||This article includes a list of references, but its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations. (October 2012)|
|City of Curitiba|
|Nickname(s): Cidade Modelo ("Model City"); Capital Ecológica do Brasil ("Ecological Capital of Brazil"); Cidade Verde ("Green City"); Capital das Araucárias ("Capital of Araucarias"); A Cidade da Névoa Eterna ("The City of Eternal Fog")|
|Motto: A Cidade da Gente (Our City)|
|Founded||29 March 1693|
|• Mayor||Gustavo Fruet (PDT)|
|• City||430.9 km2 (166.4 sq mi)|
|• Metro||15,416.9 km2 (5,952 sq mi)|
|Elevation||934.6 m (3,066.3 ft)|
|• City||1,764,540 (8th)|
|• Density||4,062/km2 (10,523/sq mi)|
|• Metro||3,209,980 (7th)|
|• Metro density||210.9/km2 (546.2/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC-3 (UTC-3)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC-2 (UTC-2)|
|CEP||80000-000 to 82999-999|
|Area code(s)||+55 41|
Curitiba (Tupi: "Pine Nut Land", Portuguese pronunciation: [kuɾiˈtibɐ] or [kuɾiˈtʃibɐ]) is the capital and largest city of the Brazilian state of Paraná. The city's population numbered approximately 1,760,500 people as of 2010, making it the eighth most populous city in the country, and the largest in Brazil's South Region. Its metropolitan area, called Curitiba Metropolitan Area (Região Metropolitana de Curitiba, in Portuguese), comprises 26 municipalities with a total population of over 3.2 million (IBGE estimate in 2010), making it the seventh most populous in the country.
Curitiba is an important cultural, political, and economic center in Latin America. The city sits on a plateau at 932 metres (3,058 ft) above sea level. It is located 105 kilometres (65 mi) west of the seaport of Paranaguá and is served by the Afonso Pena International and Bacacheri airports. The city hosts the Federal University of Paraná, established in 1912.
In the 1700s Curitiba possessed a favorable location between cattle-breeding country and marketplaces, leading to a successful cattle trade and the city's first major expansion. Later, between 1850 and 1950, it grew due to logging and agricultural expansion in the Paraná State (first Araucaria logging, later mate and coffee cultivation and in the 1970s wheat, corn and soybean cultivation). In the 1850s waves of European immigrants arrived in Curitiba, mainly Germans, Italians, Poles and Ukrainians, contributing to the city's economic and cultural development. Nowadays, only smaller numbers of foreign immigrants arrive, primarily from Middle Eastern and other Latin American countries.
The biggest expansion occurred after the 1950s, with innovative urban planning that changed the population size from some hundreds of thousands to more than a million people. Curitiba's economy is based on industry and services and is the fourth largest in Brazil. Economic growth occurred in parallel to a substantial inward flow of Brazilians from other cities of the country, as approximately half of the city's population was not born there.
Curitiba sports one of Brazil's highest Human Development Index readings at 0.856, and in 2010 was awarded the Global Sustainable City Award, given to cities and municipalities that excel in sustainable urban development. According to US magazine Reader's Digest, Curitiba is the best "Latin American Big City" in which to live.
- 1 Name
- 2 History
- 3 Geography
- 4 Government
- 5 Demographics
- 6 Economy
- 7 Tourism and recreation
- 8 Education
- 9 Urban planning
- 10 Culture
- 11 UN Convention on Biodiversity
- 12 Transportation
- 13 Sports
- 14 Neighborhoods
- 15 International relations
- 16 Notable people
- 17 References
- 18 External links
One theory about the name "Curitiba" comes from the Tupi words kurí tyba, "many pine seeds" due to the large number of pinecones of Paraná pines in the region prior to its foundation. The other version, also from the Tupi language, originates in the combination of kurit (pine tree) and yba (large amount).
The Portuguese who founded a settlement on the site in 1693 named it "Vila da Nossa Senhora da Luz dos Pinhais" (Village of "Our Lady of the Light" of the Pines). The name was changed to "Curitiba" in 1721. Curitiba officially became a town in 1812, spelling its name as "Curityba." An alternative spelling is "Coritiba." This was used in press and state documents. A state decree in 1919 settled the dispute by adopting "Curitiba."
The first ten years of the 16th century marked the beginning of a war of conquest of Europeans (Portuguese colonists) against the indigenous peoples who inhabited the area of the city. Waves of European immigrants started arriving after 1850, mainly Germans (mostly from Russia), Italians, Poles and Ukrainians. In 1853, the south and southwest of the province of São Paulo were separated, forming the new province of Paraná, and Curitiba became its capital.
During the 20th century, especially after 1950, the city rapidly increased in population and consolidated its position as a regional hub for trade and services, becoming one of the richest cities in Brazil and a pioneer in urban solutions. In the 1940s and 1950s, Alfred Agache, co-founder of the French Society for Urban Studies, was hired to produce its first city plan. It emphasised a "star" of boulevards, with public amenities downtown, an industrial district and sanitation. It was followed in part, but was too expensive to complete.
For three days in 1969, Curitiba was Brazil's capital.
Curitiba has a maritime temperate climate or subtropical highland climate (Cfb), according to the Köppen classification. Located in Southern Brazil, the humid city lies in a temperate zone. It is located on a plateau and the flat terrain with flooded areas contribute to its mild and damp winter, with an average minimum temperature of 7 °C (45 °F) in the coldest month, occasionally falling below 0 °C (32 °F) on the coldest nights. During summertime, the average temperature is around 18 °C (64 °F), but it can get above 30 °C (86 °F) on the hottest days. Snowfall was experienced in 1889, 1892, 1912, 1928 (two days), 1942, 1955, 1957, 1962, 1975 and again in 2013. Among Brazil's twenty-six state capitals, its altitude makes Curitiba the coldest.
The terrain's flatness hinders water drainage after rain, therefore providing water vapor for the atmosphere. Cold fronts come year round, often from Antarctica and Argentina, bringing tropical storms in summer and cold winds in the winter. They can move very quickly, with no more than one day between the start of the southern winds and the start of rain. Curitiba's weather is also influenced by the dry air masses that dominate Brazil's midwest most of the year, bringing hot and dry weather, sometimes even in winter.
|Climate data for Curitiba|
|Record high °C (°F)||34
|Average high °C (°F)||25.6
|Daily mean °C (°F)||19.6
|Average low °C (°F)||15.8
|Record low °C (°F)||5
|Precipitation mm (inches)||165.0
|Avg. precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm)||17||15||16||14||14||12||12||10||12||13||13||16||164|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||161.2||135.6||142.6||138.0||151.9||129.0||148.8||148.8||123.0||136.4||153.0||151.9||1,720.2|
|Source #1: World Meteorological Organization. Hong Kong Observatory.|
|Source #2: Weatherbase (record highs and lows, humidity)|
Curitiba is located in the area of the Ombrophilous Mixed Forest (also known as Araucaria moist forests), a sub-type of the Atlantic Forest. In Curitiba it is possible to find steppes, forests and other formations. The local vegetation consists of remnants of the Paraná (or Brazilian) pine (Araucaria angustifolia), which resisted the efferts of settlers. The Paraná pines are in private and public areas and are protected from logging. The Municipal Secretariat of the Environment maintains a botanical garden and three greenhouses that produce 150,000 native and exotic seedlings: 16,000 fruit trees, 260,000 flowers, foliage and underbrush specimens and the maintenance of another 350,000 seedlings.
Curitiba's green area itself matches the size of other large Brazilian cities. The vegetation of Curitiba encompasses a large population of purple and yellow ipês (tabebuias), making a beautiful sight during flowering at winter's end. The yellow ipê is the city's most common tree.
The catchment area of Curitiba consists of rivers and streams that cross the city in different directions, grouped in six river basins. The main rivers that form the city's watershed are: Atuba River, Belém River, Barigüi River, Passaúna River, Ribeirão dos Padilhas and the Iguaçu River, all with characteristics of dendritic drainage. Curitiba has been working since the 1970s on alternatives to minimize the negative impacts of urbanization on rivers. An example is the construction of parks along the rivers with artificial lakes, which absorb and retain water for longer periods of time, minimizing floods.
After many studies of local water flows, most rivers were found to be subject to a canalization process. Other alternatives developed to minimize the negative effects of urbanization are the implementation of programs for environmental education, inspection and monitoring, elaboration and application of legislation and infrastructure works.
The city covers 432.17 square kilometres (166.86 sq mi) on the First Plateau of Paraná. Curitiba has a topography of smooth, rounded hills, giving it a relatively regular shape. The City of Curitiba has an average altitude of 934.6 metres (3,066 ft) above sea level. The highest point is to the north at 1,021 metres (3,350 ft), and with lower altitudes at 864 metres (2,835 ft) to the south.
Mountain ranges and sets of rocky hills surround parts of the city, including the Serra do Mar (Portuguese for "Mountain Range of the Sea"), located in the east that separates the plateau from the coast of Paraná.
|This section needs additional citations for verification. (November 2013)|
As of 2013 the mayor was Gustavo Fruet, who replaced Luciano Ducci. The mayor appoints municipal secretaries.
The City Council of Curitiba was created in 1693, and 38 councillors elected since 2004.
Curitiba is divided into nine regional governments (equivalent to subprefecture), who manage the municipality's 75 districts. The Rua da Cidadania ("Street of Citizenship") is the symbol of administrative decentralization; it is a reference point and meeting place.
According to the 2010 IBGE Census, 2,469,489 people resided in the city of Curitiba. The census revealed 1,381,938 White people (78.9%), 294,127 Brown (Multiracial) people (16.8%), 49,978 Black people (2.9%), 23,138 Asian people (1.4%), 2,693 Amerindian people (0.2%).
In 2010, Curitiba was Brazil's 8th most populous city.
As with most of Southern Brazil's population, Curitiba is mostly inhabited by Brazilians of European descent. The first Europeans to arrive were of Portuguese origin, during the 17th century. They intermarried with the native people and with the African slaves.
The Memorial of Polish Immigration was inaugurated on 13 December 1980, after the visit of the Pope John Paul II in June. Its area is 46,000 square metres (500,000 sq ft) and was part of the former Candles plant. The seven wooden log houses are parts of this memorial area, as a souvenir of the Polish immigrants' struggles and faith. Objects like an old wagon, pipe of cabbage and a print of the black virgin of Częstochowa (patron saint of Polish people), form parts of the memorial.
Italian immigrants started arriving in Brazil in 1875 and in Curitiba in 1878 coming mostly from the Veneto and Trento regions of Northern Italy. They settled mostly in the Santa Felicidade neighborhood which remains the center of the Italian community.
Nearly 20,000 Ukrainian immigrants settled there between 1895 and 1897, consisting mostly of peasants from Galicia who emigrated to Brazil to become farmers. Around 300,000 Ukrainian-Brazilians live in Paraná. The State of Paraná has the largest Ukrainian community and Slavic community.
Curitiba has a Jewish community that was originally established in the 1870s. Much of the early Jewish congregation has been assimilated. In 1937 with the rise of Nazi Germany, notable German Jewish academics migrated to Brazil, some settling in Curitiba. Physicist César Lattes and former mayors Jaime Lerner and Saul Raiz were Jewish. A Holocaust memroial is present in the city. The community center, a Jewish school, a Chabad house (Beit Chabad), a synagogue, and two Jewish cemeteries are there, one of which was defiled in 2004.
Japanese immigrants began arriving in 1915, with a larger contingent arriving in 1924. Curitiba received a significant Japanese influx. They settled mostly between Paraná and São Paulo state. The city has the second largest Japanese community in Brazil, behind only São Paulo, according to IBGE. Although both cities have around the same proportion of Japanese descendants, other large cities in the countryside, such as Maringá and Londrina, have an even higher rate. Some estimates suggest that more than 40,000 Japanese-Brazilians living in the Curitiba. The city elected in 1996 Brazil's first Japanese descendant Mayor of a state capital. Cássio Taniguchi served two consecutive terms, 1997-2000 and 2001-2004.
Since it was declared capital of the State of Paraná in 1853, the city has gone through several major urban planning projects to avoid uncontrolled growth and thus has become an international role model in dealing with issues including transportation and the environment. The city is Brazil's second largest car manufacturer. Its economy is based on industry, commerce and services. For that reason, Curitiba is considered by many investors to be the best location for investment in Brazil.
The city receives more than two million tourists every year. Most arrive via Afonso Pena International Airport, where almost sixty thousand flights land annually.
According to IPEA data, the GDP in 2006 was 32 billion reals, without including agriculture and livestock (0.03%). Industry represented 34.13% and the commerce and service sectors 65.84%. Cidade Industrial de Curitiba, the industrial district, is home to many multinational industries, such as Nissan, Renault, Volkswagen, Philip Morris, Audi, Volvo, HSBC, Siemens, ExxonMobil, Electrolux and Kraft Foods, as well as many well-known national industries, such as Sadia, O Boticário and Positivo Informática.
Curitiba's infrastructure makes bus travel fast and convenient, effectively creating demand for bus use in the same way that the infrastructure of traditional cities creates demand for private motor vehicles. In July 2001, Curitiba became Brazil's first city to receive the prize "Pole of Information Technology", granted by InfoExame magazine. According to the magazine, the companies of "Technology and Information Technology" based in Curitiba in 2001 achieved US$ 1.2 billion in revenues, representing a growth of 21% over the previous year.
The city's 30-year economic growth rate is 7.1%, higher than the national average of 4.2%, and per capita income is 66% higher than the Brazilian average. Between 1975 and 1995, Curitiba's domestic product grew by some 75% more than the entire State of Paraná, and 48% more than Brazil as a whole. In 1994, tourism generated US$ 280 million, 4% of the city's net income. Curitiba has municipal health, education and day care networks, neighborhood libraries shared by schools and citizens and Citizenship Streets, where buildings provide essential public services, sports and cultural facilities near transportation terminals. At the Open University, residents can take courses in subjects such as mechanics, hair styling and environmental protection for a small fee. Policies for job creation and income generation became part of the city's strategic planning in the 1990s, for the metropolitan area as well as the city.
Since 1990, the Municipal Housing Fund has provided financial support to housing for lower income populations. After national housing finance collapsed in 1985, just as people from the countryside poured into Curitiba, the city's public housing program bought one of the few remaining large plots of land, "Novo Bairro" (New Neighborhood), as home for 50,000 families. While landowners built the houses themselves, each received a pair of trees and an hour's consultation with an architect to help them develop their plan. COHAB also built Technology Street, an avenue of 24 homes in the centre of Novo Bairro, each built using different construction techniques.
Six massive shopping malls are found in Curitiba shopping: Mueller, Estação, Curitiba, Crystal, Palladium and Park Barigüi. The Rua das Flores (Flower's Street) is home to the majority of stores. The area is pedestrianized, with no cars around the centre. An essential element of Curitiba shopping is the Feira do Largo da Ordem, or Largo da Ordem Street Fair.
In 2008, according to IBGE Curitiba´s nominal GDP was R$45,7 billion (or about of US$22,5 billion) (with R$25,934, or US$13,000, by nominal GDP per capita, about of US$5,000 more than Brazilian 2008 nominal GDP per capita), making it the fourth richest city in the country, after only São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro and the capital Brasilia.
Tourism and recreation
Attractions in the city include:
- Italian Woods—Hosts local celebrations.
- Japan Square—Homage to Japanese immigrants who settled there to work in agriculture. Scattered around the square are 30 cherry trees sent from Japan and artificial lakes. In 1993 the Japanese Portal, the Culture House and the Tea House were built.
- Tingüi Park—Part of the biggest linear environmental park in the Country, established at the Barigüi river margins, it reminds us of original inhabitants, including a statue of Tindiqüera Chieftain. The Ukrainian Memorial is also there, a replica of an Orthodox church, originally built in inland Paraná State, hosting pysankas (Ukrainian Pascha eggs) and an icon exhibition.
- Wire Opera House—Built on the site of an abandoned quarry.
- Tanguá Park—Inaugurated in 1996, the Tanguá Park was built on top of a complex of deactivated quarries. It is part of the Barigüi river preservation project joining Tingüi and Barigüi parks. This Its area is 450 thousand square meters covers two quarries connected by a 45 meter tunnel that may be crossed on foot by a path over the water. It can be visited on boat or on foot (hiking).
The park has a cooper and bicycle track, snack bar, belvedere and Poty Lazzaroto garden.
- Portugal Wood—Homage to the Portuguese-Brazilian bonds, this space is highlighted by a track following a small brook, where one can see drawn on tiles excerpts from famous Portuguese language poets, as well as a tribute to the great Portuguese navigators and their discoveries.
- Curitiba International Ecological Marathon—The Maratona Ecológica Internacional de Curitiba ("Curitiba International Ecological marathon")is held in November and is known as the hardest in Brazil, because it happens in the end of the year in the summer heat, and because of the hilly course.
- Tourism Line—The Linha Tourismo bus stops at key tourist attractions in the city.
More than 183 universities operate in the state of Paraná.
- Universidade Federal do Paraná (UFPR) – Federal University of Paraná – This State university is largest of Paraná, with more than 20.000 students. The first university of Brazil;
- Universidade Tecnológica Federal do Paraná (UTFPR) – Federal University of Technology is the first University of Technology from Brazil;
- Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia do Paraná - Paraná Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology;
- Universidade Positivo (UP) -
- Universidade Estadual do Paraná (UNESPAR) - State University of Paraná;
- Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Paraná (PUCPR) – A major private University
- ESIC Business and Marketing School – International Website ESIC
- Centro Universitário Curitiba (UNICURITIBA) - University Center Curitiba, old Law School Curitiba.
In the 1990s, the city started a project called Faróis do Saber ("Lighthouses of Knowledge"). These lighthouses are free educational centers that include libraries, Internet access and other cultural resources. Libraries work with municipal schools, offering a collection of approximately 5000 books, and provide cultural reference and leisure.
Curitiba has a planned transportation system, which includes lanes on major streets devoted to a bus rapid transit system. The buses are split into three sections (bi-articulated) and stop at designated elevated tubes, complete with access for disabled riders. Buses charge one price regardless of distance.
The city preserves and cares for its green areas, boasting 51.5 square metres (554 sq ft) of green space per inhabitant.
In the 1940s and 1950s, Alfred Agache, cofounder of the French Society for Urban Studies, was hired to produce the first city plan. It emphasised a star of boulevards, with public amenities downtown, an industrial district and sanitation. The plan was too expensive to complete.
By the 1960s, Curitiba's population had reached 430,000. Some residents feared that the growth in population threatened to damage the character of the city. In 1964, Mayor Ivo Arzua solicited proposals for urban design. Architect Jaime Lerner, who later became mayor, led a team from the Universidade Federal do Paraná that suggested strict controls on urban sprawl, reduced traffic in the downtown area, preservation of Curitiba's Historic Sector and a convenient and affordable public transit system.
This plan, known as the Curitiba Master Plan, was adopted in 1968. Lerner closed XV de Novembro St. to vehicles, because it had high pedestrian traffic. The plan had a new road design to minimise traffic: the Trinary Road System. This used two one-way streets moving in opposite directions that surround a smaller, two-lane street where the express buses have an exclusive lane. Five of these roads form a star that converges on the city centre. Land farther from these roads is zoned for lower density development, to pull traffic away from the main roads. In a number of areas subject to floods, buildings were condemned and the land became parks.
Today, Curitiba is considered one of the world's best examples of urban planning. In June 1996, the chairman of the Habitat II summit of mayors and urban planners in Istanbul praised Curitiba as "the most innovative city in the country."
In the 1980s, the RIT (Rede Integrada de Transporte, Integrated Transport Network) was created. At the same time, the city began building educational the "Faróis de Saber" (Lighthouses of Knowledge) educational centers.
The city has more than 400 square kilometres (154 sq mi) of public parks and forests.
In 2007, the city placed third in a list of "15 Green Cities" in the world, according to "Grist" magazine, after Reykjavík in Iceland and Portland, Oregon in the United States. As a result, according to one survey, 99% of Curitibans are happy with their hometown. The "green exchange" employment program focuses on social inclusion, benefiting both those in need and the environment. Low-income families living in shantytowns unreachable by truck bring their trash bags to neighborhood centers, where they exchange them for bus tickets and food. This means less city litter and less disease, less garbage in sensitive areas such as rivers and a better life for the undernourished poor. There's also a program for children where they can exchange recyclable garbage for school supplies, chocolate, toys and tickets for shows.
Jaime Lerner suggests urban acupuncture as the future solution for contemporary urban issues; focusing on very narrow pressure points in cities, can create positive ripple effects. Urban "acupuncture" reclaims land for the public and emphasizes the importance of community development through small interventions in design of cities. It emphasises pinpoint interventions that can be accomplished quickly to create a make an immediate impact. He stated:
I believe that some medicinal “magic” can and should be applied to cities, as many are sick and some nearly terminal. As with the medicine needed in the interaction between doctor and patient, in urban planning it is also necessary to make the city react; to poke an area in such a way that it is able to help heal, improve, and create positive chain reactions. It is indispensable in revitalizing interventions to make the organism work in a different way.
Under the "garbage that's not garbage" program, 70% of the city's trash is recycled by its residents. Once a week, a truck collects paper, cardboard, metal, plastic and glass that has been sorted by residents. The city's paper recycling saves the equivalent of 1,200 trees a day. Money raised from selling materials goes into social programs and the city employs the homeless and alcoholics in its garbage separation plant.
Open University, created by the city, lets residents take courses in many subjects such as mechanics, hair styling and environmental protection for a small fee. Retired city buses are often used as mobile schools or offices. Downtown areas were transformed into pedestrian streets, including a 24-hour mall with shops, restaurants and cafes, and a street of flowers with gardens tended by street kids.
The "capacity building job line" was created to accelerate economic development. Key initiatives include the South-Circular bus line, which links the southern and eastern regions of town; Entrepreneurial "Sheds", business incubators designed to help small companies get established and prosper; and the Crafts Lycée, which trains people for professions such as marketing and finance. Specifically, the goal is to provide jobs and income for the unemployed among 400,000 people living in 15 peripheral towns, and to structure and develop the region according to integrated planning principles. About 15,000 new jobs were generated by 2013.
The transit service is used by more than 2 million people a day. Curitiba has more car owners per capita than anywhere else in Brazil. The population has doubled since 1974, yet auto traffic declined by 30%, and atmospheric pollution is the lowest in Brazil.
Arts and entertainment
Curitiba was Brazil's first city to have an IMAX movie theatre. Curitiba has many theaters. The biggest and most important one is the Guaíra Theater. Every year, in April, it hosts the Curitiba Theater Festival.
Brazilian architect Oscar Niemeyer designed the extravagant state museum of Curitiba. Its design includes a gravity-defying construction that was intended to look like a Paraná Pine, one of the city's symbols, but is widely interpreted by locals as an eye, which gave the Museum its nickname – Museu do Olho, or Museum of the Eye. In keeping with Curitiba's history and culture of science, the museum offers many science exhibitions, including biennial exhibitions. The Curitiba museum includes the Oscar Niemeyer auditorium.
- Museu Paranaense ("Paranaense Museum") – dedicated to arts and history;
- Oscar Niemeyer Museum – the largest museum of Latin America, dedicated to plastic arts;
- Museu de Arte Sacra ("Religious Art Museum") – the focus is Christian art;
- Museu do Expedicionário ("Museum of Expeditionary") – dedicated to Brazilian participation in World War II;
- Museu de Arte Contemporânea ("Museum of Contemporary Art");
- Museu da Imagem e do Som ("Image and Sound Museum") – about cinema and photography;
- Museu Metropolitano de Arte de Curitiba ("Metropolitan Museum of Art in Curitiba") – modern art;
- Museu de História Natural ("Natural History Museum") – biology and botany.
Like most Southern cities, due to the heavy European tradition, Curitiba has no Carnival tradition, unlike Northeastern and Southeastern cities like Salvador, Rio de Janeiro and Recife. Polls confirm most Curitiba citizens are satisfied with this arrangement.
Curitiba has yearly festivals related to arts, such as Curitiba Theatre Festival and the Music Workshop of Curitiba. Others celebrate immigrants festivals, such as the Grape Feast ("Festa da Uva"), which is related to Italian immigrants, and the four Matsuri, related to Japanese immigrants. The four Matsuri set in Curitiba are: Imin Matsuri (Japanese: 移民祭り, "Immigration Festival") which cellebrates the arrival of Japanese immigrants in Brazil, Haru Matsuri (Japanese: 春祭り, "Spring Festival") which celebrates the end of winter and coming of spring, Hana Matsuri (Japanese: 花祭り, "Flower Festival"), which cellebrates the birth of Sakyamuni, and Seto Matsuri ("Seto Festival"), in honor of Cláudio Seto, cartoonist and idealist of the first Matsuri in Curitiba.
UN Convention on Biodiversity
Curitiba's public transportation consists entirely of buses. It opened the world's first bus rapid transit (BRT) system in 1974. The popularity of Curitiba's BRT has effected a modal shift from automobile travel to bus travel. Based on 1991 traveler survey results, it was estimated that the introduction of the BRT had caused a reduction of about 27 million auto trips per year, annually saving about 27 million liters of fuel. In particular, 28 percent of BRT riders previously traveled by car. Compared to eight other Brazilian cities of its size, Curitiba uses about 30 percent less fuel per capita, resulting in one of the country's lowest rates of ambient air pollution. Some 1,100 buses make 12,500 trips every day, serving more than 1.3 million passengers, 50 times the number from 20 years ago. Eighty percent of travelers use the express or direct bus services. Curitibanos spend only about 10 percent of their income on travel, much below the national average.
Moving around in a car can be difficult in and around the city centre because of the many one-way streets and frequent traffic jams. The Trinary Road System allows quick access to the city centre for drivers. Some avenues are spacious and laid out in a grid. Apart from some points around the city centre, Munhoz da Rocha Street and Batel Avenue, traffic jams are not severe.
Bacacheri Airport is a smaller general aviation facility.
The city has 100 km (62 mi) of bike routes, used by around 30 thousand bikers daily. City streets carry almost one million vehicles, of which 2,253 are orange Taxis. To service these vehicles, more than 355 petrol stations serve the city.
Several association football teams play in Curitiba. Coritiba (the first soccer team of Curitiba) plays at Estádio Major Antônio Couto Pereira, Clube Atlético Paranaense at Estádio Joaquim Américo Guimarães and Paraná Clube at Estádio Durival Britto e Silva. Both Coritiba and Atlético Paranaense have won Campeonato Brasileiro Série A, in 1985 and 2001, respectively. Estádio Joaquim Américo Guimarães will be one of the 12 stadiums to host games of the 2014 FIFA World Cup to be held in Brazil.
Bairros (neighbourhoods) of Curitiba define the city's geographical divisions. Administrative powers are not delegated to neighborhoods, although neighborhood associations work to improve their communities. Curitiba is divided into 9 regional governments (boroughs) covering the 75 neighbourhoods.
Most districts of Curitiba were born of colonial groups formed by families of European immigrants in the second half of the nineteenth century.
The centro (downtown or central business district), was where the city was founded, is the most bustling area, which concentrates most of the financial institutions of Curitiba.
List of neighborhoods by region:
- Matriz: Centro, Centro Cívico, Batel, Bigorrilho, Mercês, São Francisco, Bom Retiro, Ahu, Juvevê, Cabral, Hugo Lange, Jardim Social, Alto da XV, Alto da Glória, Cristo Rei, Jardim Botânico, Prado Velho and Rebouças;
- Santa Felicidade: Santa Felicidade, Lamenha Pequena, Butiatuvinha, São João, Vista Alegre, Cascatinha, São Brás, Santo Inácio, Orléans, Mossunguê, Campina do Siqueira, Seminário, CIC (north region) and part of Campo Comprido;
- Boa Vista: Boa Vista, Bacacheri, Bairro Alto, Tarumã, Tingüi, Atuba, Santa Cândida, Cachoeira, Barreirinha, Abranches, Taboão, Pilarzinho and São Lourenço;
- Cajuru: Cajuru, Uberaba, Jardim das Américas, Guabirotuba and Capão da Imbuia;
- Fazendinha/Portão: Portão, Fazendinha, Santa Quitéria, Vila Isabel, Água Verde, Parolin, Guaíra, Lindóia, Fanny, Novo Mundo and part of Campo Comprido;
- Boqueirão: Boqueirão, Xaxim, Hauer and Alto Boqueirão;
- Pinheirinho: Pinheirinho, Capão Raso, Tatuquara, Campo de Santana and Caximba;
- Bairro Novo: Sítio Cercado, Ganchinho and Umbará;
- Cidade Industrial de Curitiba: CIC (center and south region), Riviera, Augusta and São Miguel.
Twin towns – Sister cities
Curitiba is twinned with:
In addition Curitiba has cooperation agreements with:
- Alfredo Andersen – Norwegian Painter and Sculptor
- Alexandre Slaviero - Actor
- Andrade Muricy – Composer and Musical and Literary Critic
- Dalton Trevisan – Writer
- Emílio de Meneses – Poet and Journalist, "immortal" of the Brazilian Academy of Letters
- Fernanda Machado – Actress
- Francisco Lachowski – Super Model
- Guido Viaro – Italian Painter and Teacher
- Guilherme Weber – Actor
- Guta Stresser – Actress
- Icarius De Menezes – Creative Director
- Isabeli Fontana – Super Model
- Isadora Ribeiro – Actress
- Jaime Lerner – Architect and Urbanist
- Katiuscia Canoro – Actress
- Luís Melo – Actor
- Luiz Carlos Alborghetti – TV host
- Marjorie Estiano – Actress and Singer
- Paulo Leminski – Poet and Writer
- Simone Spoladore – Actress
- Tasso da Silveira - Poet, Journalist, Deputy and Professor
- Vilanova Artigas – Architect
- Pierre Clostermann – World War II French Pilot, engineer
- Egon Albrecht-World War II German Flying Ace
- Alex Kipman - Scientist
- César Lattes – Physicist
- Ned Kock – Systems Scientist
- Newton da Costa – Mathematician
- Ricardo Ramina – Physician
- Carlos Alberto "Beto" Richa - Governor of the State of Paraná
- Gustavo Fruet - Mayor of the City of Curitiba
- Roberto Requião de Mello e Silva - Former Governor of the State of Paraná
- Mixed martial arts
- Cristiane "Cyborg" Justino
- Mauricio "Shogun" Rua
- Murilo "Ninja" Rua
- Wanderlei Silva
- Anderson "The Spider" Silva
- Augusto Farfus – DTM driver for BMW.
- Enrique Bernoldi – Formula One driver – IndyCar driver
- Raul Boesel – Formula One driver – IndyCar driver. 1987 World Sportscar Championship champion.
- Ricardo Zonta – Formula One driver. 1998 FIA GT Championship champion
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