Curtiss C-46 Commando

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C-46 Commando
C-46 Commando.jpg
Wartime photo, USAAF
Role Military transport aircraft
National origin United States
Manufacturer Curtiss-Wright Corporation
Designer George A. Page Jr.
First flight 26 March 1940
Introduction 1941
Status Still in use
Primary users U.S. Army Air Forces
United States Air Force
United States Marine Corps
United States Navy
Produced 1940–1945
Number built 3,181[1]

The Curtiss C-46 Commando is a transport aircraft originally derived from a commercial high-altitude airliner design. It was instead used as a military transport during World War II by the United States Army Air Forces as well as the U.S. Navy/Marine Corps under the designation R5C. Known to the men who flew them as "The Whale," the "Curtiss Calamity," [2] the "plumber's nightmare", and among ATC crews, the "flying coffin,"[3] the C-46 served a similar role as its counterpart, the Douglas C-47 Skytrain, but was not as extensively produced. At the time of its production, the C-46 was the largest twin-engine aircraft in the world, and the largest and heaviest twin-engine aircraft to see service in World War II.

After World War II, a few surplus C-46 aircraft were briefly used in their original role as passenger airliners, but the glut of surplus C-47s dominated the marketplace with the C-46 soon relegated to primarily cargo duty. The type continued in U.S. Air Force service in a secondary role until 1968. However, the C-46 continues in operation as a rugged cargo transport for Arctic and remote locations with its service life extended into the 21st century.[4]

Design and development[edit]

The prototype for what would become the C-46, the Curtiss CW-20, was designed in 1937 by George A. Page Jr., the chief aircraft designer at Curtiss-Wright.[5] The CW-20 was a private venture intended to compete with the four-engined Douglas DC-4 and Boeing Stratoliner by the introduction of a new standard in pressurized airliners.[6] The CW-20 had a patented fuselage conventionally referred to as a "figure-eight" (or "double-bubble") which enabled it to better withstand the pressure differential at high altitudes.[7] This was done by having the sides of the fuselage creased at the level of the floor that not only separated the two portions but shared in the stress of each, rather than just supporting itself. The main spar of the wing could pass through the bottom section which was mainly intended for cargo without intruding on the passenger upper compartment.[7] A decision to utilize a twin-engine design instead of a four-engine configuration was considered viable if sufficiently powerful engines were available, allowing for lower operating costs and a less complex structure.[8]

Engineering work involved a three-year commitment from the company and incorporated an extensive amount of wind tunnel testing at the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The resultant design was a large but aerodynamically "sleek" airliner, incorporating the cockpit in a streamlined glazed "dome". [N 1] The engines featured a unique nacelle "tunnel cowl" where air was ducted in and expelled through the bottom of the cowl, reducing turbulent airflow and induced drag across the upper wing surface.[7] After a mockup was constructed in 1938, Curtiss-Wright exhibited the innovative project as a display in the 1939 New York World's Fair.[9]

Although the company had approached many airlines in order to obtain their requirements for an advanced airliner, no firm orders resulted, although 25 letters of intent were received, sufficient to undertake production.[9] The design of a 24–34 passenger airliner proceeded to prototype stage as the CW-20 at the St. Louis, Missouri facility with the initial configuration featuring twin vertical tail surfaces. Powered by two 1,700 hp (1,300 kW) R-2600-C14-BA2 Wright Twin Cyclones, the prototype, registered NX-19436 flew for the first time on 26 March 1940 with test pilot Edmund T. "Eddie" Allen at the controls. After testing, modifications were instituted, including the fitting of a large single tail to improve stability at low speeds.[10][11]

The first prototype was purchased by the United States Army Air Forces (USAAF) to serve as a master for the series and was designated "C-55" but after military evaluation, the sole example was returned to Curtiss-Wright and subsequently re-sold to the British Overseas Airways Corporation (BOAC).[9] During testing, General Henry H. "Hap" Arnold became interested in the potential of the airliner as a military cargo transport and on 13 September 1940, ordered 46 modified CW-20As as the C-46-CU Commando; the last 21 aircraft in this order were delivered as Model CW-20Bs, called C-46A-1-CU. None of the first C-46s purchased by the U.S. military were pressurized and the first 30 delivered to the AAF were sent back to the factory for 53 immediate modifications.[6][12][13] The design was then modified to the C-46A configuration, receiving enlarged cargo doors, a strengthened load floor and a convertible cabin that speeded changes in carrying freight and troops. The C-46 was introduced to the public at a ceremony in May 1942, attended by its designer, George A. Page Jr.[5]

A total of 200 C-46As in two initial batches were ordered in 1940, although only two were actually delivered by December 7, 1941.[2][6] At this time, one other important change was made; more powerful 2,000 hp Pratt & Whitney R-2800 Double Wasp engines replaced the two Wright Twin Cyclones. By November 1943, 721 modifications had been made to production models,[3] although many were minor, such as fuel system changes and fewer cabin windows were also adopted.[14] Subsequent military contracts for the C-46A extended the production run to 1,454 examples, 40 of which were destined for the U.S. Marine Corps, to be designated R5C-1. The military model was fitted with double cargo doors, a strengthened floor and hydraulically operated cargo handling winch; 40 folding seats were the sole passenger accommodation for what was essentially a cargo hauler.[14] Tests indicated that the production C-46 was capable of carrying a substantial payload, and could fly well on one engine. When empty, the aircraft could even climb on one engine at 200–300 ft per minute.

The final large production-run C-46D arrived in 1944–45, and featured single doors to facilitate paratroop drops; production totaled 1,430 aircraft.[14] Although a one-off XC-46B experimented with a stepped windscreen and uprated powerplants, a small run of 17 C-46Es had many of the same features as the XC-46B along with three-bladed Hamilton-Standard propellers replacing the standard Curtiss-Electric four-bladed units. A last contract for 234 C-46Fs reverted to the earlier cockpit shape but introduced square wingtips. A sole C-46G had the stepped windscreen and square wingtips but the end of the war resulted in the cancellation of any additional orders for the type.[13]

Operational history[edit]

C-46 air evacuation from Manila, Philippine Islands.

Pacific Theater[edit]

Most famous for its operations in the China-Burma-India theater (CBI) and the Far East, the Commando was a workhorse in flying over "The Hump" (as the Himalaya Mountains were nicknamed by Allied airmen), transporting desperately needed supplies to troops in China from bases in India.[14] A variety of transports had been employed in the campaign, but only the C-46 was able to handle the wide range of adverse conditions encountered by the USAAF. Unpredictably violent weather, heavy cargo loads, high mountain terrain, and poorly-equipped and frequently flooded airfields proved a considerable challenge to the transport aircraft then in service, along with a host of engineering and maintenance nightmares due to a shortage of trained air and ground personnel.

After a series of mechanical gremlins were controlled if not surmounted, the C-46 proved its worth in the airlift operation in spite of continuing maintenance headaches. It could carry more cargo higher than other Allied twin-engine transport aircraft in the theater, including light artillery, fuel, ammunition, parts of aircraft and, on occasion, livestock. Its powerful engines enabled it to climb satisfactorily with heavy loads, staying aloft on one engine if not overloaded, though "war emergency" load limits of up to 40,000 lbs often erased any safety margins. Nevertheless, after the troublesome Curtiss-Electric electrically-controlled pitch mechanism on the propellers had been removed, the C-46 continued to be employed in the CBI and over wide areas of southern China throughout the war years.[14] Even so, the C-46 was referred to by ATC pilots as the "flying coffin" with at least 31 known instances of fires or explosions in flight between May 1943 and March 1945, and many others missing and never found.[3]

The C-46's huge cargo volume (twice that of the C-47), three times the weight, large cargo doors, powerful engines and long range also made it suitable for the vast distances of the Pacific island campaign. In particular, the U.S. Marines found the aircraft (known as the R5C) useful in their amphibious Pacific operations, flying supplies in and wounded soldiers out of numerous and hastily-built island landing strips.

Europe[edit]

Although not built in the same quantities as its more famous wartime compatriot, the C-47 Skytrain, the C-46 nevertheless played a significant role in wartime operations, although the aircraft was not deployed in numbers to the European theater until March 1945. It augmented USAAF Troop Carrier Command in time to drop paratroopers in an offensive to cross the Rhine River in Germany (Operation Varsity).

So many C-46s were lost in the paratroop drop during Operation Varsity that Army General Matthew Ridgway issued an edict forbidding the aircraft's use in future airborne operations. Even though the war ended soon afterwards and no further airborne missions were flown, the C-46 may well have been unfairly demonized. The operation's paratroop drop phase was flown in daylight at low speeds at very low altitudes by an unarmed cargo aircraft without self-sealing fuel tanks, over heavy concentrations of German 20 mm, 37 mm, and larger caliber antiaircraft (AA) cannon utilizing explosive, incendiary, and armor-piercing incendiary ammunition. By that stage of the war, German AA crews had trained to a high state of readiness; many batteries had considerable combat experience in firing on and destroying high speed, well-armed fighter and fighter-bomber aircraft while under fire themselves. Finally, while many, if not all of the C-47s used in Operation Varsity had been retrofitted with self-sealing fuel tanks,[15] the C-46s received no such modification. Although 19 of 72 C-46 aircraft were shot down during Operation Varsity, it is not as well known that losses of other aircraft types from AA fire during the same operation were equally as intense, including 13 gliders shot down, 14 crashed, and 126 badly damaged; 15 B-24 bombers shot down, and 104 badly damaged; 12 C-47s shot down, with 140 damaged.[16][17]

Despite its obvious and valuable utility, the C-46 remained a maintenance nightmare throughout its AAF career. The official history of the Army Air Forces summarized its shortcomings:

But from first to last, the Commando remained a headache. It could be kept flying only at the cost of thousands of extra man-hours for maintenance and modification. Although Curtiss-Wright reported the accumulation by November 1943 of the astounding total of 721 required changes in production models, the plane continued to be what maintenance crews around the world aptly described as a "plumber’s nightmare." Worse still, the plane was a killer. In the experienced hands of Eastern Air Lines and along a route that provided more favorable flying conditions than were confronted by military crews in Africa and on the Hump route into China, the plane did well enough. Indeed, Eastern Air Lines lost only one C-46 in more than two years of operation. But among the ATC pilots the Commando was known, with good reason, as the "flying coffin." From May 1943 to March 1945, Air Transport Command received reports of thirty-one instances in which C-46s caught fire or exploded in the air. Still others were listed merely as "missing in flight," and it is a safe assumption that many of these exploded, went down in flames, or crashed as the result of Vapor lock, carburetor icing, or other defects.[3]

During the war years, the C-46 was noted for an abnormal number of unexplained airborne explosions (31 between May 1943 and May 1945) that were initially attributed to various causes. In particular, the fuel system, which was quickly designed, then modified for the new, thirstier Pratt & Whitney engines, was criticized. The cause of the explosions was eventually traced to pooled gasoline from small leaks in the tanks and fuel system, combined with a spark, usually originating from open-contact electrical components. Though many service aircraft suffered small fuel leaks in use, the C-46's wings were unvented; if a leak occurred, the gasoline had nowhere to drain, but rather pooled at the wing root. Any spark or fire could set off an explosion. After the war, all C-46 aircraft received a wing vent modification to vent pooled gasoline, and an explosion-proof fuel booster pump was installed with shielded electrical selector switches in lieu of the open-contact type used originally.[18][19]

Postwar[edit]

Overall, the C-46 had been successful in its primary role as a wartime cargo transport, and had benefited from a series of improvements. Like the C-47/DC-3, the C-46 seemed destined for a useful career as a postwar civilian passenger airliner, and was considered for that purpose by Eastern Airlines. However, the high operating costs of the C-46 (up to 50% greater than the C-47), soon caused most operators to change their minds. Consequently, most postwar C-46 operations were limited to commercial cargo transport, and then only for certain routes. One of the C-46's major drawbacks was the prodigious fuel consumption of its powerful 2,000 hp engines, which used fuel at a much higher rate than the C-47/DC-3. Maintenance was also more intensive and costlier.[14] Despite these disadvantages, surplus C-46s were used by some air carriers, including Capitol, Flying Tigers, Civil Air Transport (CAT) and World Airways to both carry cargo and passengers. Many other small carriers also eventually operated the type on both scheduled and non-scheduled routes. The C-46 became a common sight in South America, and was widely used in Bolivia, Peru, Brazil, Argentina and Chile, especially in mountainous areas (where a good climb rate and high service ceiling were required) or to overfly deep jungle terrain where ground transport was impracticable.

C-46 Commandos also went back to war, serving in both Korea and Vietnam for various USAF operations, including resupply missions, paratroop drops, and clandestine agent transportation. The C-46 was not officially retired from service with the U.S. Air Force until 1968. The type also served under a U.S. civilian agency, the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). The C-46 played a supporting role in many clandestine operations during the late 1940s and early 1950s, including resupply efforts to Chiang Kai-Shek's troops battling Mao's Communists in China as well as flying cargoes of military and medical supplies to French forces via Gialam Airfield in Hanoi and other bases in French Indochina. The CIA operated its own "airline" for these operations, Civil Air Transport (CAT), which was eventually renamed Air America in 1959. An Air America C-46 was the last fixed-wing aircraft flown out of Vietnam [Saigon] at the close of hostilities there. On 29 April 1975, Capt. E. G. Adams flew a 52-seat version, with 152 people on board, to Bangkok, Thailand.[20] The C-46 was also employed in the abortive U.S.-supported Bay of Pigs invasion in 1961.

Although their numbers gradually began to dwindle, C-46s continued to operate in remote locations, and could be seen in service from Canada and Alaska to Africa and South America. In the late 1970s and early 1980s, the Canadian airline Lamb Air operated several C-46s from their bases in Thompson and Churchill, Manitoba. One of the largest C-46 operators was Air Manitoba, whose fleet of aircraft featured gaudy color schemes for individual aircraft. In the 1990s, these aircraft were divested to other owner/operators.[21]

Between 1993 and 1995, Relief Air Transport operated three Canadian registered C-46s on Operation Lifeline Sudan from Lokichoggio, Kenya. These aircraft also transported humanitarian supplies to Goma, Zaire and Mogadishu, Somalia from their base in Nairobi, Kenya.

Buffalo Airways currently owns and operates three C-46s, primarily used in Canada's Arctic. Their aircraft have been featured on the Ice Pilots NWT television show.[22]

Two C-46s, formerly owned and operated by Relief Air Transport in Africa, were operated as freighters for First Nations Transportation in Gimli, Manitoba, but the airline has now ceased operations with one aircraft sold to Buffalo Airways and the other tied up in receivership.[23]

The Japan Air Self-Defense Force used the Commando until at least 1966, when they began development of the Kawasaki C-1.[citation needed]

Prices for a used C-46 in 1960 ranged from £20,000 for a C-46F conversion, to £60,000 for a C-46R.[24]

Variants[edit]

"St. Louis", the BOAC CW-20A at Gibraltar, 1941–42. Was previously C-55 with Curtiss and USAAC, after conversion from twin-tail CW-20T
C-46F "China Doll", Camarillo Airport Museum
CW-20
Original passenger airliner design.
CW-20T
The original passenger airliner prototype, fitted with a dihedralled tailplane and endplate vertical tail fins, powered by two 1,700 hp (1,268 kW) Wright R-2600 Twin Cyclone radial piston engines.
CW-20A
Company designation of the C-55.
CW-20B
Company designation of the C-46A.
CW-20B-1
Company designation of the XC-46B.
CW-20B-2
Company designation of the C-46D.
CW-20B-3
Company designation of the C-46E.
CW-20B-4
Company designation of the C-46F.
CW-20B-5
Company designation of the C-46G.
CW-20E
Company designation of the AC-46K.
CW-20G
Company designation of the XC-46C.
CW-20H
Company designation of the XC-46L.
C-55
Modification to the original CW-20T prototype, tail redesigned with a large single vertical tail-fin and rudder, and a horizontal tailplane with no dihedral and other improvements, including a change to Pratt & Whitney R-2800-5 radial engine. It was used as a C-46 military transport prototype aircraft, also designated XC-46. Later sold to BOAC
C-46 Commando
Twin engined military transport aircraft, powered by two 2,000 hp (1,491 kW) Pratt & Whitney R-2800-43 radial piston engines.
C-46A Commando
Twin-engined military transport aircraft, powered by two 2,000 hp (1,419 kW) Pratt & Whitney R-2800-51 radial piston engines, fitted with a large cargo door on the port side of the fuselage, equipped with strengthened cargo floor, a hydraulic winch and folding seats for up to 40 troops.
XC-46B Commando
One C-46A was converted into a test aircraft to evaluate a stepped windscreen design, it was powered by two 2,100 hp (1,567 kW) H-2800-34W radial piston engines.
XC-46C Commando
Later redesignated XC-113.
C-46D Commando
Twin-engined personnel, paratroop transport aircraft, fitted with an extra door on the port side; 1,610 built.
C-46E Commando
Twin-engined utility transport aircraft, equipped with a large cargo door on the port side of the fuselage, fitted with a stepped windscreen; 17 built.
C-46F Commando
Twin-engined cargo transport aircraft, equipped with cargo doors on both sides of the fuselage, fitted with square cut wingtips; 234 built.
C-46G Commando
This one-off aircraft was fitted with a stepped windscreen and square wingtips, one built.
C-46H
C-46J
AC-46K Commando
Unbuilt version, intended to be powered by two 2,500 hp (1865-kW) Wright R-3350-BD radial piston engines.
XC-46K
XC-46L
In 1945 three C-46s were fitted with Wright R-3350 radial piston engines.
The XC-113
XC-113
Engine change: One C-46G, s/n 44-78945, was converted into an engine testbed, the aircraft was fitted with a General Electric T31 turboprop in place of right hand side R-2800. The aircraft handled so poorly on the ground that it was never flown.
R5C-1
Twin-engined military transport aircraft for the U.S. Marine Corps. Similar to the C-46A Commando; 160 built.
C-46R
Riddle Airlines conversion, with modification kit (mid-1950s) which added 40mph (64kmh) to cruising speed and 2,204 Ib (1,000 kg) to the payload. The improved model was designated C-46R, and Riddle subsequently converted its own fleet of 32 to have 2,100 hp Pratt & Whitney engines. http://www.aviastar.org/manufacturers/1778.html

Operators[edit]

Military operators[edit]

Curtiss C-46 "Commando" in flight
Buffalo Airways' "Buffalo Joe" C-46 in northern Canada, c. 2005
"Working office" of a C-46, c. 2006, over northern Manitoba
Lamb Air C-46.
C-46 C-GIBX from First Nations Transportation, c. 2006
C-46 from Republic of China Air Force
An APU of China Doll
 Argentina
 Bolivia
 Brazil
 China
 People's Republic of China
 Colombia
 Cuba
 Dominican Republic
 Ecuador
 Egypt
 Haiti
 Honduras
 Israel
 Japan
 South Korea
 Laos
 Mexico
 Peru
 Soviet Union
 United States

Civil operators[edit]

 Argentina
 Bolivia[26]
 Brazil
 Canada
 Chile
  • Linea Aerea Sud Americana - LASA
 Colombia
An Aeropesca Colombia C-46 at Philip S. W. Goldson International Airport, Belize
 Republic of the Congo
 Costa Rica
  • LACSA (Líneas Aéreas Costarricenses S.A. / Costa Rica)
C-46A of Caraibische Lucht Transport (Curaçao) in 1970
 Curacao
  • Carabaische Lucht Transport
 Dominican Republic
 Egypt
 Germany
 Haiti
 Honduras
 Hong Kong
 Ireland
 Israel
 Italy
 Jordan
 Kenya
 Lebanon
 Luxembourg
 Morocco
 Nicaragua
  • LANICA (Líneas Aéreas de Nicaragua S.A./ Nicaragua)
 Norway
 Paraguay
  • Paraguayan Airways Service/Servicios Aéreos del Paraguay (PAS) - 3 aircraft
  • Lloyd Aéreo Paraguayo S.A. (LAPSA) - 2 aircraft
  • Aerocarga Asociados (ACA) - 1 aircraft
  • International Products Corporation (IPC Servicio Aéreo) - 1 aircraft
 Peru
  • SATCO - Servicio Aereo de Transportes Commerciales
 Sweden
  • Fairline AB
  • Tor-Air
  • Transair Sweden
 Taiwan
 United Kingdom
 United States
 Uruguay
 Venezuela

Accidents and incidents[edit]

In popular culture[edit]

Movie star turned Marine Lieutenant Tyrone Power was an R5C pilot during the Iwo Jima and Okinawa campaigns in 1945.[citation needed]

Specifications (C-46A)[edit]

Data from Curtiss Aircraft 1907–1946[28]

General characteristics

Performance

See also[edit]

Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era
Related lists

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ The C-46's dome somewhat resembled the "stepless cockpits" used by almost all of the Third Reich's Luftwaffe medium bomber designs had adopted, like the later -P and -H wartime versions of the Heinkel He 111
  2. ^ Cargo configuration
  3. ^ Normal maximum weight. Overload weight 49,600 lb (22,500 kg).[29]

Citations[edit]

  1. ^ Andrade 1979, p. 65.
  2. ^ a b Davis et al. 1978, p. 11.
  3. ^ a b c d Carter 1958, p. 25.
  4. ^ Love 2003, pp. 46-47.
  5. ^ a b "Air Freighter." Time magazine, 18 May 1942.
  6. ^ a b c Carter 1958, p. 24
  7. ^ a b c Johnson 2007, p. 45.
  8. ^ Johnson 2007, p. 44.
  9. ^ a b c Love 2003, p. 4.
  10. ^ Bowers 1979, pp. 451–452.
  11. ^ Green and Swanborough Air Enthusiast September–December 1987, p. 27.
  12. ^ Lucariny, J.R. "Curtis C-46 Commando." jrlucariny.com. Retrieved: 12 April 2012.
  13. ^ a b Johnson 2007, p. 47.
  14. ^ a b c d e f Mondey 2006, p. 72.
  15. ^ Bolce, Don. "Operation Varsity." able506.com, 24 March 1945.
  16. ^ Seelinger, Matthew J. "Operation Varsity: The Last Airborne Deployment of World War II." The Army Historical Foundation. Retrieved: 11 May 2011.
  17. ^ Devlin 1979, p. 624.
  18. ^ Leeuw, Ruud. "Background Information: Curtiss C-46 "Commando." ruudleeuw.com. Retrieved: 11 May 2011.
  19. ^ "C-46 Nontransport Category Airplanes." FAA Part 121, Appendix C.
  20. ^ Adams, Capt E.G. "Memories of the Fall of Saigon - April 29, 1975 - Fred Walker's Diary: The Beginning of the End." air-america.org. Retrieved: 27 October 2011.
  21. ^ Groves 1994, p. 32.
  22. ^ "Buffalo Airways Fleet: C-46 Commando." buffaloairways.com, 2011. Retrieved: 11 May 2011.
  23. ^ Wiebe, Lindsey. "First Nations Transportation banned from flying: 20 people laid off while airline fights suspension." Winnipeg Free Press, 7 October 2009.
  24. ^ "Curtiss CW-20/C-46 (Commando)." Flight, 18 November 1960.
  25. ^ Hardesty 1991, p. 253 (Appendixes).
  26. ^ jp airline-fleets international
  27. ^ Hagby 1998, p. 34.
  28. ^ Bowers 1979, p. 456.
  29. ^ a b c d Green and Swanborough Air Enthusiast September–December 1987, p. 42.
  30. ^ Bowers 1979, p. 453.

Bibliography[edit]

  • Andrade, John M. US Military Aircraft Designations and Serials. Hinckley, Leicestershire, UK: Midland Counties Publications, 1979. ISBN 0-90459-721-0.
  • Bowers, Peter M. Curtiss Aircraft, 1907-1947. London: Putnam & Company Ltd., 1979. ISBN 0-370-10029-8.
  • Carter, John D. (1958). "Chapter 1: The Air Transport Command". In Craven, Wesley Frank; Cate, James Lea. The Army Air Forces in World War II: Services Around the World 7. Air Force Historical Studies Office. pp. 3–45. 
  • Davis, John M., Harold G. Martin and John A. Whittle. The Curtiss C-46 Commando. Tonbridge, Kent, UK: Air-Britain (Historians) Ltd., 1978. ISBN 0-85130-065-0.
  • Devlin, Gerard M. Paratrooper!: The Saga Of Parachute And Glider Combat Troops During World War II. London: Robson Books, 1979. ISBN 0-31259-652-9.
  • Green, William and Gordon Swanborough. "Commando: A Dove from Curtiss-Wright". Air Enthusiast, Thirty-four, September–December 1987, ISSN 0143-5450. pp. 25–42.
  • Groves, Clinton. Propliners: A Half-Century of the World's Great Propeller-Driven Airliners (Enthusiast Color Series). Minneapolis, Minnesota: Zenith Press, 1994. ISBN 978-0879388669.
  • Hagby, Kay . Fra Nielsen & Winther til Boeing 747 (in Norwegian). Drammen, Norway. Hagby, 1998. ISBN 8-2-9947-520-1.
  • Hardesty, Von. Red Phoenix: The Rise of Soviet Air Power 1941-1945. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution, First edition 1982, 1991. ISBN 0-87474-510-1.
  • Johnson, E.R. "The Airliner that Went to War." Aviation History Vol. 18, no. 1, September 2007.
  • Love, Terry. C-46 Commando in action. Carrollton, Texas: Squadron/Signal Publications, 2003. ISBN 0-89747-452-X.
  • Mondey, David. The Hamlyn Concise Guide to American Aircraft of World War II. New York: Bounty Books, 2006. ISBN 978-0-7537-1461-4.
  • Pereira, Aldo. Breve História da Aviação Comercial Brasileira (in Portuguese). Rio de Janeiro: Europa, 1987. ISBN 978-8561936006.

External links[edit]