Cuman language

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Cuman
Native to Hungary
Region Cumania
Ethnicity Cumans
Extinct early 17th century
Turkic
Language codes
ISO 639-3 qwm

Cuman (Kuman) was a Kipchak Turkic language spoken by the Cumans (Polovtsy, Folban, Vallany, Kun) and Kipchaks; the language was similar to the today's Kazakh language. The Kipchak language/Cuman is documented in medieval works, including the Codex Cumanicus, and it was a literary language in the Central and Eastern Europe that left a rich literary inheritance. The language became the main language (lingua franca) of the Golden Horde.[1]

The Cuman-Kipchaks were nomadic people that lived in the steppes of Eastern Europe, north of Black Sea before the Golden Horde. Many Cumans were incorporated into other Turkic peoples including the Crimean Tatars, Karachays, and Kumyks.

They later had an important role in the history of Hungary, Rumania (see, for example, the Besarab dynasty), Moldavia and Bessarabia.

The Cuman language became extinct in early 17th century in the region of Cumania in Hungary, which was its last stronghold. Today, Kazakh people of modern Kazakhstan speak a close variation of Cuman Turkish.

From Codex Cumanicus book, Cuman Kipchak Turkic prayer:

Atamız kim köktesiñ. Alğışlı bolsun seniñ atıñ, kelsin seniñ xanlığıñ, bolsun seniñ tilemekiñ – neçikkim kökte, alay [da] yerde. Kündeki ötmegimizni bizge bugün bergil. Dağı yazuqlarımıznı bizge boşatqıl – neçik biz boşatırbiz bizge yaman etkenlerge. Dağı yekniñ sınamaqına bizni quurmağıl. Basa barça yamandan bizni qutxarğıl. Amen!

In Oghuz Turkish (Turkey), the same text is:

Atamız sen göktesin. Alkışlı olsun senin adın, gelsin senin hanlığın, olsun senin dilemeğin – nasıl ki gökte, ve yerde. Gündelik ekmeğimizi bize bugün ver. Ve de yazıklarımızdan (suçlarımızdan) bizi bağışla – nasıl biz bağışlarız bize yaman (kötülük) edenleri. Ve de şeytanın sınamasından bizi koru. Tüm yamandan (kötülükten) bizi kurtar. Amin!

Tradition holds that the last speaker of the Cuman language in Hungary was a certain István Varró, a resident of Karcag (Hungary) who died in 1770.

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