|Region||Southern California, USA|
The language was originally spoken in Cupa, Wilaqalpa, and Paluqla, San Diego County, California, and later and around the Pala Indian Reservation.
Evidentiality is expressed in Cupeño with clitics, which generally appear near the beginning of the sentence. =ku'ut 'reportative' (mu=ku'ut 'and it is said that...') =am 'mirative' =$he 'dubitative'
There are two inflected moods, realis =pe and irrealis =e'p.
The pronominals of Cupeño appear in many different forms and structures. The following appear attached only to past-tense verbs.
Future simple verbs are unmarked. Past simple verbs have past-tense pronouns; past imperfect add the imperfect modifier shown below.
|High||i, i:||u, u:|
|Mid||ɛ, ɛ:||ə, ə:||o, o:|
/i/ can also be realized as [ɪ] in closed syllables, and [e] in some open syllables.
/u/ may reduce to schwa in unstressed syllables.
/ə/ also appears as [ɨ:] when long and stressed, [o] after labials and [q], and as [ɛ] before [w].
/a/ is also realized as [ɑ] before uvulars.
|Fricative||Voiceless||s||ʂ||x ~ χ||xʷ||h|
/kʷ/ is realized as [qʷ] before unstressed /a/ or /e/. [x] and [χ] appear to be in free variation.
/tʃ/ is realized as [ʃ] in syllable codas.
/f/, /ð/, and /ɾ/ appear only in Spanish loanwords.
- Hill, Jane H. (2005-10-18). A Grammar of Cupeño. UC Publications in Linguistics 136. Univ of California Press.
- The Cupeño language, Four Directions Institute
- Cupeño language, Survey of California and Other Indian Languages
- OLAC resources in and about the Cupeño language
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