Cultural depictions of Julius Caesar
Gāius Jūlius Caesar (100 BC – 44 BC), one of the most influential men in world history, has frequently appeared in literary and artistic works since ancient times.
Ancient literary works
- Caesar is referred to in some of the poems of Catullus (ca. 84-54 BC)
- He is depicted in Virgil's Aeneid (ca. 29-19 BC), an epic poem about the foundation of Rome
- He appears as a character in Lucan's Pharsalia (AD 61), an epic poem based on Caesar's civil war
- A legendary account of Caesar's invasions of Britain appears in Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia Regum Britanniae (c. 1136)
- In the 13th century French romance Les Faits des Romains, Caesar is made a bishop
- In the 13th century French chanson de geste Huon of Bordeaux, the fairy king Oberon is the son of Caesar and Morgan le Fay
- Caesar appears in Canto IV of Dante Alighieri's epic poem The Divine Comedy (c. 1308–1321). He is in the section of Limbo reserved for virtuous non-Christians, along with Aeneas, Homer, Ovid, Horace and Lucan. His assassins, Brutus and Cassius, and his lover, Cleopatra, are seen among the souls of the wicked in the lower regions of hell.
- Caesar was included as one of the Nine Worthies by Jacques de Longuyon in Voeux du Paon (1312). These were nine historical, scriptural, mythological or semi-legendary figures who, in the Middle Ages, were believed to personify the ideals of chivalry.
- Caesar's civil war and assassination are recounted in Geoffrey Chaucer's Monk's Tale (c. 1385, one of his Canterbury Tales)
Renaissance and modern works
- Historia de omnibus gothorum sueonumque regibus ("History of all Kings of Goths and Swedes") by Johannes Magnus, the last functioning Catholic Archbishop in Sweden, and also a theologian, genealogist, and historian. Published in 1554. Caesar appears as a contemporary of the Swedish King Lindormus.
- Fountains in Olomouc: Fountain of Caesar in Olomouc (photo) (1725). It is based on the statue by Gian Lorenzo Bernini depicting Constantine I in Scala Regia (Vatican).
- Benetton's 1988 "United Superstars of Benetton" print and billborad campaign, paired with Leonardo da Vinci 
- Masters of Rome, a series of seven novels by the Australian writer, Colleen McCullough: The First Man in Rome (1991), The Grass Crown (1991), Fortune's Favorites (1993), Caesar's Women (1995), Caesar (1997), The October Horse (2002), and Antony and Cleopatra (1969).
- Emperor Series, a series of five novels by the British writer, Conn Iggulden: The Gates of Rome (2003), The Death of Kings (2004), The Field of Swords (2005), The Gods of War (2006), and The Blood of Gods (2013).
- Marius' Mules Series, a series of six novels by the British writer S.J.A. Turney, written from the point of view of a legate of the 10th Legion, Marcus Falerius Fronto: The Invasion of Gaul (2009), The Belgae (2010), Gallia Invicta (2011), Conspiracy of Eagles (2012) , Hades' Gate (2013), Caesar's Vow (2014). A seventh, as yet unnamed book in the series is planned for late 2014. In addition, three short stories set in the same cycle are published as Marius' Mules: Prelude to War (2014).
- Marching With Caesar Series, a series of six novels by the American writer R.W. Peake: Conquest of Gaul (2012), Civil War (2012), Antony and Cleopatra: Part I - Antony (2013), Anthony and Cleopatra: Part II - Cleopatra (2013), Rise of Augustus (2013), and Final Campaign (2013). There are also two related additional novels that are not in the direct series: Birth of the 10th Legion (2014), and Caesar Triumphant (2014), the latter set as an alternative history, written on the premise that Caesar avoids being assassinated.
- The Centurion Chronicles Series, a series of two books by J.M. Garlock: The Centurion Chronicles (2012), and The Belgae (2013).
- Tros of Samothrace, a historical novel by Talbot Mundy, has Julius Caesar as the novel's villain. Mundy depicts Caesar and Roman civilization as imperialist and tyrannical. When the novel was serialised in Adventure magazine in 1925-26, it sparked a controversy in the magazine over whether Caesar was a just ruler or a tyrant; one of the contributors to this debate was Elmer Davis.
- First Citizen (1987), by Thomas Thurston Thomas, a science fiction book based on the life and times of Julius Caesar but set in the 21st century.
- Roma Sub Rosa, a series of historical mysteries by the American writer, Steven Saylor.
- Ides of March (1948), is an epistolatory novel by Thornton Wilder dealing with characters and events leading to, and culminating in, the assassination of Julius Caesar.
- Sword of Caesar (1987), in the Time Machine series, asks the reader to travel back to ancient Rome and find the fate of Caesar's battle sword.
- Played by Fritz Leiber, Sr. in Cleopatra (1917)
- Played by Claude Rains in Caesar and Cleopatra (adapted from Shaw's play, 1945)
- Played by Harold Tasker in Julius Caesar (adapted from Shakespeare's play, 1950)
- Played by Louis Calhern in Julius Caesar (adapted from Shakespeare's play, 1953)
- Played by John Gavin in Spartacus (1960)
- Played by Gustavo Rojo in Caesar Against the Pirates (1962)
- Played by Rex Harrison in Cleopatra (1963)
- Played by Kenneth Williams in Carry on Cleo (1964)
- Played by John Gielgud in Julius Caesar (adapted from Shakespeare's play, 1970)
- Played by Gottfried John in Asterix and Obelix vs Caesar (1999)
- Played by Klaus Maria Brandauer in Druids (2001)
- Played by Alain Chabat in Asterix & Obelix: Mission Cleopatra (2002)
- Played by Alain Delon in Asterix at the Olympic Games (2008)
- Played by Fabrice Luchini in Asterix and Obelix: God Save Britannia (2012)
- Cleopatra (1999 film) played by Timothy Dalton
- Julius Caesar played by Jeremy Sisto
- Empire (2005 TV series), played by Colm Feore
- Rome (TV series) Gaius Julius Caesar, played by Ciarán Hinds
- Wayne and Shuster's comedy sketch Rinse the Blood off My Toga is a spoof of Shakespeare's Julius Caesar in the form of a Dragnet episode
- Xena: Warrior Princess highlighted Julius Caesar as a major antagonist, played by actor Karl Urban
- Histeria!, where Caesar's appearance is based on Frank Sinatra
- Internet sitcom Custer and Julius: Beyond 2000, played by Steve Anderson
- Todd Lasance portrays a young Caesar in the Starz series Spartacus: War of the Damned.
- Bewitched. In one episode, Aunt Esmerelda tries to conjure up a Caesar salad, and instead conjures up Caesar himself.
- In "The Histories of Pliny the Elder" - a 1958 episode of the British radio comedy "The Goon Show" parodying epic films - Caesar is portrayed by Peter Sellers as Hercules Grytpype-Thynne, with Moriarty as a centurion and sidekick.
- In the BBC Radio 4 series Caesar! (2003–2007) written by Mike Walker, David Troughton played Julius Caesar in "Meeting at Formiae", the first episode of Series One.
- A depiction of the Gallic War Commentaries of Caesar's, "De Bello Gallico", entitled "Caesar's Conquests", appeared in the now defunct Classics Illustrated comic series from the 1940s to the 1970s
- The Adventures of Alix, where he is the political protector of the main character.
- Asterix comics, written by René Goscinny and drawn by Albert Uderzo, include a fictionalized Julius Caesar (complete with roman nose) as a recurring character.
- Caesar appears in Neil Gaiman's Sandman #30, "August" (collected in The Sandman: Fables and Reflections)
- Where in Time is Carmen Sandiego features Julius Caesar in one of its stages.
- Caesar is depicted as Akihiko Sanada's ultimate persona in Persona 3.
- Fallout: New Vegas depicts a dictator who patterns himself after the various Caesares, Julius in particular.
- Julius Caesar appears as the leader of the Roman Empire in the Civilization series of strategy games.
- Caesar is depicted in Assassin's Creed: Brotherhood as an ally of the Templars and that his assassination by Brutus and other members of the Assassin Order is to prevent the Templars from gaining power in Rome. Brutus' account of the killing is told in Assassin's Creed: Project Legacy.
- In Age of Empires: Rise of Rome You play as Julius Caesar on a horse fighting enemies in 4 Roman Campaigns called "Expansion II Ave Caesar."
1: Caesar vs. Pirates 2: Britain 3: Alesia 4: Caesar vs Pompey. The goal is to keep Caesar alive at all times or you lose the Campaign. Also in the 4th historical notes it mentions Julius Caesar assassination in 44 B.C.
- "Benetton Group: Evolution of Communication Strategy" scribd.com Accessed 21 February 2010
- Talbot Mundy: Philosopher of Adventure: A Critical Biography by Brian Taves. McFarland, 2006 (p. 137-143)
- Nuttall, Chris (11 July 2013). "Review: First Citizen by Thomas T. Thomas". Amazing Stories. Retrieved 31 July 2013.