Arlington House, The Robert E. Lee Memorial

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Arlington House, The Robert E. Lee Memorial
Arlington House, The Robert E. Lee Memorial is located in Washington, D.C.
Arlington House, The Robert E. Lee Memorial
Location Arlington, Virginia, USA
Coordinates 38°52′52.2″N 77°4′21.54″W / 38.881167°N 77.0726500°W / 38.881167; -77.0726500Coordinates: 38°52′52.2″N 77°4′21.54″W / 38.881167°N 77.0726500°W / 38.881167; -77.0726500
Area 28.08 acres (11.36 ha)[1]
Built 1803
Architect George Hadfield
Architectural style Greek Revival
Visitation 576,816 (2011)[2]
Governing body National Park Service
NRHP Reference # 66000040
Added to NRHP October 15, 1966[3][4]

Arlington House, The Robert E. Lee Memorial, formerly named the Custis-Lee Mansion,[5][6] is a Greek revival style mansion located in Arlington, Virginia, USA that was once the home of Confederate General Robert E. Lee. It overlooks the Potomac River and the National Mall in Washington, D.C. During the American Civil War, the grounds of the mansion were selected as the site of Arlington National Cemetery, in part to ensure that Lee would never again be able to return to his home. However, the United States has since designated the mansion as a National Memorial to Lee, a mark of widespread respect for him in both the North and South. Arlington Woods, located behind Arlington House, contains the oldest and largest tract of climax eastern hardwood forest that still exists in Arlington County.

Construction and early history[edit]

Arlington House from a pre-1861 sketch, published in 1875

The mansion was built on the orders of George Washington Parke Custis, the step-grandson and adopted son of George Washington and only grandson of Martha Custis Washington. Custis was a prominent resident of what was then known as Alexandria County, at the time a part of the District of Columbia.

Arlington House was built at a high point on an 1,100 acre (445 ha) estate that Custis' father, John Parke Custis, had purchased in 1778.[7] ("Jacky" Custis died in 1781 at Yorktown after the British surrender.) George Washington Parke Custis decided to build his home on the property in 1802, following the death of Martha Washington and three years after the death of George Washington. Custis originally wanted to name the property "Mount Washington", but was persuaded by family members to name it "Arlington House" after the Custis family's homestead on the Eastern Shore of Virginia.[8]

George Hadfield, an English architect who also worked on the design of the United States Capitol, designed the mansion. Construction began eleven years after L'Enfant's Plan for the future "Federal City" (later called "Washington City", then Washington D.C.) had designated an area directly across the Potomac River to be the site of the "President's House" (later called the "Executive Mansion", now the White House) and the "Congress House" (now the United States Capitol).

The north and south wings were completed between 1802 and 1804. The large center section and the portico, presenting an imposing front 140 ft (43 m) long, were finished 13 years later. The house has two kitchens, a summer and a winter. The most prominent features of the house are the 8 massive columns of the portico, each 5 feet (1.5 m) in diameter.

Custis was a prominent resident of the jurisdiction that was then named Alexandria County and is now named Arlington County. Guests at the house included such notable people as Gilbert du Motier, Marquis de Lafayette, who visited in 1824 (see: Visit of the Marquis de Lafayette to the United States). At Arlington, Custis experimented with new methods of animal husbandry and other agriculture. The property also included Arlington Spring, a picnic ground on the banks of the Potomac that Custis originally built for private use but later opened to the public, eventually operating it as a commercial enterprise.

Custis married Mary Lee Fitzhugh. Their only child to survive to adulthood was Mary Anna Randolph Custis. Robert E. Lee, whose mother was a cousin of Mrs. Custis, frequently visited Arlington and knew Mary Anna as they grew up. Two years after graduating from West Point, Lieutenant Lee married Mary Anna Custis at Arlington on June 30, 1831. For 30 years Arlington House was home to the Lees. They spent much of their married life traveling between U.S. Army duty stations and Arlington, where six of their seven children were born. They shared this home with Mary's parents. After their deaths, Mary's parents were buried not far from the house on land that is now part of Arlington National Cemetery.

Upon George Washington Parke Custis' death in 1857, he left the Arlington estate to Mary Custis Lee for her lifetime and thence to the Lees' eldest son, George Washington Custis Lee. The estate needed much repair and reorganization, and Robert E. Lee, as executor of Custis' will, took a leave of absence from the Army until 1860 to begin the necessary agricultural and financial improvements. The will also required the executor to free the slaves on the estate within five years of Custis' death, which Gen. Lee fulfilled, filing a deed of manumission in 1862.[9]

Civil War[edit]

East front of Custis-Lee Mansion with Union Soldiers on lawn

On April 17, 1861, just days after the American Civil War began with the Battle of Fort Sumter on April 12–13 (surrender on the 14th), a convention of the people of Virginia voted to secede from the Union.[10] (Citizens of the Commonwealth of Virginia ratified by popular vote on May 23 the Commonwealth's articles of secession, essentially finalizing separation from the Union.)[11] Also on April 17, US President Abraham Lincoln decided to offer the Command of the Union Army to Robert E. Lee. The next day, Lee, who at that time was a colonel who had served in the United States Army for 35 years, was offered command of the Federal Army by Francis Preston Blair (at Blair House) during a visit across the Potomac to Washington. Lee had disapproved of secession, but decided that he could not fight against his native Commonwealth. Instead of accepting the Union command, he resigned his commission in the Army in a letter written at Arlington House on April 20. Within days of his resignation, Lee reported to Richmond for the duty of commanding Virginia's Provisional Army. He joined the Confederate States Army with Virginia's forces a month later and was promoted to general. Lee was concerned for the safety of his wife, who was still residing at the mansion and convinced her to vacate the property, at least temporarily. She managed to send many of the family's valuables off to safety, as she had advance notice of the impending Union occupation from her cousin, Orton W. Williams. Robert E. Lee never set foot on the property again, but shortly before her 1873 death, Mary Anna Custis Lee visited her Arlington once more.[12]

In May 1861, the Union soldiers took over Arlington, making it the headquarters of the Army of the Potomac.[13] It was the headquarters of Union's Army of Northeastern Virginia under Brigadier General Irvin McDowell. Many of the George Washington heirlooms that George Washington Parke Custis had collected were eventually moved to the Patent Office for safekeeping. Some items, however, including a few of the Mount Vernon heirlooms, were looted and scattered by Union soldiers living in or visiting the house. In 1864, the federal government confiscated the house and property because the property's owner, Mary Anna Custis Lee, had not paid her property tax in person.[14][15]

By 1864, the military cemeteries of Washington and Alexandria were filled with Union dead, and Quartermaster General Montgomery C. Meigs quickly selected Arlington as the site for a new cemetery. Meigs, a Georgian who had served under Lee in the U.S. Army and who considered that Lee had made a treasonous decision to fight against the Union, ordered the burial of 26 Union soldiers in Mrs. Lee's prized rose garden. In October, Meigs' own son was killed in the war, and was later buried at Arlington alongside his mother and father.[16]

During the war, Union Army troops cut down many of the trees on the Arlington estate, especially those to the north and east of Arlington House in and near Fort Whipple (north of the House) and Arlington Springs (near the Potomac River). However, a number of large trees remained, particularly those in a forested area (now Arlington Woods) that had provided a westward backdrop to the House.[17]

Post-Civil War[edit]

The second-floor chamber shared by Lee and his wife. A replica c. 1850 U. S. Army (lieutenant of engineers) uniform lies across the bed.

Although the federal government purportedly acquired the mansion for $26,800 in taxes when Mrs. Lee, confined to a wheelchair in Richmond, could not appear in person to pay them in the District of Columbia pursuant to a new Civil War law, her eldest son temporarily regained title decades later.[18] Robert E. Lee never returned to the estate after his 1865 surrender to Union Army Lieutenant General Ulysses S. Grant at the McLean House in Appomattox Court House, Virginia. General Lee and his wife chose not to contest the wartime seizure of their home, apparently because they feared reopening wartime divisions.[19]

However, in 1870, after his father died and was buried at what was later renamed Washington and Lee University, George Washington Custis Lee (who had earlier been a Major General in the Confederate Army), filed a lawsuit against the United States government in the Alexandria Circuit Court to regain his property. In 1882, the Supreme Court of the United States finally ruled in United States v. Lee, 106 U. S. 196 (1882).[14][15] The court, by a 5-4 majority, found that the estate had been "illegally confiscated" in 1864 and ordered it returned, along with 1,100 acres (4 km2) of surrounding property. In its decision, the court relied for precedent on a similar case decided in 1870 (Bennett v. Hunter, 76 US (9 Wall.) 326 (1870)), that had involved a nearby former Custis family property, Abingdon.[20][21][22] The following year, Custis Lee sold the mansion and property to the U.S. government for $150,000 (roughly equal to $3.5 million in 2011 dollars), and Secretary of War Robert Todd Lincoln attended the signing ceremony.[23]

After the Civil War, the original acres were cut in half because of the many new monuments and no more work yard.[13]

In 1920, the Virginia General Assembly renamed Alexandria County as Arlington County, to honor Robert E. Lee, as well as to end ongoing confusion between Alexandria County and the independent city of Alexandria.[citation needed]

In 1925, the War Department began to restore Arlington House, and the Department of the Army continues to manage over half of the original plantation's 1,100 acres, as Arlington National Cemetery. On March 4, 1925, Congress passed legislation (Public Resolution – NO. 74) that authorized the restoration of the Lee Mansion in the Arlington National Cemetery, Virginia. The enabling legislation stated:

“Whereas the era of internecine strife among the States having yielded to on better understanding, of common loyalty, and a more perfect Union; And Whereas, now honor is accorded Robert E. Lee as one of the great military leaders of history, whose exalted character, noble life, and eminent services are recognized and esteemed, and whose manly attributes of percept and example were compelling factors in cementing the American People in bonds of patriotic devotion and action against common external enemies in the war with Spain and in the World War, thus consummating the hope of a reunited country that would again swell the chorus of the Union: Therefore be it, Resolved…that the Secretary of War be, and he is hereby, authorize and directed, as nearly as may be practicable, to restore the Lee Mansion in the Arlington National Cemetery, Virginia, to the condition in which it existed immediately prior to the Civil War and to procure, if possible, articles of furniture and equipment which were then in the Mansion and in use by the occupants thereof. He is also authorized, in his discretion, to procure replicas of the furniture and other articles in use in the Mansion during the period mentioned, with a view to restoring, as far as may be practicable, the appearance of the interior of the Mansion to the condition of its occupancy by the Lee family.”

However, for several years after the 1925 legislation was passed, when the War Department was responsible for managing the house and grounds, the enabling legislation was largely ignored. In direct violation of the enabling legislation, the War Department, largely at the insistence of Commission of Fine Arts director Charles Moore, decided to furnish and interpret to “the first half of the republic.” This decision was based, in part, on the popularity of the Colonial Revival movement which was still popular in 1925. The Mansion was restored to the period of George Washington Custis, and no furniture manufactured after 1830 was accepted. This approach utterly negated Lee’s role and presence at Arlington.

In 1955, Congress passed Public Law 107 officially designating Arlington House as a permanent Memorial to Robert E. Lee and ensuring that the correct interpretation of its history would be applied. Gradually the house was furnished and interpreted to the period of Robert E. Lee as specified in the original legislation. The 1955 law reads: “Whereas of the two great figures therein involved, one, General Ulysses S. Grant, has been highly honored by becoming the President of the United States, but the other, Robert E. Lee, has never been suitably Memorialized by the National Government; and Whereas Robert E. Lee had graduated by West Point, dedicated himself to an Army career, and became a Colonel in the United States Army, then the commander of the Confederate forces, attained world renown as a military genius, and after Appomattox fervently devoted himself to peace, to the reuniting of the Nation, and to the advancement of youth education and the welfare and progress of mankind, becoming president of the Washington and Lee University at Lexington, Virginia; and Whereas the desire and hope of Robert E. Lee for peace and unity within our Nation has come to pass in the years since his death, and the United States of America now stands united and firm, indivisible, and unshakable; and whereas Public Resolution Numbered 74, Sixtyeight Congress, approved March 4, 1925, provided for the physical restoration of the Lee Mansion but did not dedicate the same as a permanent Memorial to Robert E. Lee: Now therefore be it Resolved…That the Congress of the United States, at this anniversary time, does hereby pay honor and tribute to the everlasting memory of Robert E. Lee, whose name will ever be bright in our history as a great military leader, a great educator, a great American, and a truly great man through the simple heritage of his personal traits of high character, his grandeur of soul, his unfailing strength of heart… .”

The National Park Service received jurisdiction over the building and some 28 acres of adjacent gardens (distinguished from the cemetery) beginning in 1933.[24]

Arlington House suffered moderate damage in the 2011 Virginia earthquake, requiring the closure of the back halls and upper floor pending an architectural assessment.[25]

Expansion of Arlington National Cemetery into Arlington Woods[edit]

See also: John C. Metzler, Jr.#Expansion of the cemetery
A portion of Arlington Woods on Humphreys Drive.

On February 22, 1995, officials of the United States Department of the Interior and the United States Department of the Army signed an agreement to transfer from Arlington House, The Robert E. Lee Memorial, to the Army a part of Arlington Woods, which was located in Section 29 of the NPS at Arlington National Cemetery between Arlington House and Fort Myer.[26] The property transfer, which involved 12 acres (4.9 ha) of NPS land, was intended to enable the Cemetery to increase its space for burials.[27][28][29]

Environmentalists expressed concerns that the agreement would result in the partial destruction of the 24 acres (9.7 ha) remnant of an historically important stand of native trees.[30] A historical marker near the woodland notes that, while visiting Arlington House, the Marquis de Lafayette had warned Mary Lee Fitzhugh Custis: "Cherish these forest trees around your mansion. Recollect how much easier it is to cut a tree than to make one grow." The marker further notes that the Virginia Native Plant Society had recognized the woodland as being one of the best examples of old growth terraced gravel forest remaining in Virginia.[31]

On September 23, 1996, Public Law 104-201 authorized the Secretary of the Interior to transfer to the Secretary of the Army all of the land in Section 29 that was within an "Arlington National Cemetery Interment Zone" and some of the land in the Section that was within a "Robert E. Lee Memorial Preservation Zone".[32][33][28]

On March 5, 1998, the NPS, which is a component of the Department of the Interior, informed the National Capital Planning Commission that it wanted to transfer only 4 acres (1.6 ha) to the Cemetery, rather than the 12 acres (4.9 ha) that the 1995 agreement had described. In response, Cemetery's superintendent, John C. Metzler, Jr., stated: "I was surprised. But we will continue to work with the Department of Interior and see what happens."[27]

On July 12, 1999, the NPS issued a Federal Register notice that announced the availability of an environmental assessment (EA) for the transfer.[29][34] The EA stated that the Interment Zone contained the oldest and largest tract of climax eastern hardwood forest in Arlington County. This forest was the same type that once covered the Arlington estate, and had regenerated from trees that were present historically. A forestry study determined that a representative tree was 258 years old. The Interment Zone was also determined to contain significant archeological and cultural landscape resources, in addition to those in the Preservation Zone.[34] The EA described four alternative courses of action.[34]

In contrast to the NPS's March 1998 statement to the National Capital Planning Commission, the 1999 EA stated that the preferred alternative (Alternative 1) would transfer to the Cemetery approximately 9.6 acres (3.9 ha), comprising most of the Interment Zone and the northern tip of the Preservation Zone.[34] Another alternative (Alternative 3) would transfer to the Cemetery the 12 acres (4.9 ha) Interment Zone, while keeping the 12.5 acres (5.1 ha) Preservation Zone under NPS jurisdiction.[34] The EA concluded:

Public Law 104-201 directed the Secretary of the Interior to transfer to the Secretary of the Army jurisdiction over the Interment Zone, which is the plan in Alternative 3. Adoption of any of the other alternatives would require legislative action to amend the existing law.[34]

On December 28, 2001, Public Law 107-107 repealed the "obsolete" part of Public Law 104-201 that had authorized the transfer of portions of Section 29 to the Secretary of the Army.[35] The new legislation required the Secretary of the Interior to transfer to the Secretary of the Army within 30 days the approximately 12 acres (4.9 ha) Interment Zone.[35] The transfer therefore involved the entire 12 acres (4.9 ha) of NPS land that the 1995 agreement and Alternative 3 in the 1999 EA had described.

The 2001 legislation required the Secretary of the Army to use the Interment Zone for in-ground burial sites and columbarium.[35] In addition, the legislation required the Secretary of the Interior to manage the remainder of Section 29 "in perpetuity to provide a natural setting and visual buffer for Arlington House, the Robert E. Lee Memorial."[35]

On December 12, 2012, the United States Army Corps of Engineers asked for comments on a draft EA that described an expansion of Arlington National Cemetery to begin the implementation of the "Millennium Project", a plan that the Cemetery had developed to increase the space available for its burials.[36][37] The 2012 draft EA was intended to implement conversion into burial space of 17 acres (6.9 ha) of land at Fort Myer and 10 acres (4.0 ha) of Section 29 woodland. The draft EA described seven alternatives. The preferred alternative (Alternative E) called for the removal of about one-half of the 1,700 trees with a diameter of 6 inches (15 cm) or greater on the site. About 640 of the trees were within a 135-year-old portion of Arlington Woods.[38] The draft EA concluded:

Based on the evaluation of environmental impacts ....., no significant impacts would be expected from the Proposed Action; therefore, an Environmental Impact Statement will not be prepared and a Finding of No Significant Impact will be prepared and signed.[38]

On March 12, 2013, the Corps of Engineers released a revised EA for the Millennium Project.[39][40] The revised EA contained copies of a number of public comments on the draft EA that had criticized the project and parts of the EA while proposing alternative locations for new military burials near the Cemetery and elsewhere.[41] However, the Department of Forestry of the Commonwealth of Virginia found that, based on information in the draft EA, the project would not have a significant adverse impact on the Commonwealth's forest resources.[42] The revised EA did not change the preferred alternative (Alternative E) or the Army's plans to prepare and sign the Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) that the draft EA had described.[43]

On June 5, 2013, after reviewing 100 public comments that it had received on the revised EA, the Corps of Engineers released a final EA and a signed FONSI for the Millennium Project.[44][45] The Final EA and the FONSI retained Alternative E as the preferred alternative.[44] The final EA stated that, of the 905 trees to be removed, 771 trees were healthy native trees that had diameters between 6 and 41 inches.[46][47] The project would remove approximately 211 trees from a less than 2.63 acres (1.06 ha) area containing a portion of a 145-year-old forest that stood within the property boundaries of a historic district that a National Register of Historic Places nomination form for Arlington House had described in 1966.[46][48] About 491 trees would be removed from an area of trees that was approximately 105 years old.[46] Approximately 203 trees with ages of 50 to 145 years would be removed from a former picnic area.[46] At a public hearing on July 11, 2013, the National Capital Planning Commission approved the site and building plans for the Millennium Project.[49]

Replicas[edit]

In 1919, a replica was built for the short-lived Lanier University in Atlanta, designed by architect A. Ten Eyck Brown. It is still standing at 1140 University Drive NE, housing the Canterbury School. Arlington Hall, in Dallas' Lee Park, is a two-thirds scale replica of Arlington House.

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ "Listing of acreage as of December 31, 2011". Land Resource Division, National Park Service. Retrieved 2012-03-30. 
  2. ^ "NPS Annual Recreation Visits Report". National Park Service. Retrieved 2012-03-30. 
  3. ^ "National Register of Historic Places: NPS Focus". National Park Service. Archived from the original on 2011-07-21. Retrieved 2011-08-22. 
  4. ^ Seagraves, Anna; Fuqua, Ann; Veloz, Nicholas, George Washington Memorial Parkway, National Capital Region, National Park Service (1980-01-15). "Arlington House, The Robert E. Lee Memorial". United States Department of the Interior: National Park Service: National Register of Historic Places — Nomination Form for Federal Properties. Richmond, Virginia: Virginia Department of Historic Resources. Archived from the original on 2013-07-17. Retrieved 2013-07-17. 
  5. ^ Patterson, Michael Robert (2004-12-14). "Arlington House (The Custis-Lee Mansion)". Arlington National Cemetery website. Archived from the original on 25 July 2011. Retrieved 2011-08-22. 
  6. ^ "Today in History: May 13: Arlington National Cemetery". American Memory. Library of Congress. Retrieved 2011-080-22. 
  7. ^ Peters, p. 3
  8. ^ Peters, p. 5
  9. ^ http://files.usgwarchives.net/va/spotsylvania/wills/c2320001.txt
  10. ^ "Virginia Convention Votes For Secession on April 17, 1861". Virginia Memory. Retrieved 2012-08-15. 
  11. ^ Virginia Historical Society
  12. ^ "Mary Anna Randolph Custis Lee". Arlington House, The Robert E. Lee Memorial. United States National Park Service, United States Department of the Interior. 2007-96-19. Retrieved 2011-08-22. 
  13. ^ a b United States of America. US Department of the Interior. Arlington House, The Robert E. Lee Memorial: Cultural Landscape Report. Vol. 1. Washington D.C: US Department of the Interior, 2001.
  14. ^ a b Wikisource link to United States v. Lee Kaufman. Wikisource.
  15. ^ a b Desty, Robert, ed. (1883). "United States v. Lee; Kaufman and another v. Same. December 4, 1882 (106 U.S. 196)". Supreme Court Reporter. Cases Argued and Determined in the United States Supreme Court, October Term, 1882: October, 1882-February 1883 (Saint Paul, MN: West Publishing Company) 1: 240–286. Retrieved 2011-08-22. 
  16. ^ Alexandria, Virginia website.
  17. ^ Hanna, pp. 77, 78, 87, 88.
  18. ^ United States National Park Service. Arlington House The Robert E. Lee Memorial. Washington D.C: US Department of the Interior, 1985.
  19. ^ http://www.arlingtoncemetery.mil/History/Facts/ArlingtonHouse.aspx Historical Information
  20. ^ Wikisource link to Bennett v. Hunter. Wikisource.
  21. ^ Wallace, John William (1870). "Bennett v. Hunter". Cases argued and adjudged in the Supreme Court of the United States, December Term, 1869 (Washington, D.C.: William H. Morrison) 9: 326–338. Retrieved 2011-08-22. 
  22. ^ Ashmore, Anne (August 2006). "Dates of Supreme Court Decisions and Arguments: United States Reports: Volumes 2 — 107 (1791-1882)". Washington, D.C.: Library, Supreme Court of the United States. p. 96. Archived from the original on 23 July 2011. Retrieved 2011-08-22. 
  23. ^ http://www.arlingtoncemetery.mil/History/Facts/ArlingtonHouse.aspx%7Carchiveurl= http://web.archive.org/web/20110725014557/http://www.arlingtoncemetery.org/historical_information/arlington_house.html%7C archivedate=25 July 2011
  24. ^ United States of America. National Park Service. Arlington House The Robert E. Lee Memorial. Washington D.C: US Department of the Interior, 1985.
  25. ^ "Arlington House, The Robert E. Lee Memorial." National Park Service. August 30, 2011. Accessed 2011-09-26.
  26. ^ (1) "Interactive map of Arlington National Cemetery showing Section 29 and Future Expansion Site". Arlington National Cemetery. Retrieved 2012-12-26. 
    (2) Coordinates of Section 29: 38°52′55″N 77°04′37″W / 38.8820646°N 77.0770195°W / 38.8820646; -77.0770195 (Section 29)
  27. ^ a b Wee, Eric L. (March 6, 1998). "Good News for Tree Lovers, Not for Arlington Cemetery; Park Service Wants to Give 4 Acres, Not 12". Metro (The Washington Post). p. B7. Retrieved December 31, 2012.  (text of full article available at arlingtoncemetery.net).
  28. ^ a b Williams, Rudi, American Forces Press Service (2005-05-27). "Arlington National Cemetery Gains 70 Acres of Land". News (United States Department of Defense). Archived from the original on 2012-12-29. Retrieved 2012-12-29. 
  29. ^ a b Hanna, Jennifer (October 2001). "Arlington House: The Robert E. Lee Memorial: Cultural Landscape Report: History" (pdf). Cultural History Program (Washington, D.C.: United States Department of the Interior: National Park Service: National Capital Region) 1: 169. Archived from the original on 2012-12-24. Retrieved 2012-12-24. 
  30. ^ (1) Gearan, Anne (1995-07-03). "Admirers of Lee Upset by Cemetery Expansion Plan". News Archive (Associated Press). Archived from the original on 2013-03-20. Retrieved 2013-03-20. 
    (2) Nakashima, Ellen (1995-07-06). "Environmentalists Fear Effects of Expanded Arlington Cemetery". Metro (The Washington Post). p. B3. Retrieved December 29, 2012. 
  31. ^ ""The Arlington Woodlands: Arlington House, The Robert E. Lee Memorial" marker". HMdb.org: The Historical Marker Database. 2008-09-25. Archived from the original on 2014-02-09. Retrieved 2014-02-09. 
  32. ^ "Section 2821(a). Transfer of Lands, Arlington National Cemetery, Arlington, Virginia" (pdf). Public Law 104-201: National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1997, Division B: Military Construction Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1997. United States Government Printing Office. 1996-09-23. p. 110 Stat. 37564. Retrieved 2012-12-24. 
  33. ^ Vogel, Steve (October 8, 1999). "Arlington Cemetery Gains Land to Expand". Metro (The Washington Post). p. B1. Retrieved December 31, 2012. 
  34. ^ a b c d e f Calhoun, Audrey F., Superintendent, National Capital Region, National Park Service, United States Department of the Interior (1999-07-12). "Notice: Environmental Assessment of Proposed Land Transfer, Arlington House — The Robert E. Lee Memorial, George Washington Memorial Parkway to Department of the Army, Arlington National Cemetery" (pdf). Federal Register (United States Government Printing Office) 64 (132): 37564–37565. Archived from the original on 2012-12-24. Retrieved 2012-12-24. 
  35. ^ a b c d "Section 2863(h): Alternate Site for United States Air Force Memorial, Preservation of Open Space on Arlington Ridge Tract, and Related Land Transfer At Arlington National Cemetery, Virginia: Land Transfer, Section 29" (pdf). Public Law 107-107: National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2002, Division B: Military Construction Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2002. United States Government Printing Office. 2001-12-28. pp. 115 Stat. 1332–1333. Retrieved 2013-03-16. 
  36. ^ "Public Notice: NAO-121207-Millennium: Environmental assessment for expansion of Arlington National Cemetery, known as the Millennium Project)". Norfolk District Media & Public Affairs. United States Army Corps of Engineers. 2012-12-07. Archived from the original on 2012-12-24. Retrieved 2012-12-24. 
  37. ^ (1) Standifer, Cid (2012-12-20). "Cemetery Plan Would Remove Old Growth Trees". Arlington Mercury. Archived from the original on 2013-07-18. Retrieved 2013-07-18. 
    (2) Holland, Taylor (2012-12-21). "Arlington cemetery expansion threatens 890 trees". The Washington Examiner. Archived from the original on 2013-07-18. Retrieved 2013-07-18. 
  38. ^ a b United States Army Corps of Engineers (December 2012). Arlington National Cemetery Millennium Project Environmental Assessment (pdf). United States Army Corps of Engineers Norfolk District. pp. 12, 35, 40, 53–59, 78, 97. Archived from the original on 2012-12-24. Retrieved 2102-12-24. 
  39. ^ "Millennium Project Revised Environmental Assessment". Norfolk, Virginia: United States Army Corps of Engineers Norfolk District. 2013-03-12. Archived from the original on 2013-03-12. Retrieved 2013-03-12. 
  40. ^ (1) Holland, Taylor (2013-03-14). "Arlington Cemetery would spare just 8 of nearly 900 trees in expansion". Local: Virginia News (Washington, D.C.: The Washington Examiner). Archived from the original on 2013-03-15. Retrieved 2013-03-15. 
    (2) Svrluga, Susan (2013-05-04). "Arlington National Cemetery plans expansion to take it into 2050s". Post Local. The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 2013-07-18. Retrieved 2013-07-18. 
  41. ^ "Appendix F: Comments to Draft Millennium EA: Public Comment Period: 6 December 2012 to 21 January 2013". Retrieved 2013-03-12.  in Arlington National Cemetery Millennium Project Environmental Assessment, March 2013, pp. 222-328.
  42. ^ Irons, Elie L., Program Manager, Environmental Impact Review (2013-01-10). "Forest Resources". Letter to Ms. Susan L. Conner, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Norfolk District re. Arlington National Cemetery Millennium Project: Federal Consistency Determination (DEQ-12-203F) and Environmental Assessment (DEQ-12-225F). Richmond, Virginia: Commonwealth of Virginia Department of Environmental Quality. p. 15. Retrieved 2013-03-12.  in Arlington National Cemetery Millennium Project Environmental Assessment, March 2013, (Appendix F: Comments to Draft Millennium EA:Public Comment Period: 6 December 2012 to 21 January 2013), p. 259.
  43. ^ (1) "Impacts to Trees" (pdf). Arlington National Cemetery Millennium Project Environmental Assessment. Norfolk, Virginia: United States Army Corps of Engineers Norfolk District. March 2013. pp. 43–45, 147. Archived from the original on 2013-03-12. Retrieved 2013-03-12. 
    (2) "Draft Finding of No Significant Impact Millennium Project, Arlington National Cemetery, Arlington, Virginia". Norfolk, Virginia: United States Army Corps of Engineers Norfolk District. 2013-03-08. Archived from the original on 2013-04-11. Retrieved 2013-04-10. 
  44. ^ a b (1) Arlington National Cemetery Millennium Project Final Environmental Assessment (pdf). Norfolk, Virginia: United States Army Corps of Engineers Norfolk District. June 2013. Archived from the original on 2013-07-17. Retrieved 2013-07-17. 
    (2) Federoff, David (2013-06-05). Finding of No Significant Impact Millennium Project, Arlington National Cemetery, Arlington, Virginia (pdf). Norfolk, Virginia: United States Army Corps of Engineers Norfolk District. Archived from the original on 2013-07-16. Retrieved 2013-07-16. 
  45. ^ (1) "Appendix J: Comments on Revised Millennium EA: Public Comment Period 12 March 2013 to 12 April 2013". Arlington National Cemetery Millennium Project Final Environmental Assessment, June 2013. Archived from the original on 2013-07-17. Retrieved 2013-07-17. 
    (2) Sullivan, Patricia (2012-06-12). "Army Corps says go ahead with Arlington cemetery expansion". Post Local (The Washington Post). Archived from the original on 2013-07-18. Retrieved 2013-07-18. 
  46. ^ a b c d "Impacts to Trees" (pdf). Arlington National Cemetery Millennium Project Final Environmental Assessment. Norfolk, Virginia: United States Army Corps of Engineers Norfolk District. June 2013. pp. 114–115. Archived from the original on 2013-07-17. Retrieved 2013-07-17. 
  47. ^ Tree Tag #1026 (Black Cherry, Prunus serotina. Archived from the original on 2013-07-17.  in Arlington National Cemetery Millennium Project Final Environmental Assessment, June 2013, Appendix I (Tree Inventory and Analysis), p. 13.
  48. ^ (1) "Figure A: Millennium Project with Tree Ages and NPS Property" (pdf). Arlington National Cemetery Millennium Project Final Environmental Assessment (Norfolk, Virginia: United States Army Corps of Engineers Norfolk District). June 2013. p. 4. Archived from the original on 2013-07-17. Retrieved 2013-07-17. 
    (2) "Figure 38: Existing conditions, impacts, and contributing areas of Arlington House: Historic Landscape Effects: ANC Boundary Wall and Arlington House Forest" (pdf). Arlington National Cemetery Millennium Project Final Environmental Assessment (Norfolk, Virginia: United States Army Corps of Engineers Norfolk District). June 2013. p. 133. Archived from the original on 2013-07-17. Retrieved 2013-07-17. 
    (3) Seagraves, Anna; Fuqua, Ann; Veloz, Nicholas, George Washington Memorial Parkway, National Capital Region, National Park Service (1980-01-15). "Arlington House, The Robert E. Lee Memorial". United States Department of the Interior: National Park Service: National Register of Historic Places — Nomination Form for Federal Properties. Richmond, Virginia: Virginia Department of Historic Resources. p. 8. Archived from the original on 2013-07-17. Retrieved 2013-07-17. 
  49. ^ (1) Young, Deborah B. (2013-07-11). Commission Action: Millennium Project, Arlington National Cemetery, Arlington, VA (NCPC File Number 7457) (pdf). Washington, D.C.: National Capital Planning Commission. Archived from the original on 2013-07-16. Retrieved 2013-07-16. 
    (2) Executive Director's Recommendation: Commission Meeting: July 11, 2013: Millennium Project, Arlington National Cemetery, Arlington, VA (NCPC File Number 7457) (pdf). Washington, D.C.: National Capital Planning Commission. 2013-07-11. Archived from the original on 2013-07-16. Retrieved 2013-07-16. 

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