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Culturology is a branch of the social sciences specific to Eastern Europe and concerned with the scientific understanding, description, analysis and prediction of cultural activities. The type of cultural studies regarding different social practices was therefore studied as an aspect of sociology, ethnology and anthropology, and less as an aspect of culturology.
History of the term in Eastern Europe 
The notion of culturology (Russian: Культурология, Ukrainian: Культурологія) in the Russian Empire may be traced to the late 19th century and early 20th century, and associated with Mikhail Bakhtin, Aleksei Losev, Sergey Averintsev, Georgy Gachev, Yuri Lotman, Vyacheslav Ivanov, Vladimir Toporov and others. During the Stalinist era this kind or research was superseded by Marxist social studies. Culturology as an interdisciplinary field reemerged in the Soviet Union in the late 1960s.
After the dissolution of the Soviet Union, culturology was reintroduced into the Higher Attestation Commission list of specialties for which scientific degrees may be awarded in the Russian Federation and is now a compulsory object of study during the first year at institutions of higher education and in secondary schools. Defined as the study of human cultures as integral systems and their influence on human behavior, it may be formally compared to the Western discipline of cultural studies, although it has a number of important distinctions.
Culturology studies at Moscow Lomonosov University 
Yuri Rozhdestvensky founded a school of Culturology at the Department of Language Studies of Moscow Lomonosov University. Rozhdestvensky's approach to the development of culture (accumulation and mutual influence of layers) can be compared to the approach in media ecology.
In contemporary social sciences, the word culturology was coined by American anthropologist Leslie White, who defined it as a field of science dedicated to the study of culture and cultural systems. See  ·  and a series of essays entitled "The Science of Culture".
Following White, Philosopher of Science Mario Bunge defined culturology as the sociological, economic, political and historical study of concrete cultural systems. "Synchronic culturology" is said to coincide with the anthropology, sociology, economics and political ideology of cultures. By contrast, "diachronic culturology" is a component of history. According to Bunge, "scientific culturology" also differs from traditional cultural studies in that the latter are often the work of idealist literary critics or pseudo-philosophers ignorant of the scientific method and incompetent in the study of social facts and concrete social systems.
Few countries in the world have such an ancient and diverse culture as India's. India's culture has been enriched through the assimilation of successive waves of migration stretching back over the past 5000 years. This absorption of different peoples has made India one of the most diverse countries in terms of religion, race, and language. Underneath this diversity lies the continuity of Indian civilization and social structure from the very earliest times until the present day.
Bunge’s systemic and materialist approach to the study of culture has given birth to a variety of new fields of research in the social sciences. Fabrice Rivault, for instance, was the first scholar to formalize and propose International Political Culturology as a subfield of International Relations in order to understand the global cultural system, as well as its numerous subsystems, and explain how cultural variables interact with politics and economics to impact world affairs. This scientific approach differs radically from culturalism, constructivism and cultural postmodernism because it is based on logic, empiricism, systemism and emergent materialism.
See also 
- Mikhail Epstein, Transcultural Experiments: Russian and American Models of Creative Communication. New York: St. Martin's Press (Scholarly and Reference Division), 1999, Chapter 1: From Culturology to Transculture
- specialties (Russian)
- White, L. (1959). The Evolution of Culture: The Development of Civilization to the Fall of Rome. McGraw-Hill, New York.
- White, Leslie, (1975) “The Concept of Cultural Systems: A Key to Understanding Tribes and Nations, Columbia University, New York
- Bunge, Mario, (1998) Social Science Under Debate, Toronto: University of Toronto Press
- Rivault, Fabrice, (1999) Culturologie Politique Internationale : Une approche systémique et matérialiste de la culture et du système social global, McGill Dissertation, Montréal, Culturology Press
- Bunge, Mario, (2009) Political Philosophy - Fact, Fiction and Vision, Transaction Publishers, New Brunswick
- Xintian, Yu (2005) “Cultural Factors In International Relations”, Chinese Philosophical Studies.
- Xintian, Yu (2009),"Combining Research on Cultural Theory and International Relations"
- The International Journal of Culturology
- The Russian Institute for Cultural Research (Russian)
- Culturology Department at National University "Ostroh Academy" (Ukrainian)