Government in exile
|This article needs additional citations for verification. (January 2011)|
|Part of the Politics series|
|Basic forms of
|Part of a series on|
A government in exile is a political group which claims to be a country's legitimate government, but is unable to exercise legal power and instead resides in a foreign country. Governments in exile usually plan to one day return to their native country and regain formal power. A government in exile differs from a rump state in the sense that a rump state controls at least part of its former territory. For example, during World War I, nearly all of Belgium was occupied by Germany, but Belgium and its allies held on to a small slice in the country's west. A government in exile, conversely, has lost all its territory.
Governments in exile frequently occur during wartime occupation, or in the aftermath of a civil war, revolution, or military coup. For example, during German expansion in World War II, some European governments sought refuge in the United Kingdom, rather than face destruction at the hands of Nazi Germany. A government in exile may also form from widespread belief in the illegitimacy of a ruling government. For instance, the National Coalition for Syrian Revolutionary and Opposition Forces was formed as a result of the Syrian civil war, which sought to end the rule of the ruling Ba'ath Party.
The effectiveness of a government in exile depends primarily on the amount of support it can receive, either from foreign governments or from the population of its own country. Some governments in exile develop into a formidable force, posing a serious challenge to the incumbent regime of the country, while others are maintained chiefly as a symbolic gesture.
The phenomenon of a government in exile predates formal use of the term. In periods of monarchical government, exiled monarchs or dynasties sometimes set up exile courts—as the House of Stuart did when driven from their throne by Oliver Cromwell and at the Glorious Revolution, or the House of Bourbon did during the French Revolution and the rule of Napoleon. With the spread of constitutional monarchy, monarchical governments in exile started to include a prime minister, such as the Dutch government during World War II headed by Pieter Sjoerds Gerbrandy.
- 1 Activities
- 2 Current governments in exile
- 2.1 Deposed governments of current states
- 2.2 Exiled governments of non-self-governing or occupied territories
- 2.3 Deposed governments of subnational territories
- 2.4 Alternative governments of current states
- 2.5 Alternative separatist governments of current subnational territories
- 2.6 Exiled Governments with ambiguous status
- 3 Past governments in exile
- 4 See also
- 5 References
International law recognizes that governments in exile may undertake many types of actions in the conduct of their daily affairs. These actions include:
- becoming a party to a bilateral or international treaty
- amending or revising its own constitution
- maintaining military forces
- retaining, or newly obtaining, diplomatic recognition from other states
- issuing identity cards
- allowing the formation of new political parties
- holding elections
In cases where a host country holds a large expatriate population from a government in exile's home country, or an ethnic population from that country, the government in exile might come to exercise some administrative functions within such a population. For example, the WWII Provisional Government of Free India had such authority among the ethnically Indian population of British Malaya, with the consent of the then Japanese military authorities.
Current governments in exile
Governments in exile may have little or no recognition from other states. Some exiled governments have some characteristics in common with rump states. Such disputed or partially in exile cases are noted in the tables below.
Deposed governments of current states
These governments in exile were created by deposed governments or rulers who continue to claim legitimate authority of the state they once controlled.
|Name||Exile since||State controlling its claimed territory (entirely or partially)||Notes||References|
|Rada of the Belarusian Democratic Republic||1920||Republic of Belarus||The oldest current government (formally, a provisional parliament) in exile, currently led by Ivonka Survilla in Toronto; see also Belarusian Democratic Republic|||
|Qajar dynasty||1925||Islamic Republic of Iran||The Qajar dynasty went into exile in 1923 and continue to claim the Iranian throne, which is currently claimed by Mohammad Hassan Mirza II who is based in Dallas, Texas|
|Pahlavi dynasty||1979||Islamic Republic of Iran||The Pahlavi dynasty, led by Reza Pahlavi and living in Potomac, Maryland; see also Iranian Revolution|
|Royal Lao Government in Exile||1975||Lao People's Democratic Republic||The former government of the Kingdom of Laos; based in Paris|
| Republic of China
(disputed due mainly to the controversial political status of Taiwan )
Islamic Republic of Afghanistan
|The Republic of China (ROC) is the state which governs Taiwan and some of its surrounding islands. Its status as a government in exile is disputed.
Proponents of this view argue that because Taiwan is not a part of the Republic of China, the ROC is located in foreign territory, therefore effectively making it a government in exile. Opponents claim that Taiwan is part of the ROC, and the government is still located in its own territory, qualifying it not as a government in exile but as a rump state. For further information, see Political status of Taiwan, Legal status of Taiwan, and Chinese Civil War.
Exiled governments of non-self-governing or occupied territories
These governments in exile are governments of non-self-governing or occupied territories. They claim legitimate authority over a territory they once controlled, or claim legitimacy of a post-decolonization authority. The claim may stem from an exiled group's election as a legitimate government.
|Name||Exile since||State controlling its claimed territory (entirely or partially)||Notes||References|
|Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic||1976|| Kingdom of Morocco
Sahrawi Republic itself
|Headquartered in the Tindouf region of Algeria, controlling what it calls the Free Zone in the eastern part of Western Sahara; claims de jure sovereignty over the entire territory|
|State of Palestine||1988||State of Israel||Unilaterally declared in exile in Algiers by the Palestine Liberation Organization that later established the Palestinian National Authority interim territorial administration as result of the Oslo Accords signed by the PLO, Israel, the United States, and Russia. Currently, ultimate control over all of the territories is exercised by Israel, but it allows the PNA to execute some functions there, depending on special area classification. The members of the institutions of the State of Palestine meet inside its claimed territory without having sovereignty over any part of it.|
Deposed governments of subnational territories
These governments in exile claim legitimacy of autonomous territories of another state and have been created by deposed governments or rulers, who do not claim independence as a separate state.
|Name||Exile||Current control of claimed territory||Notes||References|
|Government of the Autonomous Republic of Abkhazia||1993||autonomous republic||Republic of Abkhazia||independent state||Georgian provincial government, led by Vakhtang Kolbaia, whose territory is under the control of Abkhaz separatists|
|Azerbaijani Community of Nagorno-Karabakh||1994||autonomous republic||Nagorno-Karabakh Republic||independent state||Azerbaijan provisional government, led by Bayram Safarov, whose territory is under the control of Armenian separatists|
|Provisional Administrative Entity of South Ossetia||2008||provisional administrative entity||Republic of South Ossetia||independent state||Georgian provincial administration, led by Dmitry Sanakoyev, whose territory is under the control of South Ossetian separatists|
Alternative governments of current states
These governments have been created in exile by political organisations and opposition parties, aspire to become actual governing authorities or claim to be legal successors to previously deposed governments, and have been created as alternatives to incumbent governments.
Alternative separatist governments of current subnational territories
These governments have been created in exile by political organisations, opposition parties, and separatist movements, and desire to become the governing authorities of their territories as independent states, or claim to be the successor to previously deposed governments, and have been created as alternatives to incumbent governments.
|Name||Claimed exile||Exile proclamation||Government presently controlling claimed territory||Notes||References|
|Government in Exile of the Free City of Danzig||1939||1947||Republic of Poland||Based in Australia|||
|Republic of South Maluku||1950||1950||Republic of Indonesia||Exiled in the Netherlands|
|West Papuan Government in Exile||1963||1969||Republic of Indonesia||Campaigns for an independent West Papua; based in the Netherlands|||
|Biafran Government in Exile||1970||2007||Federal Republic of Nigeria||An arm of the Movement for the Actualization of the Sovereign State of Biafra, seeking to reestablish the Republic of Biafra; based in Washington, DC|||
|Republic of Cabinda||1975||1975||Republic of Angola||Based in Pointe-Noire, Republic of Congo|
|Chechen Republic of Ichkeria||2000||2000||Russian Federation||Some members are fighting as rebels against the Russian Armed Forces; based in Western Europe and the United States, with its leaders in London.
There is a contested claim that it has been succeeded by the Caucasus Emirate.
|Republic of Serbian Krajina||1996||2005||Republic of Croatia||Reconstituted in 2005 in Belgrade, by the remains of the government of the Republic of Serbian Krajina, after Croatian forces pushed out the internationally unrecognized entity in 1995 during Operation Storm at the end of the Croatian War of Independence|
|Koma Civakên Kurdistan||—||1998||Republic of Turkey||Aims to create a Kurdish state in Turkey; successor organization of Kurdish parliament in exile|||
|Republic of Ambazonia||—||1999||Republic of Cameroon||Former British territory of Southern Cameroons; declared independence on December 31, 1999|||
|Western Kurdistan Government in Exile||—||2004||Syrian Arab Republic||Aims to create a Kurdish state in Syria; based in London|||
|Coptic Government In Exile||—||1992||Arab Republic of Egypt||Aims to establish an independent state for the Coptic ethnic group|||
|Interim Government of Federated Shan States||—||2005||Republic of the Union of Myanmar||Aims to establish an independent state for the Shan ethnic group|||
|Republic of Balochistan||—||2006||Pakistan, Iran||Balochistan comprises areas in Afghanistan, Iran and Pakistan. On April 18, 2006, it was declared the Government of Balochistan in Exile, nominated His Highness Mir Suleman Dawood Khan as a King.|
|Transnational Government of Tamil Eelam||2009||2010||Sri Lanka||Aims to establish an independent state of Tamil Eelam|||
Exiled Governments with ambiguous status
These governments have ties to the area(s) they represent, but their claimed status and/or stated aims are sufficiently ambiguous that they could fit into other categories.
|Name||Exile||Current control of claimed territory||Notes||References|
|Central Tibetan Administration||1959||People's Republic of China||Founded by the Dalai Lama in Dharamsala, India with cooperation of Indian Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru; see also Tibetan sovereignty debate and Tibetan independence movement||Tibet.net,|
|East Turkistan Government in Exile||1949||People's Republic of China||Seeking independence for Xinjiang as "East Turkestan"; based in Washington, DC|||
|Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan||2001||Islamic Republic of Afghanistan||The Taliban gained control over most of Afghanistan in the Afghan civil war, but were removed from power in the current Afghan war.||,|
Past governments in exile
|Name||Exiled or created(*) since||Defunct, reestablished,(*) or integrated(°) since||State that controlled its claimed territory||Notes||References|
|Privy Council of England||1649||1660°|| Commonwealth of England (1649—1653)
Commonwealth of England, Scotland and Ireland (1653—1659)
Commonwealth of England (1659—1660)
|Based for most of the Interregnum in the Spanish Netherlands and headed by Charles II; actively supported Charles' claim to the thrones of England, Scotland and Ireland|
|Provisional Government of the People's Republic of Bangladesh||1971*||1972°||Pakistan||Based in Calcutta; led by Tajuddin Ahmad, the first Prime Minister of Bangladesh, during the Bangladesh Liberation War in 1971.|
|Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea||1919*||1948°||Empire of Japan||Based in Shanghai, and later in Chongqing; after Japan’s defeat in World War II, President Syngman Rhee became the first president of the First Republic of South Korea|
|Czechoslovak government-in-exile||1939||1945°||Czechoslovakia||Based in Paris and later in London, during the German occupation of Czechoslovakia. After the defeat of Germany, it took control of Czechoslovakia.|
|Azad Hind||1943||1945*||British Raj||Based in Rangoon and later in Port Blair. Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose was the leader of the government and the Head of State of this Provisional Indian Government in Exile. This government was disestablished in 1945 following the defeat of the Axis powers in World War II|
|Provisional Government of the Algerian Republic||1958*||1962*||French Algeria (France)||Established during the latter part of the Algerian War of Independence; after the war, a compromise agreement with the Armée de Libération Nationale dissolved it but allowed most of its members to enter the post-independence government|
|Revolutionary Government of Angola in Exile||1962*||1992°||Republic of Angola||Based in Kinshasa; its military branch, the National Liberation Front of Angola, was recognized as a political party in 1992 and holds three seats in Angola’s parliament|
|Namibian Government in Exile||1966*||1989°||South Africa||Formed after opposition to the apartheid South African administration over South-West Africa, which had been ruled as illegal by the United Nations; in 1990, Namibia achieved independence.|||
|Coalition Government of Democratic Kampuchea||1982*||1993°||People's Republic of Kampuchea||Established with UN recognition in opposition to the Vietnamese-backed government. Elections in 1993 brought the reintegration of the exiled government into the newly reconstituted Kingdom of Cambodia.|
|Polish government-in-exile||1939*||1990°|| Occupied Poland
People's Republic of Poland
|Based in Paris, Angers, and London, it opposed German occupied Poland and the Soviet satellite state, the People's Republic of Poland; disbanded following the fall of communism in Poland|
|Estonian Government in Exile||1953*||1992||Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic||Established in Sweden by several members of Otto Tief's government; did not achieve any international recognizion. In fact, it was not recognized even by Estonian diplomatic legations that were seen by western countries as legal representatives of the annexed state.
A rival government was created by another group of Estonian exiles in the same year in Munich but it was short lived.
|Spanish Republican government in exile||1939||1977||Spanish State||Created after Francisco Franco's coup d'état; based in Mexico City from 1939 to 1946, when it was moved to Paris, where it lasted until Franco's death|
|Government of the Democratic Republic of Georgia in Exile||1921||1954||Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic||Formed after the Soviet invasion of Georgia of 1921; based in Leuville-sur-Orge, France|
|Dubrovnik Republic (1991)||1991||1992||Republic of Croatia||Formed in Cavtat with the help of the Yugoslav People's Army after Croatia declared independence from Yugoslavia. Claimed to be the historic successor of the Republic of Ragusa (1358-1808).|||
|Ukrainian People's Republic||1920||1992|| Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic
Second Polish Republic
Kingdom of Romania
|Organized after the Soviet occupation of Ukraine|
|Aceh||1976*||2005||Republic of Indonesia||Headquartered in Sweden; surrendered its separatist intentions and dissolved its armed wing following the 2005 peace agreement with the Indonesian government|
|Bongo Doit Partir||1998||2009||Gabon||Founded by Daniel Mengara in opposition to president Omar Bongo; after Bongo's death in June 2009, Mengara returned to Gabon in order to participate in the country's elections|||
|Confederate government of Missouri||1861||1865||United States of America (Union)||Missouri had both Union and Confederate governments, but the Confederate government was exiled, eventually governing out of Marshall, Texas.|||
|Confederate government of Kentucky||1861||1865||United States of America (Union)||Kentucky had both Union and Confederate governments. The Confederate government was soon forced out of the state, and was an exiled government traveling with the Confederate Army of Tennessee, except for during a short return when the Confederate army briefly occupied Frankfort.|
|Kingdom of Hawaii||1893||1895||Republic of Hawaii||Formed by members of the deposed government of Queen Liliuokalani of Hawaii; a failed insurgency in 1895 forced the queen to formally disband the kingdom|
|Kingdom of Belgium in exile (1914–1918)||1914||1918||German Empire||Formed in 1915 by the Government of Belgium following the German invasion during World War I. It was disbanded following the restoration of Belgian sovereignty with the Armistice with Germany.|
|National Coalition Government of the Union of Burma||1990||2012||Republic of the Union of Myanmar||Led by Sein Win and composed of members of parliament elected in 1990 but not allowed by the military to take office; based in Rockville, Montgomery County, Maryland, U.S.|||
|Commonwealth of the Philippines in exile||1942||1944|| Empire of Japan(1943)
Second Philippine Republic(1943—1945)
|After Japanese forces took control over the Philippine islands, the Philippine commonwealth government in exile led by Manuel Quezon in Melbourne, Australia and was administered from Washington D.C., United States from May 1942 to October 1944.|
Sovereign Military Order of Malta
The Sovereign Military Order of Malta may be considered a case of a government in exile, since it is without territory but recognised as a sovereign government by numerous sovereign countries. However, it does not claim to be a sovereign state, rather a "sovereign subject" of international law. In addition, it no longer claims jurisdiction over Malta, and recognises and maintains diplomatic relations with the independent Republic of Malta.
World War II
The Provisional Government of Free India (1943–45) was established by Indian nationalists in exile during the war; unlike most other governments in exile in this war, it was affiliated to the Axis and claimed power over an Allied (specifically, British) territory. A Bulgarian government in exile and Vichy France were also allied with the Axis.
Governments in London
The Danish exception
The Occupation of Denmark (9 April 1940) was administered mainly by the German Foreign Office, contrary to other occupied lands that were under military or civilian administration. Denmark did not establish a government in exile, although there was an Association of Free Danes established in London. King Christian X and his government remained in Denmark, and functioned comparatively independently for the first three years of German occupation. Meanwhile, Iceland, Greenland and the Faroe Islands were occupied by the Allies, and effectively separated from the Danish crown. (See British occupation of the Faroe Islands, Iceland during World War II, and History of Greenland during World War II.)
Persian Gulf War
Following the Ba'athist Iraqi invasion and occupation of Kuwait, during the Persian Gulf War, on August 2, 1990, Sheikh Jaber Al-Ahmad Al-Jaber Al-Sabah and senior members of his government fled to Saudi Arabia, where they set up a government-in-exile in Dhahran. The Kuwaiti government in exile was far more affluent than most other such governments, having full disposal of the very considerable Kuwaiti assets in western banks—of which it made use to conduct a massive propaganda campaign denouncing the Ba'athist Iraqi occupation and mobilizing public opinion in the western hemisphere in favor of war with Ba'athist Iraq. In March 1991, following the defeat of Ba'athist Iraq at the hands of coalition forces in the Persian Gulf War, the Sheikh and his government were able to return to Kuwait.
Municipal Councils in Exile
Following the Turkish Invasion of Cyprus in 1974 and the displacement of many Greek Cypriotes from North Cyprus, displaced inhabitants of several towns set up what are in effect Municipal Councils in Exile, headed by Mayors in Exile. The idea is the same as with a national Government in Exile - to assert a continuation of legitimate rule, even though having no control of the ground, and working towards restoration of such control. Meetings of the exiled Municipal Council of Lapithos took place in the homes of its members until the Exile Municipality was offered temporary offices at 37 Ammochostou Street, Nicosia. The current Exile Mayor of the town is Athos Eleftheriou. The same premises are shared with the Exile Municipal Council of Kythrea.
- Exclusive mandate
- Provisional government
- Shadow government (disambiguation)
- Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization
- List of active autonomist and secessionist movements
- List of historical autonomist and secessionist movements
- List of historical unrecognized countries
- List of territorial disputes
- List of unrecognized countries
- United Nations list of Non-Self-Governing Territories
- "Princeton University WordNet". Wordnetweb.princeton.edu. Retrieved 2012-09-20.
- Tir, J. , 2005-02-22 "Keeping the Peace After Secessions: Territorial Conflicts Between Rump and Secessionist States" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Studies Association, Hilton Hawaiian Village, Honolulu, Hawaii Online <.PDF>. 2009-05-25 from allacademic.com[dead link]
- "Official website of the Belarusian National Republic". Radabnr.org. Retrieved 2012-09-20.
- Wilson, Andrew (2011). Belarus: The Last European Dictatorship. Yale University Press. p. 96. ISBN 9780300134353. Retrieved 8 May 2013.
- "Tsai blasted for R.O.C. legitimacy remark". China Post. 27 May 2010. Retrieved 12 June 2010.
- "Treaty confirmed sovereignty: Ma". Taipei Times. 29 April 2009. Retrieved 14 June 2010.
- Kerry Dumbaugh (Specialist in Asian Affairs Foreign Affairs, Defense, and Trade Division) (23 February 2006). "Taiwan’s Political Status: Historical Background and Ongoing Implications". Congressional Research Service. Retrieved 20 December 2009. "While on October 1, 1949, in Beijing a victorious Mao proclaimed the creation of the People’s Republic of China (PRC), Chiang Kai-shek re-established a temporary capital for his government in Taipei, Taiwan, declaring the ROC still to be the legitimate Chinese government-in-exile and vowing that he would “retake the mainland” and drive out communist forces."
- John J. Tkacik, Jr. (19 June 2008). "Taiwan's "Unsettled" International Status: Preserving U.S. Options in the Pacific". Heritage Foundation. Retrieved 20 December 2009. "Chiang Kai-shek wanted to fight it out on an all-or-nothing basis. There are also reports that Chiang's advisors convinced him that if the ROC mission stayed to represent Taiwan, Chiang would be under pressure to demonstrate in some constitutional way that his Chinese government-in-exile represented the people of Taiwan rather than the vast population of China. Doing so would require Chiang to dismantle his existing regime (which was elected in 1947 on the Chinese mainland and continued to rule in Taiwan under emergency martial law provisions without benefit of elections), adopt an entirely new constitution, and install an entirely new government."
- "ROC Government in Exile Is Illogical (English transl.)". (original source: "「流亡政府」邏輯不通" by NOWnews Network). June 1, 2010. Retrieved 7 October 2010.
- Henckaerts, Jean-Marie (1996). The international status of Taiwan in the new world order: legal and political considerations. Kluwer Law International. p. 337. ISBN 90-411-0929-3. "p117. "The ROC joined the United Nations in 1945 as a Charter member and was until 1971 one of the five permanent members of the Security Council. The ROC membership in the United Nations continued to exist through 1971 despite the fact that the ROC government lost the Chinese mainland and moved to Taiwan in 1949. The reduction of a huge area under its effective control in 1949 did not eliminate the very existence of the ROC as a sovereign state as defined by international law. In short, the ROC government has continued to exercise its sovereignty over territories under its effective control since 1912. It has never disappeared from the world as a sovereign state."
p118. "President Harry S. Truman of the United States stated on January 5, 1950 that 'Taiwan was surrendered to ... Chiang Kai-Shek, and for the past four years, the United States and the other Allied Powers have accepted the exercise of the Chinese authority over the island.'"
p118.-119. "The Republic of China is, by any standard, a political entity, recognized by 29 countries as of today. It has a defined territory, with Taiwan, Penghu, Kinmen and Matsu together with its population of 21 million, under its effective control ever since 1945 or earlier. ...
The Republic of China indeed is a sovereign state as defined by the Montevideo Convention on the Rights and Duties of States of 1933. It also complies with the definition as 'state' defined by current theory of international law, as discussed in the Restatement (Third) of the Foreign Relations Law of the United States of 1987.""
- TIME magazine, Far Eastern Economic Review, Stanford University, US State Dept., Public Broadcasting Service, BBC, US Congressional Research Service, UK Parliament, UK Foreign Office, Los Angeles Times, New York Times, and numerous law journals have all referred to the Republic of China on Taiwan as a government in exile. However, the ROC is recognised as the legitimate government of China by 21 UN member states and the Holy See. The PRC claims that the ROC government no longer exists. Republic of China government in exile, retrieved 2010-02-27
- Jonathan I. Charney and J. R. V. Prescott (July 2000), Resolving Cross-Strait Relations Between China and Taiwan, American Journal of International Law, archived from the original on 2004-06-22, retrieved 2011-02-28
- Taipei Times (June 9, 2013), CIA report shows Taiwan concerns, retrieved 2013-06-10, "[Quoting from a declassified CIA report on Taiwan written in March 1949] From the legal standpoint, Taiwan is not part of the Republic of China. Pending a Japanese peace treaty, the island remains occupied territory in which the US has proprietary interests."
- Robert I. Starr (July 13, 1971), Starr Memorandum of the Dept. of State, retrieved 2012-05-18, "Following World War II, the Republic of China, under the Kuomintang (KMT) became the governing polity on Taiwan. In 1949, after losing control of mainland China following the Chinese civil war, the ROC government under the KMT withdrew to occupied Taiwan and Chiang Kai-shek declared martial law. Japan formally renounced all territorial rights to Taiwan in 1952 in the San Francisco Peace Treaty, but neither in that treaty nor in the peace treaty signed between Japan and China was the territorial sovereignty of Taiwan awarded to the Republic of China."
- Application for the admission of Palestine as a Member of State of UNESCO: "A government-in-exile, having no effective control in the territory and not having had previous control, ..."
- PLO Executive Committee: "The Executive Committee of the PLO, in practice the "government in exile" of the State of Palestine"
- Israel allows the PNA to execute some functions in the Palestinian territories, depending on special area classification with minimal interference (retaining control of borders: air, sea beyond internal waters, land) in the Gaza strip and maximum in "Area C".
- Gold, Dore; Institute for Contemporary Affairs (26 August 2005). "Legal Acrobatics: The Palestinian Claim that Gaza is Still "Occupied" Even After Israel Withdraws". Jerusalem Issue Brief, Vol. 5, No. 3. Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs. Retrieved 2010-07-16.
- Bell, Abraham (28 January 2008). "International Law and Gaza: The Assault on Israel's Right to Self-Defense". Jerusalem Issue Brief, Vol. 7, No. 29. Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs. Retrieved 2010-07-16.
- "Address by Foreign Minister Livni to the 8th Herzliya Conference" (Press release). Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Israel. 22 January 2008. Archived from the original on 2009-06-24. Retrieved 2010-07-16.
- Salih, Zak M. (17 November 2005). "Panelists Disagree Over Gaza’s Occupation Status". University of Virginia School of Law. Retrieved 2010-07-16.
- "Israel: 'Disengagement' Will Not End Gaza Occupation". Human Rights Watch. 29 October 2004. Retrieved 2010-07-16.
- "PLO picks new leaders at landmark meeting". Thefreelibrary.com. 2009-08-27. Retrieved 2012-09-20.
- "PLO parliament elects new members". Thefreelibrary.com. 2009-08-27. Retrieved 2012-09-20.
- "Palestinian affairs". Thefreelibrary.com. 2009-08-25. Retrieved 2012-09-20.
- Image Source: www.reuters.com. "Palestinian President Abbas attends a PLO executive committee meeting in Ramallah". Allvoices.com. Retrieved 2012-09-20.
- Palestinian PM: Declaration of statehood just a formality: "The Palestinians already declared independence unilaterally on Nov. 15, 1988. The declaration was recognized by dozens of countries, but never implemented on the ground."
- Top Ten Governments Currently In Exile[dead link]:"The state of Palestine was proclaimed in 1988, but in exile. A declaration of a "State of Palestine" was approved on November 15, 1988, by the Palestinian National Council, the legislative body of the Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO). The declaration was ignored, and eventually rejected, by the State of Israel. Israel controls the territories since 1967 Six-Day War when it captured them from Egypt and Jordan. Currently, the Palestinian National Authority (PNA) envision the establishment of a State of Palestine to include all the West Bank, the Gaza Strip, and East Jerusalem, living in peace with Israel under a democratically elected and transparent government. The PNA, however, does not claim sovereignty over any territory and therefore is not the government of the "State of Palestine" proclaimed in 1988. Enough said."
- Palestinians 'may declare state':"Saeb Erekat, disagreed arguing that the Palestine Liberation Organisation had already declared independence in 1988. "Now we need real independence, not a declaration. We need real independence by ending the occupation. We are not Kosovo. We are under Israeli occupation and for independence we need to acquire independence,"
- "Website of the Government of Free Vietnam". Gfvn.org. Retrieved 2012-09-20.
- "National Council of Resistance of Iran". Ncr-iran.org. Retrieved 2012-09-20.
- "Timeline: Equatorial Guinea". BBC News. 14 April 2010. Retrieved 4 May 2010.
- "Website of the Syrian National Council". Syriancouncil.org. 2011-11-25. Retrieved 2012-09-20.
- "Official website of the Government in exile of the Free City of Danzig". danzigfreestate.org. Retrieved 2013-05-08.
- Asserting Jurisdiction: International and European Legal Approaches', edited by Patrick Capps, Malcolm Evans and Stratos Konstadinidis, which mentions Danzig on page 25 and has a footnote directly referencing the Danzig Government in exile website in a footnote also on page 25. Retrieved 2013-05-08.
- "Sydney Morning Herald, November 15th, 1947". Retrieved 2013-05-08.
- "The Economist, December 20th, 2001". Retrieved 2013-05-08.
- Saha, Santosh C. (2006). Perspectives on Contemporary Ethnic Conflict. Lexington Books. p. 63. Retrieved 20 May 2011.
- Minahan, James (2002). Encyclopedia of the Stateless Nations: S-Z. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 2241. ISBN 978-0-313-32384-3. Retrieved 20 May 2011.
- "Biafraland". Biafraland. Retrieved 2012-09-20.
- Huseyn Aliyev (24 February 2011). "Peace-Building From The Bottom: A Case Study Of The North Caucasus". Eurasia Review. Retrieved 10 May 2011.
- "Southerncameroonsig.org". Southerncameroonsig.org. 2012-08-20. Retrieved 2012-09-20.
- KNC.org.uk[dead link]
- "حكومة الاقباط في المهجر". http://www.cpr-government.de/. Retrieved 2012-09-20.
- "The Transnational Government of Tamil Eelam". Tgte-us.org. Retrieved 2012-09-20.
- "Peacehalle.com". Peacehall.com. Retrieved 2012-09-20.
- "Religions - Buddhism: Dalai Lama". BBC. Retrieved 2012-09-20.
- "Eastturkistangovernmentinextile.us". Eastturkistangovernmentinexile.us. Retrieved 2012-09-20.
- Gall, Carlotta (2007-01-21). "At Border, Signs of Pakistani Role in Taliban Surge". The New York Times.
- "Taliban shifts to southwest Pakistan". Washington Times. Retrieved 2012-09-20.
- Colin Leys, John S. Saul, and Susan Brown. Namibia's Liberation Struggle: The Two-Edged Sword (London: James Currey, 1995). pp. 20-21, 40.
- Talmon, Stefan (1998). Recognition of governments in international law. Oxford University Press. p. 299. ISBN 0-19-826573-5.
- Корак ка оснивању Дубровачке републике, Accessed 2013-12-26.
- Nom *. "Bdpgabon.org". Bdpgabon.org. Retrieved 2012-09-20.
- "Library.stanford.edu". Library.stanford.edu. Retrieved 2012-09-20.
- "Tshaoline.org". Tshaonline.org. 1967-09-20. Retrieved 2012-09-20.
- Mann, Zarni (14 September 2012). "Burmese Exile Govt Dissolves After 22 years". The Irrawaddy. Retrieved 15 June 2013.
- Myo, Nay (17 September 2012). "Burma’s exiled government dissolved". Mizzima. Retrieved 15 June 2013.