Cupeño language

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Cupeño
Kupangaxwicham Pe'memelki
Region Southern California, USA
Ethnicity Cupeño people
Extinct 1987
Uto-Aztecan
Latin
Language codes
ISO 639-3 cup
Glottolog cupe1243[1]
{{{mapalt}}}
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters.

Cupeño is an extinct Uto-Aztecan language, formerly spoken by the Cupeño people of Southern California, USA, who now speak English.

Roscinda Nolasquez (d. 1987) was the last native speaker of Cupeño.[2]

Region[edit]

The language was originally spoken in Cupa, Wilaqalpa, and Paluqla, San Diego County, California, and later and around the Pala Indian Reservation.

Morphology[edit]

Cupeño is an agglutinative language, where words use suffix complexes for a variety of purposes with several morphemes strung together.

Cupeño inflects its verbs for transitivity, tense, aspect, mood, person, number, and evidentiality.

Evidentiality is expressed in Cupeño with clitics, which generally appear near the beginning of the sentence. =ku'ut 'reportative' (mu=ku'ut 'and it is said that...') =am 'mirative' =$he 'dubitative'

There are two inflected moods, realis =pe and irrealis =e'p.

Pronouns[edit]

The pronominals of Cupeño appear in many different forms and structures. The following appear attached only to past-tense verbs.

Person Singular Plural
1 ne- chem-
2 e- em-
3 pe- pem-

Tense-Aspect system[edit]

Future simple verbs are unmarked. Past simple verbs have past-tense pronouns; past imperfect add the imperfect modifier shown below.

Number Present Imperfect Fut. Imp Customary
Singular -qa -qal -nash -ne
Plural -we -wen -wene -wene

Phonology[edit]

Vowels[edit]

Front Central Back
High i, i: u, u:
Mid ɛ, ɛ: ə, ə: o, o:
Low a, a:

/ɛ/ and /o/ appear largely in Spanish loanwords, but also as allophones of /ə/ in native Cupeño words.

/i/ can also be realized as [ɪ] in closed syllables, and [e] in some open syllables.

/u/ may reduce to schwa in unstressed syllables.

/ə/ also appears as [ɨː] when long and stressed, [o] after labials and [q], and as [ɛ] before [w].

/a/ is also realized as [ɑ] before uvulars.

Consonants[edit]

Bilabial Coronal Palatal or
Postalveolar
Plain Labialized Glottal
Laminal Apical Velar Uvular Velar Uvular
Nasal m n ɲ ŋ
Plosive and
Affricate
p t (t)ʃ k q kʷ (qʷ) ʔ
Fricative Voiceless s ʂ x ~ χ h
Voiced v ð ɣ
Trill ɾ
Approximant central j w
lateral l ʎ

/kʷ/ is realized as [qʷ] before unstressed /a/ or /e/. [x] and [χ] appear to be in free variation.

/tʃ/ is realized as [ʃ] in syllable codas.

/f/, /ð/, and /ɾ/ appear only in Spanish loanwords.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Cupeno". Glottolog 2.2. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. 
  2. ^ Hill, Jane H. (2005-10-18). A Grammar of Cupeño. UC Publications in Linguistics 136. University of California Press. 

External links[edit]