthurai Jn. on the other side. Cuddalore Port, being a Junction, there is a 3rd branch to Vriddhachalam Jn. via Neyveli.
Cuddalore Port Junction has 4 Platforms and 1 Stabling Line, which is used more for handling freight trains. It has got all the facilities for handling Parcel Traffic as well as Freight Traffic, including Container Trains and is thus an important and full-fledged railway station, rather Railway Junction, of Cuddalore. The station code of Cuddalore Port Junction is CUPJ. The station code for Cuddalore Port Junction previously was COT, as the station is actually located in Cuddalore Old Town. The station name too was simply "Cuddalore Junction" then instead of the present name of "Cuddalore Port Junction".
Tiruppadirippuliyur, the other important railway station of Cuddalore has 2 Platforms and is at a walkable distance from the Cuddalore bus stand. Its station code is TDPR. All the express trains passing through Cuddalore have a stop either at CUPJ  or TDPR. There are also 4 Express Trains which stop at both CUPJ and TDPR. These apart, all the passenger trains too stop at both CUPJ and TDPR.
Trains starting from/running via Cuddalore:
- 16853/16854 Chennai Egmore-Tiruchirappalli Cholan Express Daily [Stopping at Both CUPJ & TDPR]
- 16175/16176 Chennai Egmore-Karaikal Kamban Express Daily [Stopping at Both CUPJ & TDPR]
- 16185/16186 Chennai Egmore-Velankanni Link Express Daily, a portion in Kamban Express [Stopping at Both CUPJ & TDPR]
- 16780/16779 Tirupati-Rameswaram Meenakshi Express Tri-Weekly [Stopping at Both CUPJ & TDPR]
- 16861/16862 Pudhucherry-Kanniyakumari Weekly Express [Stopping at Both CUPJ & TDPR]
- 16101/16102 Chennai Egmore-Rameswaram Boat Mail Daily [Stopping Only at CUPJ]
- 16105/16106 Chennai Egmore-Tiruchendur Chendur Express Daily [Stopping Only at TDPR]
- 16183/16184 Chennai Egmore-Thanjavur Uzhavan Express Daily [Stopping Only at CUPJ]
- 16180/16179 Chennai Egmore-Mannargudi Mannai Express Daily [Stopping Only at TDPR]
- 14260/14259 Varanasi-Rameswaram Weekly Express [Stopping Only at CUPJ]
- 18496/18495 Bhubaneshwar-Rameswaram Weekly Express [Stopping Only at TDPR]
- 17407/17408 Tirupati-Mannargudi Pamani Express Tri-Weekly [Stopping Only at CUPJ]
- 22623/22624 Chennai Egmore-Madurai Bi-Weekly Super Fast Express [Stopping Only at TDPR]
- 11017/11018 Lokmanya Tilak (Mumbai) - Karaikal Weekly Express [Stopping Only at TDPR]
- 56873/56874 Villupuram-Mayiladuthurai Passenger Daily [Stopping at Both CUPJ & TDPR]
- 56875/56876 Villupuram-Mayiladuthurai Passenger Daily [Stopping at Both CUPJ & TDPR]
- 56877/56878 Villupuram-Mayiladuthurai Passenger Daily [Stopping at Both CUPJ & TDPR]
- 56514/56513 Bangalore City-Karaikal Daily Fast Passenger Via Hosur,Dharmapuri,Salem,Vriddhachalam,Neyveli,Cuddalore Port Jn,Chidambaram,Mayiladuthurai,Tiruvarur & Nagapattinam
- 56805/56806 Cuddalore Port Jn-Tiruchirappalli Passenger Daily Via Neyveli,Vriddhachalam,Ariyalur,Lalgudi & Srirangam
- 56833/56834 Cuddalore Port Jn-Vriddhachalam Passenger Daily Via Kurinjipadi,Vadalur & Neyveli
Cuddalore is well connected to many places of Tamil Nadu by road.
- National Highway The NH-45A (the Villupuram—Pondicherry—Cuddalore—Chidambaram—Nagapattinam Highway) passes through Cuddalore. A new four-lane project sanctioned between nagapattinam and villupuram.
Buses run to nearby towns such as Pondicherry, Chidambaram, Panruti, Virudhachalam, Tindivanam and Villupuram. Buses to major cities of Tamil Nadu such as Chennai, Tiruchirapalli, Coimbatore, Salem, Tiruvannamalai are also available.Famous TNSTC Bus routes originating from cuddalore central bus stand are,
SL.NO BUS ROUTE NO DESTINATION
1. 152 CHENNAIVIA BY-PASS EXPRESS[EVERY 30 MINUTES] 2. ' TNSTC AC VOLVO ' CHENNAIVIA ECR[4.30 AM,5.30AM,4PM,5PM] 3. 155' VILLUPURAM 4. 226 VELLORE 5. 283 SALEM 6. 224 KUMBAKONAM 7. 225 TANJORE 8. 239 CHIDAMBARAM 9. 219 VRIDDACHALAM 10. 156 PUDUCHERRY 11. ECR EXPRESS CHENNAI[EVERY 60 MINUTES] 12. 310 TIRUCHIRAPPALLI[EVERY 30 MINUTES]
Apart from this tnstc long distance buses are available to various cities,
ksrtc buses to bangalore are also available from cuddalore bus stand.
AIR The nearest airport is in Puducherry, approximately 25 kilometres (16 mi) from Cuddalore. Spice Jet had started its services in 2013 to Mumbai via Bangalore from Puducherry.
In the past, Cuddalore's main industry was fishing. Although Cuddalore was once a port town, the shipping trade has now moved to larger centres. The Indian government promotes small to medium sized industries in and around Cuddalore. Government projects include, SIDCO, SIPCOT, Regional Palm Products Manufacturing Society and the Regional Sugarcane Research Foundation. A new harbour for a ship building industry is under construction. Cuddalore also hosts the heavy chemical, pharmacological and energy industries.
- The Neyveli Lignite Corporation - a public sector company in Neyveli. Of the total quantum of thermal electricity generated in Tamil Nadu, a large percentage—more than 2500 megawatts—comes from the power plants in Neyveli.
- The Nellikuppam Integrated Sugar Complex - India's first sugar plant, owned by EID Parry of Murugappa Group
- Asian Paints
- SPIC Pharma
- Clariant Chemicals
- TANFAC Industries
- Vardhman Life Sciences
- Nagarjuna Oil Corporation Limited, petroleum refinery
- Goodearth Shipbuilding Pvt Ltd shipyard
- Hardy Exploration and Production India Inc oil field
- SRM Energy India thermal power plant
- Chemplast Sanmar PVC Plant
- APT Global Marine Engineering PVT LTD (APT group, .Dubai)
Pollution in the SIPCOT Area
Industrial development in Cuddalore's recent past has coasued pollution. One industrial area, SIPCOT is a "global toxic hotspot" Local communities have voiced concern about industrialization and pollution. The SIPCOT chemical industry estate in Cuddalore was investigated in November 2002 by a team from the Indian People's Tribunal headed by J. Kanakaraj. The team reported "a noticeable stench of chemicals in the air". Their report was published in July 2003. It found that,
- "Villages like Kudikadu, Thaikal, Eachangadu and Sonnanchavadi lie in a virtual 'gas chamber' surrounded on three sides by chemical factories and bounded on the fourth by the river". There are reports of illegal dumping of toxic waste.
On 22 March 2008, a report for the "Tamil Nadu Pollution Board" prepared by the Nagpur-based "National Environmental Engineering Research Institute" found that residents of the SIPCOT area of Cuddalore were at least 2000 times more likely than their counterparts to contract cancer in their lifetimes due to exposure to high levels of toxic gases from chemical industries in the region.
- Anna University Tiruchirappali, Panruti Campus - (now under Chennai Anna University Campus)
- Annamalai University, Chidambaram
- Dr. Navalar Nedunchezhiyan College of Engineering, Cuddalore
- Krishnasamy College of Engineering and Technology, Cuddalore
- M.R.K. Institute of Technology, Cuddalore
- Sri Jayaram Engineering College, Cuddalore
- St. Anne's College of Engineering and Technology, Panruti
The Cuddalore Port (Lat. 110 43 N. Long. 79049’ East) operates at the confluence of the Gadilam river and the Paravanar river. The ships anchor in mid stream at a distance of about a mile from the shore and cargo is loaded and discharged through lighters. There is a bar at the mouth of the combined river, which maintains a depth of 5 to 6 feet at low water. During the months of July to September, the depth over the bar is reduced to about 3 to 4 feet. Other ports under construction in the area are:
- Thiruchopuram port
- Silambimangalam port
- Parangipettai port
- PY-03 Oil Field (Operational).
- "Primary census abstract 2001". Directorate of Census Operations – Tamil Nadu. 2001. Retrieved 2012-12-29.
- "Trains Passing Through Cuddalore Port Jn.".
- "Trains Passing Through Tiruppadirippuliyur".
- "Villages in Cuddalore industrial estate "toxic hot spot"". Chennai, India: The Hindu. 10September 2004. Retrieved 28 October 2006.
- "Take Action". SIPCOT Area Community Environmental Monitors. Retrieved 23 April 2012.
- Shrivastava, A.k. (2007). Environment Trafficking. APH Publishing. pp. 181–182. ISBN 8131300307.
- "List of Parliamentary and Assembly Constituencies" (PDF). Tamil Nadu. Election Commission of India. Retrieved 9 October 2008.
- "List of Captive Ports in Tamilnadu" (PDF). Tamil Nadu. TN MARITIME BOARD India. Retrieved 2008-10-09.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Cuddalore.|
Cuddalore travel guide from Wikivoyage