Departamento de Cundinamarca
|— Department —|
|Motto: Cundinamarca Corazón de Colombia
(Spanish: Cundinamarca, Heart of Colombia)
|Anthem: Himno de Cundinamarca|
|Established||June 15, 1857|
|• Governor||Álvaro Cruz Vargas (Alliance between Social Party of National Unity, Radical Change, Colombian Conservative Party and Colombian Liberal Party)|
|• Total||24,210 km2 (9,350 sq mi)|
|• Density||110/km2 ( 280/sq mi)|
|ISO 3166 code||CO-CUN|
Cundinamarca Department (Departamento de Cundinamarca, Spanish pronunciation: [kundinaˈmarka]) is one of the departments of Colombia. Its area covers 24.210 km,2 and it has a population of 2,280,037. It was created on August 5, 1886 under the constitutional terms presented on the same year. Cundinamarca is located in the center of Colombia and its capital is Bogotá.
Origin of the name 
The name of Cundinamarca comes from kundur marqa, an indigenous expression, probably derived from Quechua. Meaning "condor's nest", it was used in pre-Columbian times by the natives of the Magdalena Valley to refer to the nearby highlands.
Most of Cundinamarca is on the Eastern Cordillera (Cordillera Oriental), just south of Boyacá, bordered by the Magdalena River on the west, reaching down into the Orinoco River basin on the east, and bordering on Tolima to the south. The capital district of Bogotá is nearly completely surrounded by Cundinamarca territory and was formed by carving up Cundinamarca; between this and other divisions, the present department of Cundinamarca is much smaller than the original state.
The capital of Cundinamarca is Bogotá. This is a special case among Colombian departments, since Bogotá is not legally a part of Cundinamarca, yet it is the only department that has its capital designated by the Constitution (if the capital was to be ever moved, it would take a constitutional reform to do so, instead of a simple ordinance passed by the Cundinamarca Assembly). In censuses, the populations for Bogotá and Cundinamarca are tabulated separately; otherwise, Cundinamarca's population would total 9.5 million.
|Cundinamarca (excluding D.C.)||2,349,578||22,623||104|
|Cundinamarca plus Bogotá||10,230,734||24,210||391|
Demography and ethnography 
Municipalities with over 50.000 inhabitants 
Municipal population position 
- 1st Bogotá 6.776.009
- 2nd Soacha 398.295
- 3rd Fusagasugá 107.259
- 4th Facatativá 106.067
- 5th Zipaquirá 100.038
- 6th Chía 97.444
- 7th Girardot 95.496
- 8th Mosquera 63.584
- 9th Madrid 61.599
- 10th Funza 60.571
According to the latest census conducted in 2005, 2,280,037 people live in Cundinamarca, excluding 6,776,009 of the capital, Bogotá. The racial makeup is:
- Whites and mestizos (96.28): Mestizos are mixed European-Amerindian blood. The Bogotá metropolitan area has a history of European (not limited to Spanish) and other Latin American immigration.
- Blacks or Afro-Colombians (3.33-37%)
- Indigenous/Amerindians (0.31-34%): Very low percentage.
- Roma (Gitanos or Gypsies) (0.01%).
- East Asians (0.01%), often of Chinese descent. About 25,000 Chinese-Colombians live in the department.
The city of Bogotá and the municipalities of Soacha, La Calera, Cota, Chia, Madrid, Funza, Mosquera, Fusagasugá, Facatativá and Zipaquirá form a single metropolitan area. It is the most populous department with 8 million inhabitants and average density of 7,400 inhabitants per km², one of the highest in the world.
Important cities 
Cundinamarca is made up of 116 municipalities, seven of which recorded a population of over 100,000 and could be considered as cities: Bogotá, Soacha, Fusagasugá, Girardot, Facatativá, Zipaquirá and Chia, while Bogota District is in the category of capital.
- Bogotá D. C. is the largest city, populated and cosmopolitan of Cundinamarca and Colombia. Its economy is polisectorial; it is the cultural, commercial, institutional and administrative Colombia's largest and one of the largest in Latin America. The Capital District is divided into 20 localities and population for 2005 was 6,776,009 inhabitants according to the DANE. The city has a metropolitan area that, among others, includes the municipalities of Soacha, Facatativá Chia and reaching a population of 7,881,156 people.
- Girardot: In the far southwest and bordering Department of Tolima, is the capital of the Province of Alto Magdalena. Its main economic activity is centered in the trade as a result of a major tourist dynamics and its proximity to major agricultural areas of Tolima, it has a college and important trade fairs and events.
- Fusagasugá is in the Bogota-Girardot is an hour of each city. Capital of the Province of Sumapaz. It is an important focus of agricultural marketing and regional services, standing as a city educator and a great university, with an increasing population trend. Its economy is mainly focused on trade and agricultural marketing, with a significant production of ornamental plants and flowers for export, so it is known as the garden city of Colombia.
- Zipaquirá: Despite being part of the metropolitan area of Bogotá has managed to position itself as one of the most important centers of Colombia saline. Its economy is focused on commerce and services.
- Bogota Metropolitan Area: Comprises the towns of Soacha, Facatativá, Chia, Madrid, Funza, and Mosquera, among others. Its activities are centered in the industrial sector. Estate activity is important especially in the suburbs closer to Bogota: Chia, La Calera and Tocancipá.
Other major towns are Ubaté due to high livestock and dairy production. Guaduas, is an important cultural center. Chocontá and Fred are agricultural centers.
Cundinamarca has 15 provinces and the Capital District of Bogotá (Bogotá D.C.), which simultaneously acts as capital of the Republic, capital of the Department and a District (or Department) in itself.
- Upper Magdalena (Alto Magdalena)
- Lower Magdalena (Bajo Magdalena)
- Central Magdalena (Magdalena Centro)
- Eastern (Oriente)
- Central Savanna (Sabana Centro)
- Western Savanna (Sabana Occidente)
- "Departamento: Datos generales: Límites" (in Spanish). Gobernación del Cundinamarca. Archived from the original on 24 January 2013.
- Kline, Harvey F. (2012). "Cundinamarca, Department of". Historical Dictionary of Colombia. Scarecrow Press. p. 157. ISBN 978-0-8108-7813-6.
- "DANE". Retrieved February 13, 2013.
- "Gobernación de Cundinamarca: Perfiles (Cundinamarca Government Profiles)" (in Spanish). Gobernación del Cundinamarca.
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See also