|Curtain: Poirot's Last Case|
Dust-jacket illustration of the first UK edition
|Cover artist||Not known|
|Publisher||Collins Crime Club|
|Media type||Print (hardback & paperback)|
|Pages||224 pp (first edition, hardcover)|
|LC Class||PZ3.C4637 Cu PR6005.H66|
|Preceded by||Poirot's Early Cases|
|Followed by||Sleeping Murder|
Curtain: Poirot's Last Case is a work of detective fiction by Agatha Christie and first published in the UK by the Collins Crime Club in September 1975 and in the US by Dodd, Mead and Company later in the same year, selling for $7.95.
The novel features Hercule Poirot and Arthur Hastings in their final appearances in Christie's works. It is a country house novel, with all the characters and the murder set in one house. Not only does the novel return the characters to the setting of her first, The Mysterious Affair at Styles, but it reunites Poirot and Hastings, who last appeared together in Dumb Witness in 1937. It was adapted for television in 2013.
A murderer has been completely unsuspected of involvement in five previous murders, in all of which there was a clear suspect other than him. Four of these suspects have subsequently died (one of them hanged); in the case of Freda Clay, who gave her aunt an overdose of morphine, there was too little evidence to prosecute. Poirot calls the recently-widowed Hastings to join him in solving this case. Poirot, now using a wheelchair due to arthritis and attended by his new valet Curtiss, will not share the man's name, calling him X. X is among the guests at Styles Court with them. The old house is now a private hotel under new owners, Colonel and Mrs Luttrell. The guests know each other, with this gathering initiated when Sir William Boyd-Carrington invites the Franklins to join him for a summer holiday stay. Further, all five prior murders took place in the area, among people known to this group.
Elizabeth Cole tells Hastings that she is the sister of Margaret Litchfield, who had confessed to the murder of their father in one of the five cases. Margaret had died in Broadmoor Asylum and Elizabeth is stigmatised by the trauma. Hastings and others overhear an argument between the Luttrells. Shortly afterwards, Mr Lutrell wounds his wife with a rook rifle, saying he mistook her for a rabbit. Hastings reflects that this is precisely the sort of accident with which X is associated. Mrs Luttrell recovers, and the incident has a good effect on their marriage.
Hastings is concerned that his daughter Judith spends time with Major Allerton, a married man. While Hastings and Elizabeth are out with birdwatcher Stephen Norton, Norton sees something that disturbs him through his binoculars. Hastings assumes it has to do with Allerton. When his attempts to persuade Judith to give Allerton up merely antagonise her, the worried father plans Allerton's murder. He falls asleep while waiting to poison Allerton, relieved he took no action when he awakes the next day.
Barbara Franklin, wife of Judith's employer Dr Franklin, dies the following evening. She was poisoned with physostigmine sulphate, an extract from the Calabar bean that her husband researches. Poirot's testimony at the inquest, that Mrs Franklin had been upset and that he saw her emerge from Dr Franklin's laboratory with a small bottle, persuades the jury to return a verdict of suicide. Hastings advises Norton to confide in Poirot. They meet in Poirot's room. That night, Hastings is awakened by a noise and sees Norton entering his bedroom. The next morning, Norton is found dead in his locked room with a bullet-hole in the centre of his forehead, the key in his dressing-gown pocket and a pistol (remembered by a housemaid as belonging to him) nearby. Apparently, X has struck again.
Poirot raises weak points to Hastings on his sighting of Norton: the dressing-gown, the hair, the limp, no look at his face. Yet, there is no man in the house who could impersonate Norton, who was a short man. Poirot dies that night, of natural causes. He leaves Hastings three clues: a copy of Othello, a copy of John Ferguson (a 1915 play by St. John Greer Ervine), and a note telling Hastings to speak to his long time valet, George. After the death of Poirot, Hastings is surprised to find that Judith has all along been in love with Dr Franklin. She will marry him, and leave to do research in Africa. When Hastings speaks to George, he learns that Poirot wore a wig, and that Poirot's reasons for employing Curtiss were vague.
The solution is contained in a letter that is sent to Hastings four months after Poirot's death. X was Norton, a man who had perfected the technique of which Iago in Othello (like a character in Ervine's play) is master: applying just such psychological pressure as is needed to provoke someone to commit murder, without his victim realising what is happening. Norton had demonstrated this ability, with Colonel Luttrell, with Hastings, and Mrs Franklin. Poirot intervened with sleeping pills in Hastings' hot chocolate that night, to avert a disastrous rash action. Ironically, Hastings had intervened in Mrs. Franklin's plan, by turning a revolving bookcase table while seeking a book to solve a crossword clue (Othello again), thus swapping the cups of coffee, so Mrs Franklin poisoned herself. Poirot knew this but could not prove it. He sensed that Norton, who had been deliberately vague about whom he had seen through the binoculars, was now hinting that he had seen Franklin and Judith, to implicate them in the murder of Mrs Franklin, not inadvertent suicide as it was. This explains Poirot's testimony at her inquest, to assure the police would stop their investigation.
Given his very weak heart, Poirot conceives that his best way to end the string of murders is to kill Norton, an act that would be soon followed by his own death. At their meeting, he told Norton what he suspected and his plan to execute him. He gave Norton hot chocolate. Norton, arrogant and self-assured, insisted on swapping cups. Poirot had drugged both cups, knowing that he had a higher tolerance for a dose that would put Norton to sleep. Poirot moved the sleeping Norton back to his room using the wheelchair. Poirot did not need the wheelchair, one reason he needed a valet who did not know this. Then he disguised himself as Norton by removing his wig and false mustache, putting on Norton's dressing-gown and ruffling up his grey hair. Poirot was the right height. Having Hastings establish that Norton was alive after he left Poirot's room, Poirot shot him, with characteristic symmetry, in the centre of his forehead. He locked the room with a duplicate key.
Poirot's last act was to write the confession. Then he awaited death, ceasing to take his heart medicine, moving amyl nitrite phials out of his reach. He wants to avoid the arrogance of the murderer who believes that he has the right to kill his victims. His last wish for Hastings was typical for Poirot, an inveterate matchmaker: he suggests that Hastings should pursue Elizabeth Cole.
- Hercule Poirot, the Belgian detective
- Captain Arthur Hastings, Poirot's friend, recently a widower, father of four grown children including Judith
- Curtiss, Poirot's new valet
- Dr John Franklin, a research chemist, age 35
- Barbara Franklin, his invalid wife, age 30
- Judith Hastings, Franklin's laboratory assistant and daughter of Captain Hastings, age 21, one year out of university
- Nurse Craven, nurse to Barbara Franklin
- Sir William Boyd Carrington, former governor of a province of India, about 15 years older than Mrs Franklin, friend to her family since she was a child
- Major Allerton, a womaniser, in his early forties
- Colonel Toby Luttrell, owner of Styles Court
- Mrs Daisy Luttrell, his wife
- Elizabeth Cole, age 35, one of three surviving sisters once known by the last name of Litchfield
- Stephen Norton, grey-haired man of quiet disposition, uses binoculars for bird watching
- George, Poirot's former valet
Literary significance and reception
In a review titled The last labour of Hercules, Matthew Coady in The Guardian, on 9 October 1975, wrote that the book was both "a curiosity and a triumph". He repeated the tale of the book being written some thirty years before and then stated that, "through it, Dame Agatha, whose recent work has shown a decline, is seen once more at the peak of her ingenuity." Commenting on the return of Hastings, whom Coady called the "densest of Dr Watsons [but] ... never has the stupidity of the faithful companion-chronicler been so cunningly exploited as it is here." Coady summarised the absolute basics of the plot and the questions raised within it and then said, "In providing the answers, the great illusionist of crime fiction provides a model demonstration of reader manipulation. The seemingly artless, simplistic Christie prose is mined with deceits. Inside the old, absurd conventions of the Country House mystery she reworks the least likely person trick with a freshness rivalling the originality she displayed nearly 50 years ago in The Murder of Roger Ackroyd. Coady concluded, "For the egotistic Poirot, hero of some 40 books…it is a dazzlingly theatrical finish. 'Goodbye, cher ami', runs his final message to the hapless Hastings. 'They were good days.' For addicts, everywhere, they were among the best."
Two months later, Coady nominated Curtain as his Book of the Year in a column of critic's choices. He said, "No crime story of 1975 has given me more undiluted pleasure. As a critic, I welcome it, as a reminder that sheer ingenuity can still amaze."
Robert Barnard: "Written in the 'forties, designed for publication after Christie's death, but in fact issued just before it. Based on an idea toyed with in Peril at End House (chapter 9) – a clever and interesting one, but needing greater subtlety in the handling than Christie's style or characterisation will allow (the characters here are in any case quite exceptionally pallid). In fact, for a long-cherished idea, and as an exit for Poirot, this is oddly perfunctory in execution."
References or Allusions
Being their last case together, mention is made of earlier cases. Hastings became involved in the first Styles investigation in 1916, at which time he was thirty years old. He married at the end of next Poirot novel, The Murder on the Links, mentioned twice in this novel, as Hastings is now a widower.
Poirot mentions that once in Egypt he attempted to warn a murderer before the person committed the crime. That case is the one retold in Death on the Nile. He mentions that there was another case in which he had done the same thing: almost certainly that retold in “Triangle at Rhodes” (published in Murder in the Mews in 1937). In The ABC Murders, Inspector Japp says to Poirot: "Shouldn't wonder if you ended by detecting your own death;" an indication that the idea of Curtain had already formed in the author's mind in 1935. On 6 August 1975, The New York Times published a front-page obituary of Poirot with a photograph to mark his death.
Poirot refer to the characters in Shakespeare's Othello, analyzing their motives in contrast to the characters around him. Keeping the motif, Hastings and others work on a crossword puzzle with a clue whose answer is Iago, one of the main characters of the play.
Sequence of publication in Poirot novels
Christie wrote the novel in the early 1940s, during World War II. Partly fearing for her own survival, and wanting to have a fitting end to Poirot's series of novels, Christie had the novel locked away in a bank vault for over thirty years. The final Poirot novel that Christie wrote, Elephants Can Remember, was published in 1972, followed by Christie's last novel, Postern of Fate. Christie authorised Curtain's removal from the vault and subsequent publication. It was the last of her books to be published during her lifetime.
Due to its early date of composition, Curtain makes no mention of Poirot's later cases, in novels published post World War II. Details are only very occasionally anachronistic (such as the mentions of hanging, which had been abolished in Great Britain in 1965). Christie could not know how long she would live nor how popular Poirot would remain. See Agatha Christie#Hercule Poirot and Miss Marple for further discussion of her views of Poirot. The fifth paragraph in Curtain ("Wounded in the war that for me would always be the war—the war that was wiped out now by a second and more desperate war" says Hastings) marks the passing of time for Hastings, and the long friendship of the two men, as well as making a link to the first Poirot novel.
Though publication was in 1975, and the novel was written 30 years earlier, it remains to set the time period of the story, beyond summer time. The age of Hastings' daughter puts the story after the Second World War, as does the complete absence of war time conditions and restrictions (i.e. no mention of rationing or bombing in London), but nothing sets a specific post-war year. The bit of arithmetic to show the story is set post war starts from the marriage of Arthur Hastings and Dulcie (Cinderella) Duveen at the end of The Murder on the Links (published in 1923), and some years needed for the births of their four children, of whom Judith, age 21, appears to be the youngest. The story was not rewritten to add more specific markers of the years post Second World War, such as car models, clothing styles or world events. The story clearly ends Poirot's career, as he dies in the novel, using his death for a resolution he had never before considered for a murderer: to become one himself.
Adaptation for television
The novel was adapted in 2013 starring David Suchet as Poirot. It was the final episode of the final series of Agatha Christie's Poirot, and the first of the final series to be filmed. Hugh Fraser again returned to the role of Hastings after appearing in The Big Four earlier in the series, following a ten-year absence; stars such as Alice Orr-Ewing (Judith Hastings), Helen Baxendale (Elizabeth Cole), Anne Reid (Daisy Luttrell), Matthew McNulty (Major Allerton), Shaun Dingwall (Dr Franklin), Aidan McArdle (Stephen Norton) and Philip Glenister (Sir William Boyd-Carrington) were among the other cast. The program was aired in Britain on 13 November 2013. The adaptation mentions only the Litchfield, Sharples, and Etherington murders. Margaret Litchfield is hanged during the opening credits, whereas in the novel she dies in an asylum. The killer is not labelled 'X' as in the novel, although it is alluded when Poirot speaks to others. Otherwise, the adaptation remains extremely faithful to the novel.
- 1975, Collins Crime Club (London), September 1975, Hardcover, 224 pp ISBN 0-00-231619-6
- 1975, Dodd Mead and Company (New York), Hardcover, 238 pp, ISBN 0-396-07191-0
- 1976, Pocket Books (New York), Paperback, 280 pp
- 1976, Ulverscroft Large-print Edition, Hardcover, 325 pp, ISBN 0-85456-498-5
- 1977, Fontana Books (Imprint of HarperCollins), Paperback, 188 pp
- 1992, G.K. Hall & Co. large-print edition, Hardcover, ISBN 0-8161-4539-3
In the US the novel was serialised in Ladies Home Journal in two abridged instalments from July (Volume XCII, Number 7) to August 1975 (Volume XCII, Number 8) with an illustration by Mark English.
- Czech: Opona (Curtain)
- Danish: Tæppefald (The Curtain Falls)
- Dutch: Het doek valt (The Curtain Falls)
- Estonian: Eesriie (Curtain)
- Finnish: "Esirippu" (Curtain)
- French : Poirot quitte la scène (Poirot leaves the stage/Poirot gives up the stage)
- German: Vorhang: Hercule Poirots letzter Fall (Curtain: Hercule Poirot's Last Case)
- Hebrew: מסך המוות – החקירה האחרונה של הרקולה פוארו (Curtain of Death – The last Investigation of Hercule Poirot)
- Hungarian: Függöny (Poirot utolsó esete) (Curtain [Poirot's Last Case])
- Indonesia: "Tirai" (Curtain)
- Italian: Sipario (L'ultima avventura di Poirot) (Curtain [Poirot's Last Adventure])
- Persian: Pærde / پرده (The Curtain)
- Polish: Kurtyna (Curtain)
- Português: Cai o pano (The Curtain Falls)
- Norwegian: Teppet faller (The Curtain Falls)
- Romanian: Cortina(The Curtain)
- Slovak: Opona (Poirotov posledný prípad) (Curtain [Poirot's Last Case])
- Spanish: Telón. El último caso de Poirot (Curtain. The last case of Poirot)
- Swedish: Ridå – Hercule Poirots sista fall (Curtain – The last case of Hercule Poirot)
- Turkish: Ve perde indi (And the curtain closed)
- Chris Peers, Ralph Spurrier and Jamie Sturgeon (March 1999). Collins Crime Club – A checklist of First Editions (Second ed.). Dragonby Press. p. 15.
- Cooper and Pyke (1994). Detective Fiction – the collector's guide (Second ed.). Scholar Press. pp. 82, 87. ISBN 0-85967-991-8.
- "American Tribute to Agatha Christie: Twilight Years 1968-1976". May 2007. Retrieved 7 March 2014.
- "Others will correct me if I'm wrong, but I think "Rook & Rabbit" rifles were developed soon after 1880 when the "technology" of conical bullets and rifling had developed sufficiently. People wanted a small calibre rifle for varmint shooting, and for teaching boys (especially the young sons of wealthy fathers) to shoot. They were made in a vast range of calibres, mainly established pistol calibres, and a large proportion were very well made and decorated." internetgunclub.com, Retrieved on 10 December 2006
- The Guardian. 9 October 1975 (p. 13).
- The Guardian. 11 December 1975 (p. 14).
- The Observer, 5 October 1975 (p. 23)
- Robert Barnard (1990). A Talent to Deceive – an appreciation of Agatha Christie (Revised ed.). Fontana Books. p. 191. ISBN 0-00-637474-3.
- Hastings writes of John Cavendish in Chapter 1 of The Mysterious Affair at Styles: "He was a good fifteen years my senior […] though he hardly looked his forty-five years."
- Peter Haining (1990). Agatha Christie: Murder in Four Acts. Virgin Books. p. 17. ISBN 1-85227-273-2.
- Thomas Lask (10 October 2011). "Hercule Poirot is Dead; Famed Belgian Detective". image of New York Times article 6 August 1975. Retrieved 7 March 2014.
- Curtain: Poirot's Last Case at the Internet Movie Database