Cultural depictions of Julius Caesar

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44 BC denarius.

Gāius Jūlius Caesar (100 BC – 44 BC), one of the most influential men in world history, has frequently appeared in literary and artistic works since ancient times.

Ancient literary works[edit]

  • Caesar is referred to in some of the poems of Catullus (ca. 84-54 BC)
  • He is depicted in Virgil's Aeneid (ca. 29-19 BC), an epic poem about the foundation of Rome
  • He appears as a character in Lucan's Pharsalia (AD 61), an epic poem based on Caesar's civil war

Medieval works[edit]

Caesar and Joshua as part of the Nine Worthies. 16th century
  • Caesar was included as one of the Nine Worthies by Jacques de Longuyon in Voeux du Paon (1312). These were nine historical, scriptural, mythological or semi-legendary figures who, in the Middle Ages, were believed to personify the ideals of chivalry.
  • Caesar's civil war and assassination are recounted in Geoffrey Chaucer's Monk's Tale (c. 1385, one of his Canterbury Tales)

Renaissance and modern works[edit]

  • Historia de omnibus gothorum sueonumque regibus ("History of all Kings of Goths and Swedes") by Johannes Magnus, the last functioning Catholic Archbishop in Sweden, and also a theologian, genealogist, and historian. Published in 1554. Caesar appears as a contemporary of the Swedish King Lindormus.


Shakespeare's First Folio.
John Wilkes Booth and others play Shakespeare's Caesar in 1864.



Modern works[edit]




  • Masters of Rome, a series of seven novels by the Australian writer, Colleen McCullough: The First Man in Rome (1991), The Grass Crown (1991), Fortune's Favorites (1993), Caesar's Women (1995), Caesar (1997), The October Horse (2002), and Antony and Cleopatra (1969).
  • Emperor Series, a series of five novels by the British writer, Conn Iggulden: The Gates of Rome (2003), The Death of Kings (2004), The Field of Swords (2005), The Gods of War (2006), and The Blood of Gods (2013).
  • Marius' Mules Series, a series of six novels by the British writer S.J.A. Turney, written from the point of view of a legate of the 10th Legion, Marcus Falerius Fronto: The Invasion of Gaul (2009), The Belgae (2010), Gallia Invicta (2011), Conspiracy of Eagles (2012), Hades' Gate (2013), Caesar's Vow (2014). A seventh, as yet unnamed book in the series is planned for late 2014. In addition, three short stories set in the same cycle are published as Marius' Mules: Prelude to War (2014).
  • Marching With Caesar Series, a series of six novels by the American writer R.W. Peake: Conquest of Gaul (2012), Civil War (2012), Antony and Cleopatra: Part I - Antony (2013), Anthony and Cleopatra: Part II - Cleopatra (2013), Rise of Augustus (2013), and Final Campaign (2013). There are also two related additional novels that are not in the direct series: Birth of the 10th Legion (2014), and Caesar Triumphant (2014), the latter set as an alternative history, written on the premise that Caesar avoids being assassinated.
  • The Centurion Chronicles Series, a series of two books by J.M. Garlock: The Centurion Chronicles (2012), and The Belgae (2013).
  • Tros of Samothrace, a historical novel by Talbot Mundy, has Julius Caesar as the novel's villain. Mundy depicts Caesar and Roman civilization as imperialist and tyrannical. When the novel was serialised in Adventure magazine in 1925-26, it sparked a controversy in the magazine over whether Caesar was a just ruler or a tyrant; one of the contributors to this debate was Elmer Davis.[2]
  • First Citizen (1987), by Thomas Thurston Thomas, a science fiction book based on the life and times of Julius Caesar but set in the 21st century.[3]
  • Roma Sub Rosa, a series of historical mysteries by the American writer, Steven Saylor.
  • Ides of March (1948), is an epistolatory novel by Thornton Wilder dealing with characters and events leading to, and culminating in, the assassination of Julius Caesar.
  • Sword of Caesar (1987), in the Time Machine series, asks the reader to travel back to ancient Rome and find the fate of Caesar's battle sword.






  • Where in Time is Carmen Sandiego features Julius Caesar in one of its stages.
  • Caesar is depicted as Akihiko Sanada's ultimate persona in Persona 3.
  • Fallout: New Vegas depicts a dictator who patterns himself after the various Caesares, Julius in particular.
  • Julius Caesar appears as the leader of the Roman Empire in the Civilization series of strategy games.
  • Caesar is depicted in Assassin's Creed: Brotherhood as an ally of the Templars and that his assassination by Brutus and other members of the Assassin Order is to prevent the Templars from gaining power in Rome. Brutus' account of the killing is told in Assassin's Creed: Project Legacy.
  • In Age of Empires: Rise of Rome You play as Julius Caesar on a horse fighting enemies in 4 Roman Campaigns called "Expansion II Ave Caesar."

1: Caesar vs. Pirates 2: Britain 3: Alesia 4: Caesar vs Pompey. The goal is to keep Caesar alive at all times or you lose the Campaign. Also in the 4th historical notes it mentions Julius Caesar assassination in 44 B.C.


  1. ^ "Benetton Group: Evolution of Communication Strategy" Accessed 21 February 2010
  2. ^ Talbot Mundy: Philosopher of Adventure: A Critical Biography by Brian Taves. McFarland, 2006 (p. 137-143)
  3. ^ Nuttall, Chris (11 July 2013). "Review: First Citizen by Thomas T. Thomas". Amazing Stories. Retrieved 31 July 2013. 

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