The Cumanagotos were Amerindians of northeastern Venezuela at the time of the Spanish conquest. Since the 17th century they have not existed as a tribal or cultural unit. The Cumanagoto spoke a Cariban language, related to that of the Palenque. They were agricultural, growing corn (maize), manioc, sweet potatoes, and other native crops, as well as coca trees. Wild foods were also gathered, and hunting was important. Domesticated animals were uncommon, except for turkeys. Their villages often had wooden palisades for defense. Dress was minimal, consisting of a small genital covering and decorative ornaments of feathers, pearls, gold, shell, clay beads, coral beads, bones, teeth, or flowers. Polygyny was practiced by chiefs, whose wives lived together in a kind of harem. Religion centered on worship of the sun and moon.
The short-lived Province of New Catalonia (1633-1654), founded by Joan Orpí, was also known as the Province of the Cumanagotos. It was absorbed into New Andalusia Province in 1654.
The name of the city of Cagua in Aragua State is said to derive from the Cumanagoto word for snail, Cahigua.