Cuisine of Odisha
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Oriya cuisine (ōḍiā rāndhaṇā) refers to the cooking of the eastern Indian state of Odisha. Foods from this area are rich and varied, while relying heavily on local ingredients. The flavours are usually subtle and delicately spiced, quite unlike the fiery curries typically associated with Indian cuisine. Fish and other seafood such as crab and shrimp are very popular. Chicken and mutton are also consumed, but somewhat occasionally. Only 6% of the population of Odisha is vegetarian, and this is reflected in its cuisine. The oil base used is mostly mustard oil, but in festivals ghee is used. Panch phutana, a mix of cumin, mustard, fennel, fenugreek and kalonji (nigella) is widely used for tempering vegetables and dals, while garam masala (curry powder) and haladi (turmeric) are commonly used for non-vegetarian curries. Pakhala, a dish made of rice, water, and yogurt, that is fermented overnight, is very popular in summer, particularly in the rural areas. Odias are very fond of sweets and no Oriya repast is considered complete without some dessert at the end. Festivals and fasts witness a cuisine without onion and garlic, whereas other days witness an aroma of garlic and onion paste in curries. One can find restaurants serving food without onion and garlic in major places like Puri and other coastal area, which is run by Brahmin owners.
Influence in other cuisines
Odisha has a culinary tradition spanning centuries if not millennia. The kitchen of the famous Jagannath temple in Puri is reputed to be the largest in the world, with a thousand cooks, working around 752 wood-burning clay hearths called chulas, to feed over 10,000 people everyday.
In fact, some well-known recipes, usually credited to Bengal, are of Odishan origin. This is because during the Bengal renaissance, Bramhin cooks from Odisha, especially from Puri, were employed on the Bengali–Odishan border. They were famed for their culinary skills and commonly referred to as Ude Thakurs (Oriya Cooks). As a result, a few Oriya delicacies got incorporated into the Bengali kitchen.
A typical meal in Odisha consists of a main course and dessert. Typically breads (roti, paratta) are served as the main course for breakfast, whereas rice is eaten with lentils dal during lunch and dinner. The breakfast consists of chuda (poha, flattened rice), mudhi (muri, puffed rice), chuda can be eaten either as fried or with curd-banana-sugar (called as Chudaa Dahi). Mudhi is a famous snack in north Odisha. Different pitha also form breakfast menu. The main course in lunch includes one or more curries, vegetables and pickles. Given the fondness for sweet foods, the dessert course may include generous portions of more than a single item. Oriya desserts are made from a variety of ingredients, with milk, chhenna (a form of cottage cheese), coconut, rice, and wheat flour being the most common.
Rice, breads and lentils
Generally people use many kinds of rice. One is Arua (sun dried and milled paddy) and another is ushuna (half boiled and milled paddy).
The former is more popular in urban areas and Brhmin villages whereas Ushuna is popular in coastal and western, Northern Odisha villages. In southern Odisha Arua is popular even in villages. Generally scented rice varietis are used for kheeri/payas.
- Chuda -Flattened rice.
- Buta Dali (ବୁଟ ଡାଲି)- Channa dal with coconuts, raisins, dry fruits, mild spices.
- Mittha Dali (ମିଠା ଡାଲି)- Toor dal cooked with little jaggery, ghee, and bay leaf.popular in Jagannath temple
- Muga Dali (ମୁଗ ଡାଲି)- Mung bean dal cooked with coconuts and mild spices.
- Masura Dali (ମସୁର ଡାଲି)- Masur Dal cooked with cumin, mustard seed and bay leaves.
- Dalma(ଡାଲମା/ଡାଲେମା/ଡାଲଣା) - Mixed lentils with various vegetables, is popular due to the high nutritional value and consumed as a complete food.
- Khechedi(ଖେଚେଡ଼ି)- Rice and lentils with vegetables and occasionally potato. It is a general food at religious festivals.
- Mandia Jau-Boiled Ragi cooled overnight
- Chhatua - There are various kinds of Chhatua eaten as daily breakfast. Its a paste that has flour made from fried whole grain or wheat or rice and then mixed with sugar, banana, milk or curd.
- Luchi (ଲୁଚି)- Unleavened flour bread deep fried in oil.
- Mitha Bhata (ମିଠା ଭାତ), Kaanika (କାନିକା) - Mildly sweetened rice with assorted spices
- Mudhi (ମୁଢ଼ି/ଭୁଜା)- It is puffed rice.
- Pakhala (ପଖାଳ)- Rice soaked in water with yogurt and seasonings.
- Paratta (ପରଟା)- Layered wheat bread rolled out in triangular or round shape and tawa-fried
- Palao (ପଲଉ)- Rice in clarified butter with raisins, nuts, vegetables, whole spices
- Poda Pitha is a cake made of rice and other spices which is eaten during the Raja festival.
- Puri(ପୁରୀ) - Unleavened whole wheat flour bread deep fried in oil
Curries, vegetables, and other main course items
Oriya curries are not full of masala floating in oil, rather these are mildly spiced and given the original taste of the ingredients. Around the areas Coastal Odisha the food is sweet (coconut, ghee, jaggery is used on account of the influence of the Jagannath Temple), Chille and curry leaves is used in regions closer to Andhra Pradesh and mustard paste and kala jeera is used mostly all over. The coastline and numerous rivers offer abundant fish, while prawns come from the Chilika Lake.
- Alu Bhaja (ଆଳୁ ଭଜା) - Potato slices fried in oil with whole spices.
- Aludum (ଆଳୁ ଦମ) - Spicy potato curry
- Alu Matara (ଆଳୁ ମଟର ତରକାରୀ) - Diced potatoes and peas curry
- Alu Phulakobi Bhaja (ଆଳୁ ଫୁଲକୋବି ଭଜା) - Diced potato and cauliflower florets sauteed in oil and spices
- Alu Potala Rasa (ଆଲୁ ପୋଟଳ ରସା) - Curried potatoes and pointed gourd
- Bilatibaigana/patalghanta chutney (ବିଲାତି ବାଇଗଣ/ପାତଲଘଁଟା ଚଟଣି)- A very sweet chutney made of tomatoes, dates and sugar.
- Dahi bhendi- Okra (Bhendi) or Ladies finger fried and dipped in spiced yogurt
- Besar (ବେସର) - Assorted vegetables stir fried in panch phutana and a mildly spiced mustard sauce
- Badi Dahi (ବଡ଼ି ଦହି) - Fried Dalma dipped in spiced yogurt.
- Badi chura (ବଡ଼ି ଚୁରା) - Powdered badi made of urad dal with green chillies, sometimes garlic&onion
- Chadachadi (ଚଡ଼ ଚଡ଼ି) - Sauteed mixed vegetables, diced potatoes and shrimp in a spicy mustard sauce
- Chhencheda (ଚେଞ୍ଚେଡ଼ା) - Lightly spiced fish head and mixed vegetables
- Chungdi Malai (ଚିଙ୍ଗୁଡ଼ି/ଚୁଙ୍ଗୁଡ଼ି ମଲାଇ) - Freshwater prawn cooked in coconut milk and spices
- Chungdi Jhola (ଚିଙ୍ଗୁଡ଼ି/ଚୁଙ୍ଗୁଡ଼ି ଝୋଳ) - Freshwater prawn cooked in thick, spicy gravy
- Crab Kalia (କଙ୍କଡ଼ା କାଳିଆ) - A spicy crab curry
- Dahi baigana (ଦହି ବାଇଗଣ) - Deep fried eggplant slices in a spiced yogurt sauce
- Dahi Maachha (ଦହି ମାଛ) - fried fish in a mildly spiced yogurt sauce
- Ghanta (Food) (ଘାଣ୍ଟ) - Vegetable medley and spice powders sauteed in oil
- Ghugni (ଘୁଗୁନି) - Boiled Peas and spices cooked in oil and then lightly curried.
- Kancha Kadali bara jhola (କଞ୍ଚା କଦଳୀ ବରା ଝୋଳ) - A curry of green plantain/unripe banana kofta.
- Kadali bhanda raai (କଦଳୀ ଭଣ୍ଡା ରାଇ) - Tiny flowers of banana cooked in mustard-chilly sauce.
- Kakharu phula bhaja (କଖାରୁ ଫୁଲ ଭଜା) - Pumpkin flowers deep fried in besan or rice flour with spices.
- Kankada Jhola (କଙ୍କଡ଼ା ଝୋଳ) - Crab meat and potatoes in a rich gravy with panch phutana
- Khata (ଖଟା) - Literally meaning "sour" in Oriya, a sweet and sour marmalade served as a side for example: Oou Khatta, Tomato khata, Amba khata, Pani Kakharu Sakara, Ambula pani, Nadia Ambila, Ambeda Besara Khatta, Ambeda Khatta Mitha, Dahi Nadia Chatani and etc.
- Kolatha Dali - Chilke wale horsegram soup cooked with mustard seeds and garlic
- Maachha Jhola (ମାଛ ଝୋଳ) - Fish curry, in a spicy gravy seasoned with mustard, ginger, garlic, cumin and turmeric
- Maachha Bihana (ମାଛ ବିହନ ତରକାରୀ) - Fish ovum dumplings made into spicy curry.
- Kanji - A traditional soup made from left over water from boiling rice and cooked with vegetables
- Ouu khatta (ଓଉ ଖଟା) - A sweet&sour marmalade made of elephant apple(ouu) Dillenia indica in jaggery.mostly in autumn. Sometimes ouu added to dal or dalma. [/oou-khatta/]
- Patua (ପତୁଆ) - Vegetables or small fish wrapped in banana leaves along with mustard oil ginger garlic paste and smoked in earthen vessels
- Panasa Katha Tarakari (ପଣସ କଠା ତରକାରୀ) - Curry of unripe jack fruit with spicy garam masala and garlic.
- Posta (ପୋସ୍ତ ତରକାରୀ) - Poppyseed paste cooked with assorted vegetables and/or potato
- Maachha Besara (ମାଛ ବେସର) - Pan fried fish in a mustard gravy. Also called Maachha Besara
- Saga (ଶାଗ) - Fried green leafy vegetables sometimes with lentil balls and Badi
- Santula (ସନ୍ତୁଳା) - Lightly spiced assortment of steamed vegetables
- Saakara (ସାକରା) - Vegetables cooked in jaggery-unripe tamarind sauce, coconut and spices.
Pana or Sharbats
- Bel Pana (ବେଲ ପଣା) - A sweet shake of the ripe pulp of Aegle marmelos with milk, sugar and a pinch of black pepper.
- Nabata Pana (ନବାତ ପଣା) - Sharbat made of chhena, jaggery, banana, grated coconut, and black pepper.
Desserts & snacks
- Arisa Pitha (ଆରିସା ପିଠା) - Rice flour kneaded with jaggery and fried in ghee/oil along with seasoning of sesame seeds
- Bada Kanti
- Biri Buha
- Bhaga Pitha
- Chakuli Pitha (ଚକୁଳି ପିଠା) - Pan cake similar to dosa. A Sweet variation called puli or Budha chakuli(ବୁଢା ଚକୁଳି) also prepared adding jaggery, ginger and frying in ghee. Budha chakuli is a must in Deepavali paya shraaddha and Samba Dashami
- Chitau piṭha (ଚିତଉ ପିଠା) - Fried pancakes made from rice flour, coconut, jaggery and milk, often offered in Pujas to Lord Jagannath on Chitalagi Amabasya (or Chitau Amavasya).
- Chandrakanti (ଚନ୍ଦ୍ରକାନ୍ତି) - A deep fried sweet made from mixture of Green gram and rice flour.
- Chhena Gaja (ଛେନା ଗଜା) - Deep fried ricotta cheese soaked in sugar syrup
- Chhenna Poda (ଛେନା ପୋଡ଼) - Baked sweetened ricotta cheese cake
- Chhena Kheeri (ଛେନା ଖିରୀ) - A kheer made with cubes of ricotta cheese
- Chhena Jilapi (ଛେନା ଜିଲାପି) - A jalebi made with kneaded ricotta cheese
- Chhena jhili (ଛେନା ଝିଲି) - Fried cheese in sugar syrup.
- Chhena Malpua (ଛେନା ମାଲପୁଆ)
- Chhena Tadia
- Chuda Ghasa
- Dahi Bara
- Enduri Pitha (ଏଣ୍ଡୁରି ପିଠା) - Batter of black gram-rice with coconut stuffing inside wrapped in turmeric leaves and steamed like idly.
- Gaintha godi (ଗଇଁଠା ଗୋଡ଼ି) - Small balls made of rice flour dipped in seasioned sweet milk. Speciality of pausha amavasya (baula amavasya)
- Hamsa Keli
- Kalakand (କଳା କନ୍ଦ) - Shaped sweets made from condensed milk
- Karanji (କରଞ୍ଜି) - A Dumpling made of maida and stuffed with coconut, cashew, and raisins
- Kakara pitha (କାକରା ପିଠା) - A deep fried sweet dish like arisha but made of wheat/maida flour and coconut, jaggery, black pepper, edible camphor and chhena stuffing.
- Jhadai Nadaa
- Khaja or pheni (ଖଜା/ଫେଣି) - Shaped dough fried and drizzled with sugar syrup
- Khasta Puri
- Kheeri or Payas (ଖିରି/ପାୟସ) - Rice cooked in sweetened condensed milk
- Kheersagar (କ୍ଷୀରସାଗର) - Cheese dumplings in condensed milk
- Ladu (ଲଡୁ) - Sweet balls made from lentils and dry fruits
- Lasi (ଲସି) - Sweet chilled yogurt drink, occasionally flavored in rose water
- Luni Khuruma
- Magaja Ladu
- Malpua (ମାଲପୁଆ)- Sweetened deep fried batter of a mixture of bananas and flour
- Manda Pitha (ମଣ୍ଡା ପିଠା) - Sweet dish made of rice flour stuffed with coconut and sugar(fried and steamed)
- Manohar[disambiguation needed]
- Maric Ladu
- Mendha Mundia
- Mitha Dahi (ମିଠା ଦହି) - Sweet yogurt with a hint of cardamom
- Mathapuli (ମାଠପୁଳି) - Sweet dish made from Urad dal (lentils)
- Nadia Kora
- Pat Manohar
- Pitha (ପିଠା) - Coconut, lentil, jaggery, condensed dairy products in crepes
- Poda Pitha
- Rasmalai (ରସମଲାଇ) - Cheese dumplings in thickened, sweetened milk
- Rasabali(ରସାବଳି) - Flattened disks of ricotta cheese soaked in sweetened condensed milk
- Rasagola (ରସଗୋଲା) - Cheese dumplings in sugar syrup
- Sakara[disambiguation needed]
- San Pitha
- Suar Pitha
- Suji Kakara Pitha (ସୁଜି କାକରା ପିଠା/ସୁଜି ମଣ୍ଡା) - A sweet dish made of suji with coconut stuffing
- Suji Khir
- Tala Pitha (ତାଳ ପିଠା) - A sweet dish made of palm fruit
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